Publications by authors named "Hang Nguyen"

247 Publications

Health Literacy of Newly-Admitted Cancer Patients in Vietnam: Difficulties Understanding Treatment Options and Processing Health-Related Information.

Health Serv Insights 2022 5;15:11786329211067325. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

School of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam.

Having a good understanding of cancer patients' health literacy in the early stage of diagnosis can help to implement strategies to improve the management process and overall health outcomes. The study aims to describe health literacy and its association with socio-demographic characteristics among newly admitted cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 262 newly admitted patients of a cancer hospital in Vietnam using the Vietnamese version of the HLS-SF12 questionnaire. Descriptive analytics and regression analysis were used to describe health literacy and examine associated factors. Older age, lower level of education, and living in rural areas were associated with lower health literacy while there was no significant relationship between gender and health literacy among newly admitted cancer patients. Many newly admitted patients, especially the older patients have difficulties understanding the different treatment options (54%) and evaluating the reliability of health information on the internet (43%). During the early stage of treatment, strategies should be implemented with regards to patients' health literacy, to properly educate patients and their caregivers to improve communication, adherence to medication, lifestyle, and overall better quality of life and treatment outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11786329211067325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8753245PMC
January 2022

The lowest-energy structure of the gold cluster Au: planar nonplanar?

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Dec 22;24(1):42-47. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Institute for Computational Science and Technology (ICST), Quang Trung Software City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

The onset of the transition from 2D to 3D structures in pure gold clusters remains a matter of continuing debate. In this theoretical study we revisit several planar and non-planar structural motifs of the size Au with the aim to clarify this issue. Computations using a long-range corrected exchange-correlation functional LC-BLYP, coupled-cluster theories CCSD(T) and PNO-LCCSD(T)-F12 reveal that, at variance with previous reports on the preference of a planar elongated hexagon, both planar and nonplanar isomers of the neutral Au are energetically degenerated up to 300 K. Its 3D equilibrium geometry is a core-shell structure which can be built up from a trigonal prism by capping four extra Au atoms outside. A comparison to the available experimental vibrational spectra allows us to argue that both lowest-lying 2D and 3D isomers of Au likely coexist in the molecular beam during measurement of its FIR spectra. This result also suggests that the 2D-3D transition of neutral gold clusters occurs at the size Au.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp04440kDOI Listing
December 2021

Single-cell transcriptome profiling and the use of AID deficient mice reveal that B cell activation combined with antibody class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation do not benefit the control of experimental trypanosomosis.

PLoS Pathog 2021 11 11;17(11):e1010026. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Laboratory for Biomedical Research, Ghent University Global Campus, Incheon, South Korea.

Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites causing infections in a wide range of mammalian hosts, with Trypanosoma evansi having the widest geographic distribution, reaching territories far outside Africa and occasionally even Europe. Besides causing the animal diseases, T. evansi can cause atypical Human Trypanosomosis. The success of this parasite is attributed to its capacity to evade and disable the mammalian defense response. To unravel the latter, we applied here for the first time a scRNA-seq analysis on splenocytes from trypanosome infected mice, at two time points during infection, i.e. just after control of the first parasitemia peak (day 14) and a late chronic time point during infection (day 42). This analysis was combined with flow cytometry and ELISA, revealing that T. evansi induces prompt activation of splenic IgM+CD1d+ Marginal Zone and IgMIntIgD+ Follicular B cells, coinciding with an increase in plasma IgG2c Ab levels. Despite the absence of follicles, a rapid accumulation of Aicda+ GC-like B cells followed first parasitemia peak clearance, accompanied by the occurrence of Xbp1+ expressing CD138+ plasma B cells and Tbx21+ atypical CD11c+ memory B cells. Ablation of immature CD93+ bone marrow and Vpreb3+Ly6d+Ighm+ expressing transitional spleen B cells prevented mature peripheral B cell replenishment. Interestingly, AID-/- mice that lack the capacity to mount anti-parasite IgG responses, exhibited a superior defense level against T. evansi infections. Here, elevated natural IgMs were able to exert in vivo and in vitro trypanocidal activity. Hence, we conclude that in immune competent mice, trypanosomosis associated B cell activation and switched IgG production is rapidly induced by T. evansi, facilitating an escape from the detrimental natural IgM killing activity, and resulting in increased host susceptibility. This unique role of IgM and its anti-trypanosome activity are discussed in the context of the dilemma this causes for the future development of anti-trypanosome vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1010026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8610246PMC
November 2021

A 12-Year North American Longitudinal Study of Gender Equity and Equality in Gastroenterology.

