Publications by authors named "Hanieh Malmir"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effects of dietary selenium supplementation on inflammatory markers among patients with metabolic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 9;20(1):1051-1062. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Purpose: Selenium (Se) is a trace element having significant effects on human metabolism. Recent studies suggest that Se supplementation have a pivotal effect on the inflammatory markers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of Se supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) as a stress oxidative index, among patients with metabolic diseases.

Methods: To assess the effects of Se on the inflammatory markers, following the PRISMA-P guidelines, we systematically searched ISI/WOS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Scopus for studies that assessed the effect of Se supplementation on the inflammatory markers. Data extraction was performed by two independent investigators. Using the random effects or fixed-effects model depending on the results of heterogeneity tests was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and I index.

Results: The initial search revealed 3,320 papers. After screening process and considering inclusion criteria, 7 publications were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that Se supplementation did not significantly affect CRP and hs-CRP concentrations (mean difference (MD) = -0.15; 95% CI: -0.55- 0.23; P = 0.43). Subgroup analysis of CRP type showed that Se supplementation significantly decreased hs-CRP level (pooled SMD = -0.44; 95% CI: -0.67-0.21). Moreover, no significant change was observed in NO level by continuing to take Se supplementation, (pooled SMD: 0.003, 95%CI: -0.26, 0.26).

Conclusions: This study revealed that Se supplementation would have desirable effects on cardio-metabolic indicators through affecting the levels of inflammatory markers. Given the importance of concerns, more attention should be given to more prospective studies with longer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00821-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212246PMC
June 2021

Fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of allergic diseases in the offspring: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although several studies have reported the beneficial effects of maternal fish consumption on allergy diseases in the offspring, the findings are conflicting. We summarized earlier data on the association between maternal fish intake and risk of allergy diseases in the offspring through a meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of relevant reports published in Medline/PubMed, ISI web of Science, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Google Scholar prior to February 2020 was conducted. All observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control or cohort) that examined the relationship between intake of maternal fish and risk of allergy diseases in the offspring were considered. Duplicate and non-related studies were excluded. In total, 31 studies on maternal fish consumption and risk of allergic diseases in the offspring were included. Greater maternal fish intake was associated with a reduced risk of wheeze (Pooled effect size: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99) and food allergy (0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.88). Maternal fish consumption was not associated with risk of asthma (pooled effect size: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.11), eczema (pooled effect size: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.03), allergic rhinitis (pooled effect size: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.09), and inhalant allergy (pooled effect size: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.13). In non-linear dose-response meta-analysis, increased intake of fish during pregnancy (at the level of 50 to 200 grams per week) was associated with a reduced risk of eczema ( = 0.042). Meta-regression of included studies revealed an inverse linear association between maternal fish intake and risk of eczema; such that every additional 30-gram per week consumption of fish during pregnancy was associated with a 4% reduced risk of eczema. We found that fish intake during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of wheeze, eczema and food allergy in children. No significant association was seen between maternal fish consumption and risk of offspring's asthma, allergic rhinitis, and inhalant allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1914543DOI Listing
June 2021

Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) and the Risk of Obesity in Male Adolescents: a Case-Control Study.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 May 7;199(5):1701-1706. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Dietary factors may play a key role in the etiology of obesity. The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) provides a comprehensive overview of the nutrients content of the diet. This study aimed to investigate the association between INQ and obesity in male adolescents. We hypothesize that receiving a high-quality diet reduces the risk of overweight or obese. This study was carried out on 214 obese/overweight as the case group and 321 normal-weight male adolescents as the control group. Dietary intakes of the participants were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ-derived dietary data were used to calculate the INQ scores. After adjustments for age and height, an inverse association was found between obesity and INQ of iron, vitamin B6, and magnesium, and a positive association was found between obesity and INQ of zinc (all P < 0.05). After further adjustments for nutritional knowledge and calorie intake, an inverse association was observed between obesity and INQ of vitamin C, iron, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, selenium, and magnesium (all P < 0.05). The positive association of obesity and INQ of zinc remained significant after adjustments. A higher intake of vitamin C, iron, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, selenium, and magnesium and a lower intake of zinc may be protective against adolescent obesity. More longitudinal studies are required to investigate the relationship between these nutrients and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02297-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Legume and Nuts Consumption in Relation to Glioma: A Case- Control Study.

