Publications by authors named "Hannah Anderson"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Does aerial baiting for controlling feral cats in a heterogeneous landscape confer benefits to a threatened native meso-predator?

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251304. Epub 2021 May 7.

Biodiversity and Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduced mammalian predators can have devastating impacts on recipient ecosystems and disrupt native predator-prey relationships. Feral cats (Felis catus) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of many Australian native species and developing effective and affordable methods to control them is a national priority. While there has been considerable progress in the lethal control of feral cats, effective management at landscape scales has proved challenging. Justification of the allocation of resources to feral cat control programs requires demonstration of the conservation benefit baiting provides to native species susceptible to cat predation. Here, we examined the effectiveness of a landscape-scale Eradicat® baiting program to protect threatened northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus) from feral cat predation in a heterogeneous rocky landscape in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. We used camera traps and GPS collars fitted to feral cats to monitor changes in activity patterns of feral cats and northern quolls at a baited treatment site and unbaited reference site over four years. Feral cat populations appeared to be naturally sparse in our study area, and camera trap monitoring showed no significant effect of baiting on cat detections. However, mortality rates of collared feral cats ranged from 18-33% after baiting, indicating that the program was reducing cat numbers. Our study demonstrated that feral cat baiting had a positive effect on northern quoll populations, with evidence of range expansion at the treatment site. We suggest that the rugged rocky habitat preferred by northern quolls in the Pilbara buffered them to some extent from feral cat predation, and baiting was sufficient to demonstrate a positive effect in this relatively short-term project. A more strategic approach to feral cat management is likely to be required in the longer-term to maximise the efficacy of control programs and thereby improve the conservation outlook for susceptible threatened fauna.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251304PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104397PMC
May 2021

Leveraging the Perspectives of Deaf Trainees to Better Care for Vulnerable Communities.

Acad Med 2021 06;96(6):783-784

Resident, Department of Pediatrics, University of Nevada-Las Vegas School of Medicine, Las Vegas, Nevada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140621PMC
June 2021

Neural changes in early visual processing after 6 months of mindfulness training in older adults.

Sci Rep 2020 12 3;10(1):21163. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Health and Behavioural Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4 (ML59), Maroochydore DC, QLD, 4558, Australia.

Mindfulness has been shown to improve attentional performance, which is known to decline in aging. Long-latency electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related potential (ERP) changes have been reported immediately after mindfulness training, however the enduring stability of these effects is unknown. Furthermore, the ability of mindfulness to impact earlier stages of information processing is unclear. We examined neural activation using high density EEG in older adults engaged in mindfulness training to examine the long-term stability of training effects. After 6 months of training, mindfulness practitioners displayed enhanced neural activation during sensory encoding and perceptual processing of a visual cue. Enhanced perceptual processing of a visual cue was associated with increased neural activation during post-perceptual processing of a subsequent target. Similar changes were not observed in a control group engaged in computer-based attention training over the same period. Neural changes following mindfulness training were accompanied by behavioural improvements in attentional performance. Our results are suggestive of increased efficiency of the neural pathways subserving bottom-up visual processing together with an enhanced ability to mobilise top-down attentional processes during perceptual and post-perceptual processing following mindfulness training. These results indicate that mindfulness may enhance neural processes known to deteriorate in normal aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78343-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713117PMC
December 2020

Assessing clinical education tools for expanded carrier screening.

J Genet Couns 2021 Apr 1;30(2):606-615. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Ob/Gyn, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Expanded carrier screening (ECS) is increasingly offered to a broader population and raises challenges of how to best educate and counsel the volume of screened individuals. For this study, we compared three educational tools (brochure, video and comic) about ECS on knowledge and decision making. A convenience online sample of 151 pregnant women was randomized to one of three groups (Video, n = 42; Comic n = 54; Brochure n = 55). Knowledge scores were significantly higher for the comic group compared to the video or the brochure groups (p < .001). No significant differences in preparation for decision making, decisional conflict, or perceptions of shared decision making were identified between the study groups. This study suggests that a comic about ECS may improve patient attention and retention of information. The use of graphic narratives may enable individuals to better understand medical information in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgc4.1349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026544PMC
April 2021

Autobiographical Memory Content and Recollection Frequency: Public Release of Quantitative Datasets and Representative Classification Analysis.