Gastroenterology 2022 01 28;162(1):63-67. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Office of Equity, Inclusion and Diversity, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.10.031DOI Listing
January 2022

Prior infection with antigenically heterologous low pathogenic avian influenza viruses interferes with the lethality of the H5 highly pathogenic strain in domestic ducks.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Dec 4;83(12):1899-1906. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Joint Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama, Tottori 680-8553, Japan.

Low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs and HPAIVs, respectively) have been co-circulating in poultry populations in Asian, Middle Eastern, and African countries. In our avian-flu surveillance in Vietnamese domestic ducks, viral genes of LPAIV and HPAIV have been frequently detected in the same individual. To assess the influence of LPAIV on the pathogenicity of H5 HPAIV in domestic ducks, an experimental co-infection study was performed. One-week-old domestic ducks were inoculated intranasally and orally with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control) or 10 EID of LPAIVs (A/duck/Vietnam/LBM678/2014 (H6N6) or A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM694/2014 (H9N2)). Seven days later, these ducks were inoculated with HPAIV (A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM808/2015 (H5N6)) in the same manner. The respective survival rates were 100% and 50% in ducks pre-infected with LBM694 or LBM678 strains and both higher than the survival of the control group (25%). The virus titers in oral/cloacal swabs of each LPAIV pre-inoculation group were significantly lower at 3-5 days post-HPAIV inoculation. Notably, almost no virus was detected in swabs from surviving individuals of the LBM678 pre-inoculation group. Antigenic cross-reactivity among the viruses was not observed in the neutralization test. These results suggest that pre-infection with LPAIV attenuates the pathogenicity of HPAIV in domestic ducks, which might be explained by innate and/or cell-mediated immunity induced by the initial infection with LPAIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.21-0515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8762415PMC
December 2021

Inhibition of oomycetes by the mixture of maleic acid and copper sulfate.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Chonnam National University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 98413, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Korea (the Republic of), 61186;

After the discovery of the protective activity of Bordeaux mixture against plant disease caused by oomycetes, copper compounds have been used for over a century as a significant plant protection strategy. However, application of excessive copper can cause adverse effects through long-term heavy metal accumulation in soils. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new strategies to reduce or replace copper in pesticides based on organic and low-input farming systems. Organic acids are eco-friendly in nature. In this study, we tested the antifungal and anti-oomycete activity of maleic acid (MA) and copper sulfate (CS) against thirteen plant pathogens. Treatment of MA and CS mixture showed strong anti-oomycetes activity against , and . Moreover, the concentration of CS in the activated mixture of MA and CS was lower than that in the activated CS only, and the mixture showed synergy or partial synergy effects on the anti-oomycete activity. Application of a wettable powder formulation of MA and CS mixture (MCS 30WP; 26.67 % MA and 3.33 % CS) exhibited excellent protective activities in pot experiments with control values of 73 % Phytophthora blight on red pepper, 91 % damping-off on cucumber, and 84 % Pythium blight on creeping bentgrass, which are similar to those of the CS wettable powder formulation (6.67 % CS) containing two times the CS content in MCS 30WP. These observations suggest that the synergistic effect of the MA and CS combination is a sustainable alternative for effective management the destructive oomycete diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-21-1559-REDOI Listing
October 2021

Green extraction of apigenin and luteolin from celery seed using deep eutectic solvent.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2022 Jan 5;207:114406. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Hanoi University of Pharmacy, Hanoi 11000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