Nutr Cancer 2021 14;73(5):760-766. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Data on the link between legume and nuts consumption and risk of glioma are controversial. The current study aimed to investigate the relation between legume and nuts consumption and glioma in a case-control study in Iranian adults. In this hospital-based case-control study, we enrolled 128 pathologically confirmed new cases of glioma and 256 age and sex-matched controls. Dietary intakes of study participants were assessed using the validated Block-format 123-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Data on potential confounders were also collected through the use of a pre-tested questionnaire. Mean age of cases and controls were 43.4 and 42.8 years, respectively. Individuals with the greatest legume and nuts consumption were less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest consumption (0.52; 95% CI: 0.30-0.88). This inverse association was not changed after controlling for age, sex and energy intake (0.46; 95% CI: 0.26-0.81). The association remained statistically significant even after taking other potential confounders, including dietary intakes into account (0.32; 95% CI: 0.14-0.72). Additional adjustments for BMI did not alter the association; such that individuals in the top category of legume and nuts consumption were 66% less likely to have glioma compared with those in the bottom category (0.34; 95% CI: 0.15-0.76). We found an inverse association between legume and nuts consumption and odds of glioma, even after controlling for a wide range of confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1766091DOI Listing
May 2020

Metabolically healthy status and BMI in relation to depression: A systematic review of observational studies.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Mar - Apr;13(2):1099-1103. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Aim: Findings of association between metabolically healthy status and BMI and risk of depression are controversial. This study aimed to assess the relation between metabolically healthy status and BMI and depression.

Methods: All published studies up to 25 June 2018 were searched by using the databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and Google Scholar and following key words were used: metabolically AND (healthy OR unhealthy OR benign) AND (overweight OR obes* OR "over weight") AND phenotype AND (depression OR depress* OR "depressive disorder").

Results: After screening title and abstract and considering inclusion criteria, 5 studies were found to be included in our study. Metabolically unhealthy obesity was associated with 30%-83% increased risk of depression and metabolically unhealthy non-obesity was associated with 19%-60% increased risk of depression. Metabolically healthy obesity was not associated with the risk of depression in all studies.

Conclusions: In conclusion, metabolically health status and BMI are associated with risk of depression. Metabolically unhealthy situation increased risk of depression greater than metabolically healthy status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.01.027DOI Listing
December 2019

Consumption of milk and dairy products and risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture: a systematic review and Meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 26;60(10):1722-1737. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although some studies have reported the beneficial effects of milk and dairy product consumption on osteoporosis and risk of fracture, the findings are conflicting. We summarized earlier data on the association between milk and dairy intake and risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture through a meta-analysis. A systematic literature search of relevant reports published in PubMed, ISI (Web of Science), EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar until August 2018 was conducted. Total dairy intake was protectively associated with reduced risk of osteoporosis based on cross-sectional and case-control studies (0.63; 95% CI: 0.55-0.73). Milk consumption was not associated with the risk of osteoporosis (overall RR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.57-1.08). In non-linear dose-response meta-analysis, increase intake of dairy (at the level of 0 to 250 grams per day) was associated with a reduced risk of osteoporosis ( = 0.005). Meta-regression of included studies revealed an inverse linear association between dairy and milk intake and risk of osteoporosis; such that every additional 200-gram intake of dairy and milk was associated with a 22% and 37% reduced risk of osteoporosis, respectively. In terms of hip fracture, milk consumption was associated with a 25% reduced risk of hip fracture only in cross-sectional and case-control studies (overall RR = 0.75; 95%CI: 0.57-0.99). In linear meta-regression, every additional 200-gram milk intake per day was associated with a 9% greater risk of hip fracture in cohort studies. Despite an inverse association between milk and dairy intake and risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture in cross-sectional and case-control studies, no such association was seen in cohort studies. Given the advantages of the cohort over case-control studies, we concluded that a greater intake of milk and dairy products was not associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1590800DOI Listing
July 2020

Letter to editor: careful literature search and exact data extraction are milestones of a meta-analysis: the case of dairy consumption and hip fracture.