J Cogn 2020 Jun 17;3(1):14. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Center for Neural Informatics, Structures, and Plasticity, Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, US.

Autobiographical memory (AM), the recollection of personally-experienced events, has several adaptive functions and has been studied across numerous dimensions. We previously introduced two methods to quantify across the life span AM content (the amount and types of retrieved details) and the everyday occurrence of its recollection. The CRAM (cue-recalled autobiographical memory) test used naturalistic word prompts to elicit AMs. Subjects dated the memories to life periods and reported the numbers of details recalled across eight features (e.g., spatial detail, temporal detail, people, and emotions). In separate subjects, an experience sampling method quantified in everyday settings the frequency of AM retrieval and of mental representation of future personal events or actions (termed prospective memory: PM); these data permit evaluation of the temporal orientation of episodic recollection. We describe these datasets now publicly released in open access (CRAM: doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10246958; AM-PM experience-sampling: doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.10246940). We also present examples of data mining, using cluster analyses of CRAM (14,242 AMs scored for content from 4,244 subjects). Analysis of raw feature scores yielded three AM clusters separated by total recalled content. Normalizing for total content revealed three classes of AM based on the relative contributions of each feature: AMs containing a relatively large number of details related to people, AMs containing a high degree of spatial information, and AMs with details equally distributed across features. Differences in subject age, memory age, and total content were detected across feature clusters. These findings highlight the value in additional mining of these datasets to further our understanding of autobiographical recollection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/joc.105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304452PMC
June 2020

Behavioral and physiological evidence that increasing group size ameliorates the impacts of social disturbance.

J Exp Biol 2020 07 28;223(Pt 14). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1.

Intra-group social stability is important for the long-term productivity and health of social organisms. We evaluated the effect of group size on group stability in the face of repeated social perturbations using a cooperatively breeding fish, In a laboratory study, we compared both the social and physiological responses of individuals from small versus large groups to the repeated removal and replacement of the most dominant group member (the breeder male), either with a new male (treatment condition) or with the same male (control condition). Individuals living in large groups were overall more resistant to instability but were seemingly slower to recover from perturbation. Members of small groups were more vulnerable to instability but recovered faster. Breeder females in smaller groups also showed greater physiological preparedness for instability following social perturbations. In sum, we discover both behavioral and physiological evidence that living in larger groups helps to dampen the impacts of social instability in this system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.217075DOI Listing
July 2020

Imperfect transparency and camouflage in glass frogs.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 26;117(23):12885-12890. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, BS8 1TQ Bristol, United Kingdom.

Camouflage patterns prevent detection and/or recognition by matching the background, disrupting edges, or mimicking particular background features. In variable habitats, however, a single pattern cannot match all available sites all of the time, and efficacy may therefore be reduced. Active color change provides an alternative where coloration can be altered to match local conditions, but again efficacy may be limited by the speed of change and range of patterns available. Transparency, on the other hand, creates high-fidelity camouflage that changes instantaneously to match any substrate but is potentially compromised in terrestrial environments where image distortion may be more obvious than in water. Glass frogs are one example of terrestrial transparency and are well known for their transparent ventral skin through which their bones, intestines, and beating hearts can be seen. However, sparse dorsal pigmentation means that these frogs are better described as translucent. To investigate whether this imperfect transparency acts as camouflage, we used in situ behavioral trials, visual modeling, and laboratory psychophysics. We found that the perceived luminance of the frogs changed depending on the immediate background, lowering detectability and increasing survival when compared to opaque frogs. Moreover, this change was greatest for the legs, which surround the body at rest and create a diffuse transition from background to frog luminance rather than a sharp, highly salient edge. This passive change in luminance, without significant modification of hue, suggests a camouflage strategy, "edge diffusion," distinct from both transparency and active color change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919417117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293656PMC
June 2020

The doctor's office is the best setting for most cutaneous procedures.