In recent years, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has attracted a great deal of attention as an environmentally friendly solvent and could be used as an alternative to conventional solvents. In this study, 34 choline and betaine-based deep eutectic solvents were prepared and investigated the ability to extract apigenin and luteolin from the celery seed. The results showed that DES composed of betaine hydrochloride and propylene glycol had the best extraction efficiency. Using one factor at a time combined with response surface methodology, the optimal conditions of extraction were determined as follows: time of extraction: 19 min, extraction temperature: 75 °C, the water content in solvent: 40% (w/w). Antisolvent (water) combined with distillation was proposed as an efficient method to recover apigenin and luteolin from the DES extract. The relationship between components of DES and solubility of apigenin, luteolin was also established which was the starting point for the prediction of extractability of DES. Molecular dynamics revealed that betaine hydrochloride and propylene glycol could interact with each other by the formation of two types of hydrogen bond while water molecules might play an important role in the ability to dissolve apigenin and luteolin of DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114406DOI Listing
January 2022

Widespread bacterial diversity within the bacteriome of fungi.

Commun Biol 2021 10 7;4(1):1168. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Biosecurity and Public Health Group, Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, USA.

Knowledge of associations between fungal hosts and their bacterial associates has steadily grown in recent years as the number and diversity of examinations have increased, but current knowledge is predominantly limited to a small number of fungal taxa and bacterial partners. Here, we screened for potential bacterial associates in over 700 phylogenetically diverse fungal isolates, representing 366 genera, or a tenfold increase compared with previously examined fungal genera, including isolates from several previously unexplored phyla. Both a 16 S rDNA-based exploration of fungal isolates from four distinct culture collections spanning North America, South America and Europe, and a bioinformatic screen for bacterial-specific sequences within fungal genome sequencing projects, revealed that a surprisingly diverse array of bacterial associates are frequently found in otherwise axenic fungal cultures. We demonstrate that bacterial associations with diverse fungal hosts appear to be the rule, rather than the exception, and deserve increased consideration in microbiome studies and in examinations of microbial interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02693-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497576PMC
October 2021

Use of methamphetamine and alcohol among people with opioid use disorder and HIV in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

BMC Public Health 2021 09 22;21(1):1718. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Background: Heroin use continues to drive HIV transmission in Vietnam, but methamphetamine and alcohol use are growing rapidly and, as in other countries, polysubstance use is widespread. The objective of this study was to understand the interplay between heroin, methamphetamine, and alcohol use among people with opioid use disorder (OUD) and HIV in Vietnam.

Methods: We conducted 44 in-depth, face-to-face qualitative interviews with people with OUD and HIV who participated in the BRAVO trial of buprenorphine versus methadone in five Vietnam HIV clinics. Interviews probed participants' experiences of heroin, methamphetamine, and alcohol use and their interplay with HIV/OUD treatment. Interviews were professionally transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach.

Results: Of 44 participants interviewed 42 were male, on average 38.8 years of age, with 30 reporting a history of methamphetamine use and 33 reporting a history of alcohol use. Several themes emerged: 1) Methamphetamine and alcohol were perceived to have lower addiction potential than heroin 2) Social settings were key facilitators of alcohol and methamphetamine use 3) Some participants, but not all, used methamphetamine to help quit heroin 4) Consuming alcohol blunted the effects of heroin, while paradoxically serving as a catalyst for heroin use 5) Use of methamphetamine was perceived by many participants to be incompatible with treatment for HIV.

Conclusions: Participant experiences reflected a significant impact of polysubstance use on treatment of HIV and OUD. Patterns of polysubstance use are subject to common preconceptions of alcohol and methamphetamine as having a low addictive potential, and these substances are deeply enmeshed in the social life of many people with OUD in Vietnam. Interventions to address complex social norms and potential harms of polysubstance use are urgently needed as the population of people receiving medication for OUD (MOUD) increases in Vietnam and globally.

Trial Registration: BRAVO - NCT01936857 , September 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11783-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8456677PMC
September 2021

Adsorption/Desorption Behaviors and SERS Chemical Enhancement of 6-Mercaptopurine on a Nanostructured Gold Surface: The Au Cluster Model.

Molecules 2021 Sep 6;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Chemistry, Can Tho University, Can Tho 900000, Vietnam.

