Publications by authors named "Hanna Hakulinen"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Osmolal and anion gaps after acute self-poisoning with agricultural formulations of the organophosphorus insecticides profenofos and diazinon: A pilot study.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2022 Feb 3;130(2):320-327. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Self-poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides is an important means of global self-harm. The insecticides are formulated with solvents that may also contribute to toxicity. We set up a study to detect changes in osmolal and anion gaps following ingestion of OP insecticides. We recruited consecutive patients admitted to a Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka, with a history of OP self-poisoning. The osmolal and anion gaps were calculated on admission and at 4, 24 and 72 h post-ingestion together with ethanol concentration. Forty-nine patients were recruited (28 profenofos, 10 diazinon, one coumaphos, one chlorpyrifos, one phenthoate and eight unknown OP). Only modest increases in osmolal and anion gaps were noted. Small rises in osmolal gap above the upper limit of normal were noted in 16/49 (32.7%) of all cases, 9/28 (32.1%) profenofos cases and 4/10 (40.0%) diazinon cases. The anion gap was raised in 24/49 (49.0%) of all cases, 15/28 (53.6%) profenofos cases and 5/10 (50.0%) diazinon cases. We observed a trend for a fall in osmolal gap during the first 24 h, followed by an increase up to 72 h. There was no correlation between the anion gap and serum lactate concentration, indicating that a lactic acidosis was not responsible for the anion gap. Formate, which could have explained the increased gap, was not detected in any of the samples; ketoacids (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) were not measured. This pilot study found that profenofos and diazinon poisoning caused only modest increases in the osmolal and anion gaps in a minority of cases.
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February 2022

Parametric Sensitivity in a Generalized Model for Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Reactions.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Aug 15;32(8):2218-2226. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

VERIFIN, Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Gas phase reactions between hydrated protons H(HO) and a substance M, as seen in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) with mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), were modeled computationally using initial amounts of [M] and [H(HO)], rate constants to form protonated monomer (MH(HO)) and to form proton bound dimer (MH(HO)), and diffusion constants. At 1 × 10 cm (0.4 ppb) for [H(HO)] and vapor concentrations for M from 10 ppb to 10 ppm, a maximum signal was reached at 4.5 μs to 4.6 ms for MH(HO) and 7.8 μs to 46 ms for MH(HO). Maximum yield for protonated monomer for a reaction time of 1 ms was ∼40% for from 10 to 10 cm·s, for / = 0.8, and specific values of [M]. This model demonstrates that ion distributions could be shifted from [MH(HO)] to [MH(HO)] using excessive levels of [H(HO)], even for [M] > 10 ppb, as commonly found in APCI MS and IMS measurements. Ion losses by collisions on surfaces were insignificant with losses of <0.5% for protonated monomer and <0.1% for proton bound dimer of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) at 5 ms. In this model, ion production in an APCI environment is treated over ranges of parameters important in mass spectrometric measurements. The models establish a foundation for detailed computations on response with mixtures of neutral substances.
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August 2021

Fast, Miniaturized, Real-Time Unit for Sampling, Modulation, and Separation in Detection of Hazardous Chemicals.

Anal Chem 2020 11 20;92(21):14589-14593. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

VERIFIN, Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

A sampling, modulation, and separation (SMS) unit was tested for detection of hazardous chemicals. The SMS unit, designed and developed for on-site sampling and analysis, consists of a dynamic inlet system coupled with a fast, miniaturized gas chromatograph (GC). Feasibility of the SMS unit was evaluated together with a hazardous chemical vapor generator. The performance of the SMS unit was tested with automated thermal desorption after SMS to collect samples for GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements. Detection of sarin nerve agent was verified. Additionally, the vapor generator was connected to the SMS unit, which was hyphenated with a photoionization detector (PID), thus creating a fast GC-PID system. This system gave a positive response for degradation products of sulfur mustard, thereby indicating suitability of the SMS-PID unit for field drone applications.
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November 2020

Collaboration between employers and occupational health service providers: a systematic review of key characteristics.

BMC Public Health 2017 01 5;17(1):22. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014, Finland, Finland.

Background: Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS) can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services.

Methods: A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis.

Results: Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics): flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services.

Conclusion: Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute to effective collaboration. This information is useful in developing indicators of effective collaboration that will enable organisation of more effective OHS practices.
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January 2017

How is the New Public Management applied in the occupational health care system? - decision-makers' and OH personnel's views in Finland.

Health Res Policy Syst 2011 Aug 31;9:34. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, P,O, Box 93 FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: In many countries occupational health care system is in change. Occupational health studies are mainly focused on occupational health substance and content. This study offers new perspectives on municipal OHS and its operations from management perspective.

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse how New Public Management (NPM) doctrines are applied in the Finnish occupational health care system (OHS). The main focus is to describe and compare the views of decision-makers' and OH workers within the framework of NPM.

Methods: The data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 17 municipal decision-makers' and 26 municipal OH workers. Data was analyzed by examining coded data in a theory-driven way according to Hood's doctrine of NPM.

Results: The doctrines were not as compatible with the OH personnel view as with the decision-makers' view. Decision-makers and OH personnel highlighted the strict criteria required for operation evaluation. Moreover, decision-makers strongly accentuated professional management in the public sector and the reorganization of public sector units. These were not equally relevant in OH personnel views. In OH personnel views, other doctrines (more attention to performance and accomplishments, emphasizing and augmentation of the competition and better control of public expense and means test) were not similarly in evidence, only weak evidence was observed when their importance viewed as medium by decision-makers. Neither of the respondents group kept the doctrine of management models of the private sector relevant.

Conclusions: The NPM and Hoods doctrine fitted well with OH research. The doctrine brought out view differences and similarities between decision-makers and OH personnel. For example, policymakers highlighted more strongly the structural change by emphasizing professional management compared to OH personnel. The need for reorganization of municipal OH, regardless of different operational preconditions, was obvious for both decision-makers and OH personnel. The adaptation of more clarify management to a municipal context is not trouble-free. The municipality systemic structure, complex operational environment, and reconciliation of political and officer authority set challenges to management of municipalities.
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August 2011