Dermatol Online J 2019 Jan 15;25(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Although most dermatologic procedures are done in an office setting, some providers are performing them instead in ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). This relocation of care comes with significantly higher expenses for patients and insurers. Compounding the issue of increased costs is the paucity of evidence demonstrating better outcomes associated with the use of ASCs. The most common cutaneous procedures have low complication rates when performed in an office setting and regular use of ASCs for these procedures is not justified.
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January 2019

Wilderness Falls: An Analysis and Comparison of Rock Climbers and Nonclimbers.

J Surg Res 2019 02 10;234:149-154. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Surgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, UK Healthcare, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Wilderness travel and rock climbing are increasingly popular. Urban falls from height have been reported from trauma centers; however, there have been no trauma center reports of rock climbing or wilderness falls (WFs) in the United States. We sought to describe the injury pattern of WF and to determine whether rock climbers represent a distinct pattern of injury.

Materials And Methods: The trauma database from our level 1 trauma center was queried from 1/1/06 to 12/31/16 for the diagnosis of "fall from cliff" (ICD9: e884.1, ICD10: w15.xx). Demographics, injury characteristics, and trauma center care were analyzed. Data were analyzed using two sample unequal variance T-tests, two sample Z-tests for proportions, and Fisher's exact tests.

Results: One hundred fifty-one falls were analyzed (40 climbers, 111 nonclimbers). WF victims were predominantly male (79%), moderately injured (mean injury severity score = 13.2), frequently intoxicated (34%), and fell from an average of 43 feet (7-200 ft). The most frequent injures were soft tissue (55%), spine (50%), head (43%), lower extremity (38%), and chest (39%). Climbers were younger, more often sustained upper extremity and soft tissue injuries, more often flown from the scene, injured during daytime, and were better insured. Helmet use was rare (one climber and one nonclimber). There were 3 (2%) deaths, including one climber.

Conclusions: WFs have a distinct injury pattern and demographic and occur from a height greater than twice those reported in urban falls. Rock climbing falls involve another distinct demographic and pattern of injury. Injury prevention strategies may include helmet use and avoiding nighttime wilderness travel and drug/alcohol use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.09.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Billing of botulinum toxin for hyperhidrosis: Ethical considerations.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 04;78(4):829-831

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.08.023DOI Listing
April 2018

A simple and accurate rule-based modeling framework for simulation of autocrine/paracrine stimulation of glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation by L1CAM in 2-D culture.

BMC Syst Biol 2017 Dec 11;11(1):124. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA.

Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to the research community. These attributes make the adoption of models and simulations of even simple 2-dimensional cell behavior an uncommon practice by cancer cell biologists.

Results: Herein, we developed an accurate, yet simple, rule-based modeling framework to describe the in vitro behavior of GBM cells that are stimulated by the L1CAM protein using freely available NetLogo software. In our model L1CAM is released by cells to act through two cell surface receptors and a point of signaling convergence to increase cell motility and proliferation. A simple graphical interface is provided so that changes can be made easily to several parameters controlling cell behavior, and behavior of the cells is viewed both pictorially and with dedicated graphs. We fully describe the hierarchical rule-based modeling framework, show simulation results under several settings, describe the accuracy compared to experimental data, and discuss the potential usefulness for predicting future experimental outcomes and for use as a teaching tool for cell biology students.

Conclusions: It is concluded that this simple modeling framework and its simulations accurately reflect much of the GBM cell motility behavior observed experimentally in vitro in the laboratory. Our framework can be modified easily to suit the needs of investigators interested in other similar intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli that influence cancer or other cell behavior. This modeling framework of a commonly used experimental motility assay (scratch assay) should be useful to both researchers of cell motility and students in a cell biology teaching laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12918-017-0516-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5725844PMC
December 2017

Treatments for Retinoblastoma Then and Now.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 01 12;135(1):e164652. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.4652DOI Listing
January 2017

A Surprisingly Volatile Smoking Alternative: Explosion and Burns as Risks of E-Cigarette Use.

J Burn Care Res 2017 Sep/Oct;38(5):e884

Section on Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, UK College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BCR.0000000000000454DOI Listing
May 2019

Small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK selectively decrease L1CAM-stimulated glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2016 Jun 16;39(3):229-42. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA.