BMC Public Health 2018 Nov 13;18(1):1253. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In a recent issue of the BMC Public Health journal, Bian et al. described the results of an interesting meta-analysis on the association between dairy products consumption and risk of hip fracture. Although the results are important and valuable, some critical points should be noticed in the explanation of these findings. We prepared these critical points in a letter to the editor and hope to be an interest of you.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6175-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234587PMC
November 2018

Patterns of nutrients intakes in relation to glioma: A case-control study.

Clin Nutr 2019 06 21;38(3):1406-1413. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Food Security Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Nutrient pattern analysis is an easy way to compare nutrient intakes across different nations due to the universality of nutrients nature. The current study aimed to investigate the relation between patterns of nutrients intake and glioma in a case-control study in Iranian adults.

Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, we enrolled 128 pathologically confirmed new cases of glioma and 256 age and sex-matched controls. Dietary intakes of study participants were assessed using the validated Block-format 123-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Data on potential confounders were also collected through the use of pre-tested questionnaire.

Results: Four nutrient patterns were identified through the use of factor analysis. Participants were categorized based on tertiles of nutrient patterns' scores. Adherence to the first nutrient pattern was not significantly associated with the odds of glioma (0.93; 0.40-2.15). Participants with greater adherence to the second nutrient pattern were less likely to have glioma in crude model (0.48; 0.28-0.83). The inverse association remained significant after controlling for age, sex and energy intake (0.42; 0.24-0.78). Further controlling for other potential confounders, including BMI, resulted in the disappearance of the association (0.52; 0.25-1.10). Greater adherence to the third nutrient pattern was directly associated with the odds of glioma (1.92; 1.10-3.35). Even after controlling for sex, age and energy intake, the association was statistically significant (2.83; 1.28-4.21). However, when other confounders were taken into account, the association became non-significant (2.28; 0.89-5.82). The fourth nutrient pattern was not associated with the odds of glioma (0.71; 0.35-1.42).

Conclusion: We failed to find any significant independent association between nutrient patterns and odds of glioma. Further studies needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.06.961DOI Listing
June 2019

Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of depression: accumulative evidence from an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

Br J Nutr 2018 05;119(10):1087-1101

2Department of Community Nutrition,School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics,Tehran University of Medical Sciences,PO Box 141556117, Tehran,Iran.

Findings from observational studies investigating the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of depression were inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise available data on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and depression. A systematic literature search of relevant reports published in Medline/PubMed, ISI (Web of Science), SCOPUS and Google Scholar until Oct 2017 was conducted. Data from 27 publications (sixteen cross-sectional, nine cohort and two case-control studies) on fruit, vegetables and/or total fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to depression were included in the systematic review. A total of eighteen studies that reported relative risks (RR), hazard ratios or OR for the relationship were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RR for depression in the highest v. the lowest category of fruit intake was 0·83 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·98) in cohort studies and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) in cross-sectional studies. Consumption of vegetables was also associated with a 14 % lower risk of depression (overall RR=0·86; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·98) in cohort studies and a 25 % lower risk of depression (overall RR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·62, 0·91) in cross-sectional studies. Moreover, an inverse significant association was observed between intake of total fruit and vegetables and risk of depression (overall RR=0·80; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·98) in cross-sectional studies. In a non-linear dose-response association, we failed to find any significant association between fruit or vegetable intake and risk of depression (fruit (cross-sectional studies): P non-linearty=0·12; vegetables (cross-sectional studies): P non-linearty<0·001; (cohort studies) P non-linearty=0·97). Meta-regression of included observational studies revealed an inverse linear association between fruit or vegetable intake and risk of depression, such that every 100-g increased intake of fruit was associated with a 3 % reduced risk of depression in cohort studies (RR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·99). With regard to vegetable consumption, every 100-g increase in intake was associated with a 3 % reduced risk of depression in cohort studies (RR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) and 5 % reduced odds in cross-sectional studies (RR=0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·98). This meta-analysis of observational studies provides further evidence that fruit and vegetable intake was protectively associated with depression. This finding supports the current recommendation of increasing fruit and vegetable intake to improve mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518000697DOI Listing
May 2018