Computational approaches are employed to elucidate the binding mechanism and the SERS phenomenon of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) adsorbed on the tetrahedral Au cluster as a simple model for a nanostructured gold surface. Computations are carried out in both vacuum and aqueous environments using a continuum model. In the gaseous phase and neutral conditions, interaction of 6MP with the gold cluster is mostly dominated by a covalent Au-S bond and partially stabilized by the Au⋅⋅⋅H-N coupling. However, in acidic solution, the nonconventional Au⋅⋅⋅H-S hydrogen-bond becomes the most favorable binding mode. The 6MP affinity for gold clusters decreases in the order of vacuum > neutral solution > acidic medium. During the adsorption, the energy gap of Au substantially declines, leading to an increase in its electrical conductivity, which can be converted to an electrical noise. Moreover, such interaction is likely a reversible process and triggered by either the low pH in sick tissues or the presence of cysteine residues in protein matrices. While N-H bending and stretching vibrations play major roles in the SERS phenomenon of 6MP on gold surfaces in neutral solution, the strongest enhancement in acidic environment is mostly due to an Au⋅⋅⋅H-S coupling, rather than an aromatic ring-gold surface π overlap as previously proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434346PMC
September 2021

The History of Anti-Trypanosome Vaccine Development Shows That Highly Immunogenic and Exposed Pathogen-Derived Antigens Are Not Necessarily Good Target Candidates: Enolase and ISG75 as Examples.

Pathogens 2021 Aug 19;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry (LMB) and the Infla-Med Centre of Excellence, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

Salivarian trypanosomes comprise a group of extracellular anthroponotic and zoonotic parasites. The only sustainable method for global control of these infection is through vaccination of livestock animals. Despite multiple reports describing promising laboratory results, no single field-applicable solution has been successful so far. Conventionally, vaccine research focusses mostly on exposed immunogenic antigens, or the structural molecular knowledge of surface exposed invariant immunogens. Unfortunately, extracellular parasites (or parasites with extracellular life stages) have devised efficient defense systems against host antibody attacks, so they can deal with the mammalian humoral immune response. In the case of trypanosomes, it appears that these mechanisms have been perfected, leading to vaccine failure in natural hosts. Here, we provide two examples of potential vaccine candidates that, despite being immunogenic and accessible to the immune system, failed to induce a functionally protective memory response. First, trypanosomal enolase was tested as a vaccine candidate, as it was recently characterized as a highly conserved enzyme that is readily recognized during infection by the host antibody response. Secondly, we re-addressed a vaccine approach towards the Invariant Surface Glycoprotein ISG75, and showed that despite being highly immunogenic, trypanosomes can avoid anti-ISG75 mediated parasitemia control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400590PMC
August 2021

Changes in Adolescents' Psychosocial Functioning and Well-Being as a Consequence of Long-Term COVID-19 Restrictions.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 19;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaâdi University, Avenue de Sebta, Mhannech II, Tetouan 93002, Morocco.

This work studied self-reports from adolescents on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed their behaviors, relationships, mood, and victimization. Data collection was conducted between September 2020 and February 2021 in five countries (Sweden, the USA, Serbia, Morocco, and Vietnam). In total, 5114 high school students (aged 15 to 19 years, 61.8% females) responded to our electronic survey. A substantial proportion of students reported decreased time being outside (41.7%), meeting friends in real life (59.4%), and school performance (30.7%), while reporting increased time to do things they did not have time for before (49.3%) and using social media to stay connected (44.9%). One third of the adolescents increased exercise and felt that they have more control over their life. Only a small proportion of adolescents reported substance use, norm-breaking behaviors, or victimization. The overall COVID-19 impact on adolescent life was gender-specific: we found a stronger negative impact on female students. The results indicated that the majority of adolescents could adapt to the dramatic changes in their environment. However, healthcare institutions, municipalities, schools, and social services could benefit from the findings of this study in their work to meet the needs of those young people who signaled worsened psychosocial functioning, increased stress, and victimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392883PMC
August 2021

Repurposing of the Fasciolicide Triclabendazole to Treat Infections Caused by spp. and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci.

Microorganisms 2021 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Australian Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Ecology, Roseworthy Campus, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, SA 5371, Australia.

