Publications by authors named "Hannah Byles"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Asking About Childhood Adversity in the Prenatal Care Setting: Cross-Sectional Associations with Maternal Health and Mental Health Outcomes.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Ave., Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada.

Objectives: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes in pregnancy, prompting many care agencies to ask about ACEs as part of routine care. However, limited research has been conducted in the clinical setting to demonstrate associations between ACEs and maternal health (i.e., pregnancy complications and birth outcomes) and mental health in pregnancy (i.e., depression, anxiety, and substance use). The aims of the current study were to: (1) examine the prevalence of ACEs reported by patients attending a maternity clinic for medically low-risk patients, and (2) evaluate whether these reports were associated with prenatal health and mental health.

Methods: Participants included pregnant women (n = 338) receiving prenatal care at a low-risk outpatient medical clinical from June 2017 to December 2018. Total ACE scores, pregnancy complications (e.g., gestational hypertension, preeclampsia), birth outcomes (e.g., Apgar scores, preterm birth), and mental health outcomes (i.e., anxiety, depression, and substance use) were extracted from electronic medical records.

Results: The majority of women (67.8%) reported experiencing no ACEs, 16.0% reported one ACE, 10.1% reported two ACEs, and 6.2% reported three or more ACEs. ACEs were associated with increased odds of prenatal depression, anxiety, and substance use in a dose-response fashion, but not pregnancy health or birth outcomes.

Conclusions For Practice: Prevalence rates of maternal ACEs obtained in the prenatal care setting were low compared to the general population. While ACEs were positively associated with maternal mental health and substance use in pregnancy, they were not associated with pregnancy complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2021

Association of sleep spindle characteristics with executive functioning in healthy sedentary middle-aged and older adults.

J Sleep Res 2021 04 12;30(2):e13037. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

To determine the relationship between sleep spindle characteristics (density, power and frequency), executive functioning and cognitive decline in older adults, we studied a convenience subsample of healthy middle-aged and older participants of the Brain in Motion study. Participants underwent a single night of unattended in-home polysomnography with neurocognitive testing carried out shortly afterwards. Spectral analysis of the EEG was performed to derive spindle characteristics in both central and frontal derivations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Stage 2 and 3. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine associations between spindle characteristics and cognitive outcomes, with age, body mass index (BMI), periodic limb movements index (PLMI) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as covariates. NREM Stage 2 total spindle density was significantly associated with executive functioning (central: β = .363, p = .016; frontal: β = .408, p = .004). NREM Stage 2 fast spindle density was associated with executive functioning (central: β = .351, p = .022; frontal: β = .380, p = .009) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score (MoCA, central: β = .285, p = .037; frontal: β = .279, p = .032). NREM Stage 2 spindle frequency was also associated with MoCA score (central: β = .337, p = .013). Greater spindle density and fast spindle density were associated with better executive functioning and less cognitive decline in our study population. Our cross-sectional design cannot infer causality. Longitudinal studies will be required to assess the ability of spindle characteristics to predict future cognitive status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2021