Vitamin C intake in relation to bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture and osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Br J Nutr 2018 04;119(8):847-858

3Department of Clinical Nutrition,School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics,Tehran University of Medical Sciences,PO Box 14155-6117, Tehran,Iran.

We aimed to systematically review available data on the association between vitamin C intake and bone mineral density (BMD), as well as risk of fractures and osteoporosis, and to summarise this information through a meta-analysis. Previous studies on vitamin C intake in relation to BMD and risk of fracture and osteoporosis were selected through searching PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases before February 2017, using MeSH and text words. To pool data, either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used, and for assessing heterogeneity, Cochran's Q and I 2 tests were used. Subgroup analysis was applied to define possible sources of heterogeneity. Greater dietary vitamin C intake was positively associated with BMD at femoral neck (pooled r 0·18; 0·06, 0·30) and lumbar spine (pooled r 0·14; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·22); however, significant between-study heterogeneity was found at femoral neck: I 2=87·6 %, P heterogeneity<0·001. In addition, we found a non-significant association between dietary vitamin C intake and the risk of hip fracture (overall relative risk=0·74; 95 % CI 0·51, 1·08). Significant between-study heterogeneity was found (I 2=79·1 %, P heterogeneity<0·001), and subgroup analysis indicated that study design, sex and age were the main sources of heterogeneity. Greater dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a 33 % lower risk of osteoporosis (overall relative risk=0·67; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·94). Greater dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture and osteoporosis, as well as higher BMD, at femoral neck and lumbar spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518000430DOI Listing
April 2018

Consumption of fruit and vegetables in relation with psychological disorders in Iranian adults.

Eur J Nutr 2018 Sep 5;57(6):2295-2306. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Findings from observational studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and risk of mental disorders are contradictory. We aimed to examine the association between fruit and vegetables intake and prevalence of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in a large group of Iranian adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3362 people of Iranian adults working in 50 health centers. Dietary data were collected using a validated dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Iranian-validated version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to assess psychological distress.

Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and high psychological distress among the study population was 30.0, 15.2, and 25.0%, respectively. Women in the top quintile of fruit intake, compared with those in the bottom quintile, had 57, 50, and 60% lower odds of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress. Consumption of vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of depression (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.46, 0.93) in women and lower odds of anxiety (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.22, 0.87) in men. In addition, after adjustment for potential confounders, women in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetables intake, compared with those in the bottom quintile, had significantly lower odds of depression (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37, 0.80) and psychological distress (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40, 0.90). Furthermore, high intake of total fruit and vegetables was associated with lower odds of psychological distress (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21, 0.81) in men.

Conclusion: We found significant inverse associations between high intake of fruit with depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in Iranian women. High consumption of vegetables was also associated with lower risk of depression and anxiety, respectively, in women and men. In addition, high intake of total fruit and vegetable was associated with lower odds of depression and psychological distress in women and men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-018-1652-yDOI Listing
September 2018

Tea and coffee consumption in relation to glioma: a case-control study.

Eur J Nutr 2019 Feb 9;58(1):103-111. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Data on the link between tea and coffee consumption and risk of glioma are controversial. We aimed to examine the association between tea and coffee consumption and glioma in Iranian adults.