Purpose: The cell adhesion/recognition protein L1CAM (L1; CD171) has previously been shown to act through integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways to increase the motility and proliferation of glioblastoma cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Here, we investigated the effects of clinically relevant small-molecule inhibitors of the integrin, FAK and FGFR signaling pathways on glioblastoma-derived cells to determine their effectiveness and selectivity for diminishing L1-mediated stimulation.

Methods: The effects of the FGFR inhibitor PD173074, the FAK inhibitors PF431396 and Y15 and the αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin inhibitor cilengitide were assessed in L1-positive and L1-negative variants of the human glioblastoma-derived cell lines T98G and U-118 MG. Their motility and proliferation were quantified using time-lapse microscopy and DNA content/cell cycle analyses, respectively.

Results: The application of all four inhibitors resulted in reductions in L1-mediated motility and proliferation rates of L1-positive glioblastoma-derived cells, down to the level of L1-negative cells when used at nanomolar concentrations, whereas no or much smaller reductions in these rates were obtained in L1-negative cells. In addition, we found that single inhibitor treatment resulted in maximum effects (i.e., combinations of FAK or integrin inhibitors with the FGFR inhibitor were rarely more effective). These results suggest that FAK may act as a point of convergence between the integrin and FGFR signaling pathways stimulated by L1 in these cells.

Conclusions: We here show for the first time that small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK effectively and selectively abolish L1-stimulated migration and proliferation of glioblastoma-derived cells. Our results suggest that these inhibitors have the potential to reduce the aggressiveness of high-grade gliomas expressing L1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-016-0267-7DOI Listing
June 2016

Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2015 Jul 29;309(1):R36-42. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas

The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P < 0.01). Increases in LSR and CVC per °C ΔTb (i.e., sensitivity) were similar in N-SMK and SMK (LSR: 0.63 ± 0.21 vs. 0.60 ± 0.40 Δmg/cm(2)/min/°C ΔTb, respectively, P = 0.81; CVC: 82.5 ± 46.2 vs. 58.9 ± 23.3 Δ%max/°C ΔTb, respectively; P = 0.19). However, the plateau in LSR during whole body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00079.2015DOI Listing
July 2015

Informed consent documentation for lumbar puncture in the emergency department.

West J Emerg Med 2014 May 15;15(3):318-24. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Permanente Medical Group, Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers, Sacramento and Roseville, California.

Introduction: Informed consent is a required process for procedures performed in the emergency department (ED), though it is not clear how often or adequately it is obtained by emergency physicians. Incomplete performance and documentation of informed consent can lead to patient complaints, medico-legal risk, and inadequate education for the patient/guardian about the procedure. We undertook this study to quantify the incidence of informed consent documentation in the ED setting for lumbar puncture (LP) and to compare rates between pediatric (<18 years) and adult patients.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the ED electronic health records (EHR) for all patients who underwent successful LPs in 3 EDs between April 2010 and June 2012. Specific elements of informed consent documentation were reviewed. These elements included the presence of general ED and LP-specific consent forms, signatures of patient/guardian, witness, and physician, documentation of purpose, risks, benefits, alternatives, and explanation of the LP. We also reviewed the use of educational material about the LP and LP-specific discharge information.

Results: Our cohort included 937 patients; 179 (19.1%) were pediatric. A signed general ED consent form was present in the EHR for 809 (86%) patients. A consent form for the LP was present for 524 (56%) patients, with signatures from 519 (99%) patients/guardians, 327 (62%) witnesses, and 349 (67%) physicians. Documentation rates in the EHR were as follows: purpose (698; 74%), risks (742; 79%), benefits (605; 65%), alternatives (635; 68%), and explanation for the LP (57; 6%). Educational material about the LP was not documented as having been given to any of the patients and LP-specific discharge information was documented as given to 21 (2%) patients. No significant differences were observed in the documentation of informed consent elements between pediatric and adult patients.

Conclusion: General ED consent was obtained in the vast majority of patients, but use of a specific LP consent form and documentation of the elements of informed consent for LP in the ED were suboptimal, though comparable between pediatric and adult patients. There is significant opportunity for improvement in many aspects of documenting informed consent for LP in the ED. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):318-324.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2014.1.19352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025530PMC
May 2014

Depression in schizophrenia: methodological artifact or distinct feature of the illness?