One approach to combat the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens involves repurposing existing compounds with known safety and development pathways as new antibacterial classes with potentially novel mechanisms of action. Here, triclabendazole (TCBZ), a drug originally developed to treat (liver fluke) in sheep and cattle, and later in humans, was evaluated as an antibacterial alone or in combination with sub-inhibitory concentrations of polymyxin B (PMB) against clinical isolates and reference strains of key Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We show for the first time that in vitro, TCBZ selectively kills methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant and at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 2-4 µg/mL, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci at a MIC range of 4-8 µg/mL. TCBZ also inhibited key Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of PMB, returning MIC values of 1 µg/mL for , 8 µg/mL for , 2 µg/mL for and 4 µg/mL for . Interestingly, TCBZ was found to be bacteriostatic against intracellular but bactericidal against intracellular . Additionally, TCBZ's favourable pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile was further explored by in vivo safety and efficacy studies using a bioluminescent mouse model of sepsis. We show that repeated four-hourly oral treatment of mice with 50 mg/kg TCBZ after systemic challenge resulted in a significant reduction in populations in the blood to 18 h post-infection (compared to untreated mice) but did not clear the bacterial infection from the bloodstream, consistent with in vivo bacteriostatic activity. These results indicate that additional pharmaceutical development of TCBZ may enhance its PK/PD, allowing it to be an appropriate candidate for the treatment of serious MDR bacterial pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398527PMC
August 2021

EGFR-plasma mutations in prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer treated with EGFR TKIs: A meta-analysis.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 Aug 23:e1544. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

The Laboratory D Unit, Clinical Cancer Center, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: The plasma-based epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing is approved recently to use in clinical practice. However, it has not been used as a prognostic marker yet because of contradictory results.

Aim: This meta-analysis aims to clarify the role of the EGFR-plasma test in prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have mutant tumors and receive EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

Methods And Results: The PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant studies by April 10, 2021. The hazard ratio (HR) from reports was extracted and used to assess the correlation of EGFR-plasma status with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 35 eligible studies with 4106 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. Patients with concurrent EGFR mutations in pretreatment plasma have shorter PFS (HR = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-2.31, p < .001) and OS time (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89-2.83, p < .001) compared to the tumor-only mutation cases. Besides, the persistence of EGFR-activating mutations in post-treatment plasma is associated with worse PFS (HR = 3.84, 95% CI: 2.96-4.99, p < .001) and OS outcome (HR = 3.22, 95% CI: 2.35-4.42, p < .001) compared to others. Notably, the prognostic value of the EGFR-plasma test is also validated in treatment with third-generation EGFR TKI and significance regardless of different detection methods.

Conclusion: The presence of EGFR-plasma mutations at pretreatment and after EGFR TKI initiation is the worse prognostic factor for PFS and OS in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnr2.1544DOI Listing
August 2021

Changes in structural characteristics of humic and fulvic acids under chlorination and their association with trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids formation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 29;790:148142. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Environment Energy Engineering, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul 01811, South Korea. Electronic address:

The effects of chlorination on 16 humic and fulvic acids (HAs and FAs, respectively) extracted from six different soil samples from Korea and two purchased soil samples (Canadian peat moss, Elliott Silt Loam Soil) were investigated to identify the changes in their structural characteristics and their effects on trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential. The effect of chlorination was also investigated in fractionated samples (Aldrich HA, F-F) based on molecular weight (MW). Total organic carbon (TOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), fulvic-like fluorescence (%FLF), terrestrial humic-like fluorescence (%THLF), weight-average molecular weight (MW), and carbon structures (C NMR) were measured for each sample before and after chlorination, and factors relating to the chlorination mechanism were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that the changes in the structural characteristics and the disinfection by-product formation of chlorinated HA and FA differed critically. For chlorinated HA, TOC and %FLF decreased due to oxidation, whereas %THLF was reduced via incorporation; MW also affected the structural changes and THMFP generation. In the PCA results, high SUVA, low MW, low N/C, and low O groups of aromatic C were associated with high THMFP production in HA, whereas low O groups of aliphatic C in FA were associated with both oxidation and incorporation in terms of THMFP. These results elucidate the mechanisms associated with the effects of chlorination in HA and FA and will support the prediction of THMFP generation in HA and FA based on their specific structural characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148142DOI Listing
October 2021

Fast and Sensitive Real-Time PCR Detection of Major Antiviral-Drug Resistance Mutations in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients by Use of a Predesigned Panel of Locked-Nucleic-Acid TaqMan Probes.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 09 28;59(10):e0093621. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory of Enzyme and Protein Technology, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Hanoi, Vietnam.