Methods: In this hospital-based case-control study, we enrolled 128 pathologically confirmed new cases of glioma and 256 age- and sex-matched controls. Dietary intakes of study participants including tea and coffee consumption was assessed using the validated Block-format 123-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Participants were categorized based on tertiles of tea and coffee consumption. Data on potential confounders were also collected through the use of pre-tested questionnaire.

Results: Individuals with the greatest tea consumption were less likely to have glioma compared with those with the lowest consumption (0.36; 0.20-0.68). This inverse association was not changed after controlling for energy intake. The association remained statistically significant even after taking other potential confounders, including dietary intakes of red and processed meats, legumes and nuts, fruits, salt and mutual effects of tea and coffee consumption, into account (0.33; 0.13-0.86). Additional adjustments for BMI did not alter the association. After controlling for potential confounders, including dietary intakes and BMI, coffee consumption was inversely associated with odds of glioma; such that individuals in the top category of coffee consumption were 91% less likely to have glioma compared with those in the bottom category (0.09; 0.03-0.24). Considering coffee and tea intake combined, those in the highest tertile were 65% less likely to have glioma compared with those in the lowest tertile (0.35; 0.15-0.83).

Conclusion: We found an inverse association between tea and coffee consumption and odds of glioma, even after controlling for a wide range of confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1575-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Indicator for Success of Obesity Reduction Programs in Adolescents: Body Composition or Body Mass Index? Evaluating a School-based Health Promotion Project after 12 Weeks of Intervention.

Int J Prev Med 2017 19;8:73. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Student Research Committee, Department of community nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Obesity in adolescence is the strongest risk factor for obesity in adulthood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on different anthropometric indices in 12-16-year-old boy adolescents after 12 Weeks of Intervention.

Methods: A total of 96 male adolescents from two schools participated in this study. The schools were randomly assigned to intervention (53 students) and control school (43 students). Height and weight of students were measured and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body fat percent (BF) and body muscle percent (BM) was assessed using a bioimpedance analyzer considering the age, gender, and height of students at baseline and after intervention. The obesity reduction intervention was implemented in the intervention school based on the Ottawa charter for health promotion.

Results: Twelve weeks of intervention decreased BF percent in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (decreased by 1.81% in the intervention group and increased by 0.39% in the control group, < 0.01). However, weight, BMI, and BM did not change significantly.

Conclusions: The result of this study showed that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention decreased the body fat percent in obese adolescents, although these changes was not reflected in the BMI. It is possible that BMI is not a good indicator in assessment of the success of obesity management intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_306_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634063PMC
September 2017

Adherence to Mediterranean diet in relation to bone mineral density and risk of fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Eur J Nutr 2018 Sep 21;57(6):2147-2160. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: We aimed to systematically review available data on the association between adherence to MD and BMD as well as risk of fractures and to summarize this information through a meta-analysis.

Methods: Previous studies in the field of adherence to MD in relation to BMD and risk of fracture were selected through searching PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases prior to June, 2016 using Mesh and non-Mesh relevant keywords.

Results: In the meta-analysis of four effect sizes, obtained from three studies, we found that adherence to MD was associated with a 21% reduced risk of hip fracture (overall RR 0.79; 95% CIs 0.72-0.87). Adherence to MD was positively associated with lumber spines (mean difference of BMD comparing highest and lowest categories of MD score 0.12; 95% CI 0.06-0.19 g/cm), femoral neck (0.10; 0.06-0.15 g/cm) and total hip (0.11; 0.09-0.14 g/cm) BMD. Meta-regression of included observational studies revealed a significant inverse linear association between Mediterranean diet score and risk of hip fracture, such that one unit increase in the score of Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduction in the risk of hip fracture (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98 p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Adherence to MD was associated with a reduced risk of fracture as well as with a higher mean BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1490-3DOI Listing
September 2018