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008 ;20(4):431-40

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

In schizophrenia, there is a conceptual overlap between depressive and negative symptoms. This study examined the dimensional structure of depressive symptoms and their overlap with negative symptoms in a large sample of older medicated schizophrenia outpatients. Self-reported depression was obtained with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Three components from this scale (i.e., dysphoria, psychosomatic and regret domains) showed excellent factorability and good consistency. However, adequate construct validity and correlates with outcomes were found for the dysphoria and regret domains, but not for the total score or the psychosomatic domain. Thus, the evaluation of domains within the BDI-II provides a more pure and clinically-relevant assessment of depressed mood in schizophrenia than the use of this scale as a whole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/jnp.2008.20.4.431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668194PMC
April 2009

Self-assessment of functional status in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2007 Dec 2;41(12):1012-8. Epub 2006 Oct 2.

Department of Psychiatry, Box 1230, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10029, United States.

With new treatments targeting features of schizophrenia associated with functional disability, there is a need to evaluate the validity of ratings of everyday outcomes. It is unknown whether patients can validly self-report on aspects of their functional status, which would be a potentially economical method for obtaining outcome data. In this study, 67 older schizophrenia outpatients provided self-ratings of everyday real-world functioning using the specific levels of functioning scale (SLOF). They were also administered assessments of neuropsychological performance, performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills, clinical symptoms, and quality of life. Case managers, unaware of other ratings, also generated SLOF ratings. Based on discrepancy scores, participants were categorized as accurate raters (n=24), underestimators (n=16), or overestimators (n=27) of their functional status as compared to case managers' ratings. Patients' self-rated functional status was correlated with their subjective quality of life, but remarkably unassociated with case manager ratings of functional status or their own performance on functional capacity or social skills measures. Case manager ratings, however, were highly correlated with performance on functional capacity and social skills measures. Patients who underestimated their real world performance had better cognitive skills and greater self-rated depression than those who overestimated. Accurate raters demonstrated greater social skills than both overestimators and underestimators, while overestimators were most cognitively and functionally impaired. Accurate ratings of everyday outcomes in schizophrenia may require systematic observation of real world outcomes or performance-based measures, as self-reports were inconsistent with objective information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634704PMC
December 2007

Correlations of functional capacity and neuropsychological performance in older patients with schizophrenia: evidence for specificity of relationships?

Schizophr Res 2007 Jan 18;89(1-3):330-8. Epub 2006 Sep 18.

Department of Veterans Affairs, VISN-3 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), 130 West Kingsbridge Road Bronx, NY 10468, USA.

Background: Neuropsychological (NP) performance is a consistent correlate of everyday functioning in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether relationships between individual NP ability areas and domains of everyday functioning are general or specific. Assessments of real-world everyday functioning may be influenced by environmental and social factors (e.g., social security, disability status, opportunities and restrictions in living situations). This study examined the specificity of the relationships between different NP abilities and performance-based measures of social and living skills.

Methods: 181 ambulatory older (age>50) patients with schizophrenia were examined with NP tests measuring episodic and working memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency, and processing speed. All subjects performed tasks examining social (Social Skills Performance Assessment: SSPA) and everyday living (UCSD Performance Based Skills Assessment: UPSA) skills.

Results: Using canonical analysis, the NP variables were used to predict the functional capacity measures. The analysis found that 37% of the variance in the functional capacity and NP measures was shared, X(2) (54)=106.29, p<.001. Two canonical roots described the cognitive variables and the roots were differentially associated with everyday living and social skills. The root loading on processing speed, episodic memory, and executive functions were associated with UPSA scores, while the root loading on working and episodic memory and verbal fluency were associated most strongly with social competence.

Implications: Social and everyday living skills deficits in patients with schizophrenia may reflect generally independent domains of functional outcome, linked through cognitive performance. The data suggest that somewhat different cognitive processes are associated with these two domains of functional capacity, although there appears to be some overlap, which may be due to the nature of the NP tests employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2006.07.024DOI Listing
January 2007