We developed a novel real-time PCR assay that simultaneously evaluates 11 major nucleos(t)ide antiviral (NA) drug resistance mutations (mt) in chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB), including L180M, M204I/V, and V207M (lamivudine [LMV] resistance), N/H238A/T (adefovir [ADF] resistance), which are circulating in Vietnam; and T184G/L, S202I, and M250V (entecavir [ETV] resistance) and A194T (tenofovir resistance), which have been recently reported in several studies across the globe. We detected drug-resistant mt in hepatitis B virus (HBV) samples using our predesigned panel of allele-specific locked-nucleic acid (LNA) probes. Our assay had a high sensitivity of 5% in a low-HBV DNA population of ≥5 × 10 IU/ml and was validated in a cohort of 130 treatment-naive children and 98 NA-experienced adults with CHB. Single-point mt for LMV and ADF resistance were detected in 57.7% and 54.1% of the child and adult samples, respectively, with rtV207M (children, 42.3%; adults, 36.7%) and rtN238T/A (children, 15.4%; adults, 16.3%) being the most frequent mt in these populations. Multiple-point mt, including rtL180M-rtM204V- rtN238A and rtL180M-rtM204I, were identified in only two children, resulting in LMV-ADF resistance and reduced ETV susceptibility. In conclusion, this assay accurately identified the mt profile of children (98.4%) and adults (91.2%) with CHB, which is comparable to established methods. This fast and sensitive screening method can be used for the detection of major NA-resistant mt circulating in developing countries, as well as providing a model for the development of similar mt-detection assays, especially for use in nonhospitalized patients who need their results within half a day, before starting treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00936-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8451437PMC
September 2021

Evaluation of Benzguinols as Next-Generation Antibiotics for the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Australian Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Ecology, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Roseworthy Campus, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, SA 5371, Australia.

Our recent focus on the "lost antibiotic" unguinol and related nidulin-family fungal natural products identified two semisynthetic derivatives, benzguinols A and B, with unexpected in vitro activity against isolates either susceptible or resistant to methicillin. Here, we show further activity of the benzguinols against methicillin-resistant isolates of the animal pathogen , with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging 0.5-1 μg/mL. When combined with sub-inhibitory concentrations of colistin, the benzguinols demonstrated synergy against Gram-negative reference strains of , , and (MICs of 1-2 μg/mL in the presence of colistin), whereas the benzguinols alone had no activity. Administration of three intraperitoneal (IP) doses of 20 mg/kg benzguinol A or B to mice did not result in any obvious adverse clinical or pathological evidence of acute toxicity. Importantly, mice that received three 20 mg/kg IP doses of benzguinol A or B at 4 h intervals exhibited significantly reduced bacterial loads and longer survival times than vehicle-only treated mice in a bioluminescent murine sepsis challenge model. We conclude that the benzguinols are potential candidates for further development for specific treatment of serious bacterial infections as both stand-alone antibiotics and in combination with existing antibiotic classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10060727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233939PMC
June 2021

African Trypanosomosis Obliterates DTPa Vaccine-Induced Functional Memory So That Post-Treatment Challenge Fails to Trigger a Protective Recall Response.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laboratory for Biomedical Research, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Environment Technology and Food Technology, Ghent University Global Campus, Songdomunhwa-Ro 119-5, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-840, Korea.

Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular parasites causing anthroponotic and zoonotic infections. Anti-parasite vaccination is considered the only sustainable method for global trypanosomosis control. Unfortunately, no single field applicable vaccine solution has been successful so far. The active destruction of the host's adaptive immune system by trypanosomes is believed to contribute to this problem. Here, we show that infection results in the lasting obliteration of immunological memory, including vaccine-induced memory against non-related pathogens. Using the well-established DTPa vaccine model in combination with a infection and a diminazene diaceturate anti-parasite treatment scheme, our results demonstrate that while the latter ensured full recovery from the infection, it failed to restore an efficacious anti- vaccine recall response. The DTPa vaccine failure coincided with a shift in the IgG1/IgG2a anti- antibody ratio in favor of IgG2a, and a striking impact on all of the spleen immune cell populations. Interestingly, an increased plasma IFNγ level in DTPa-vaccinated trypanosome-infected mice coincided with a temporary antibody-independent improvement in early-stage trypanosomosis control. In conclusion, our results are the first to show that trypanosome-inflicted immune damage is not restored by successful anti-parasite treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230080PMC
June 2021

Phenotypic and genotypic features of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 1 subgroup in central Vietnam.

Sci Rep 2021 06 30;11(1):13609. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 3-1-24 Matsuyama, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8533, Japan.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has different features depending on different geographic areas. We collected Mtb strains from patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Da Nang, central Vietnam. Using a whole genome sequencing platform, including genome assembly complemented by long-read-sequencing data, genomic characteristics were studied. Of 181 Mtb isolates, predominant Vietnamese EAI4_VNM and EAI4-like spoligotypes (31.5%), ZERO strains (5.0%), and part of EAI5 (11.1%) were included in a lineage-1 (L1) sublineage, i.e., L1.1.1.1. These strains were found less often in younger people, and they genetically clustered less frequently than other modern strains. Patients infected with ZERO strains demonstrated less lung infiltration. A region in RD2bcg spanning six loci, i.e., PE_PGRS35, cfp21, Rv1985c, Rv1986, Rv1987, and erm(37), was deleted in EAI4_VNM, EAI4-like, and ZERO strains, whereas another 118 bp deletion in furA was specific only to ZERO strains. L1.1.1.1-sublineage-specific deletions in PE_PGRS4 and PE_PGRS22 were also identified. RD900, seen in ancestral lineages, was present in majority of the L1 members. All strains without IS6110 (5.0%) had the ZERO spoligo-pattern. Distinctive features of the ancestral L1 strains provide a basis for investigation of the modern versus ancestral Mtb lineages and allow consideration of countermeasures against this heterogeneous pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92984-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245516PMC
June 2021

Metal salt-modified biochars derived from agro-waste for effective congo red dye removal.

Environ Res 2021 09 9;200:111492. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Anionic Congo red dye (CR) is not effectively removed by conventional adsorbents. Three novel biochars derived from agro-waste (Acacia auriculiformis), modified with metal salts of FeCl, AlCl, and CaCl at 500 °C pyrolysis have been developed to enhance CR treatment. These biochars revealed significant differences in effluents compared to BC, which satisfied initial research expectations (P < 0.05). The salt concentration of 2 M realized optimal biochars with the highest CR removal of 96.8%, for AlCl-biochar and FeCl-biochar and 70.8% for CaCl-biochar. The modified biochars were low in the specific surface area (137.25-380.78 m g) compared normal biochar (393.15 m g), had more heterogeneous particles and successfully integrated metal oxides on the surface. The CR removal increased with a decrease in pH and increase in biochar dosage, which established an optimal point at an initial loading of 25 mg g. Maximum adsorption capacity achieved 130.0, 44.86, and 30.80 mg g for BFe, BCa, and BAl, respectively. As magnetic biochar, which is easily separated from the solution and achieves a high adsorption capacity, FeCl-biochar is the preferred biochar for CR treatment application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111492DOI Listing
September 2021

Effectiveness and Tolerability of First-Line Afatinib for Advanced EGFR-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Vietnam.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 May 1;22(5):1581-1590. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Oncology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of Afatinib as first-line treatment of advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a real-world setting.

Patients And Methods: This is a retrospective study of Vietnamese patients  with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with first-line afatinib at the National Cancer Hospital from 1st January 2018 to 31st October 2020. Patients' demographic, clinical and treatment data were captured. Objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), time to treatment failure (TTF) and tolerability were evaluated. We used Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test for survival, and Cox regression model for multivariate analysis.

Results: A total of 44 patients were included. Common EGFR mutations (Del 19/L858R) were detected in 61% patients. Fifty percent of patients with uncommon mutations had compound mutations of G719X, L861Q and S768I. The ORR was 75% while DCR rate was 98%. The median TTF was 12.3 months (95% CI: 7.2-17.3); the mTTFs were 12.3 and 10.8 months for patients with common and uncommon mutations (p = 0.001), respectively, and 14.0 and 7.5 months for patients with Del 19 and L858R mutations (p = 0.067), respectively. Afatinib 30 mg once daily was the most common starting (77%) and maintenance (64%) doses. The mTTFs were 12.3 and 7.5 months for patients with 30 mg starting dose vs 40 mg dose (p = 0.256), respectively. Diarrhea, skin rash, paronychia and fatigue were observed in 32%, 30%, 25% and 9%, respectively. There was no grade 4 toxicity except three patients with grade 3 paronychia.

Conclusions: First-line afatinib is beneficial for Vietnamese patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC with a good response rate and prolonged TTF with manageable adverse event profile. Baseline brain metastasis status and starting doses do not significantly impact TTF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.5.1581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408372PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide analysis of SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in Vietnam: Understanding the nature of the epidemic and role of the D614G mutation.

J Med Virol 2021 09 6;93(9):5660-5665. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Microbiology and Immunology Department, Pasteur Institute of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Genome-wide analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains is essential to better understand infectivity and virulence and to track coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and outbreaks. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 27 SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated between January 2020 and April 2020. A total of 54 mutations in different genomic regions was found. The D614G mutation, first detected in March 2020, was identified in 18 strains and was more likely associated with a lower cycle threshold (<25) in real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction diagnostic tests than the original D614 (prevalence ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-6.38). The integration of sequencing and epidemiological data suggests that SARS-CoV-2 transmission in both quarantine areas and in the community in Vietnam occur at the beginning of the epidemic although the country implemented strict quarantine quite early, with strict contact tracing, and testing. These findings provide insights into the nature of the epidemic, as well as shape strategies for COVID-19 prevention and control in Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242548PMC
September 2021

2D Electrolytes: Theory, Modeling, Synthesis, and Characterization.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 12;33(25):e2100442. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Advanced 2D Materials, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117546, Singapore.

A class of compounds sharing the properties of 2D materials and electrolytes, namely 2D electrolytes is described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. 2D electrolytes dissociate in different solvents, such as water, and become electrically charged. The chemical and physical properties of these compounds can be controlled by external factors, such as pH, temperature, electric permittivity of the medium, and ionic concentration. 2D electrolytes, in analogy with polyelectrolytes, present reversible morphological transitions from 2D to 1D, as a function of pH, due to the interplay of the elastic and Coulomb energies. Since these materials show stimuli-responsive behavior to the environmental conditions, 2D electrolytes can be considered as a novel class of smart materials that expand the functionalities of 2D materials and are promising for applications that require stimuli-responsive demeanor, such as drug delivery, artificial muscles, and energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100442DOI Listing
June 2021

Colibactin-Producing Induce the Formation of Invasive Carcinomas in a Chronic Inflammation-Associated Mouse Model.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

M2iSH, UMR 1071 Inserm, Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE USC 2018, CRNH, 63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: producing the genotoxin colibactin (CoPEC or colibactin-producing ) abnormally colonize the colonic mucosa of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We previously showed that deficiency of autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) enhances CoPEC-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice. Here, we tested if CoPEC trigger tumorigenesis in a mouse model lacking genetic susceptibility or the use of carcinogen.

Methods: Mice with autophagy deficiency in IECs () or wild-type mice () were infected with the CoPEC 11G5 strain or the mutant 11G5∆clbQ incapable of producing colibactin and subjected to 12 cycles of DSS treatment to induce chronic colitis. Mouse colons were used for histological assessment, immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses for DNA damage marker. : 11G5 or 11G5∆clbQ infection increased clinical and histological inflammation scores, and these were further enhanced by IEC-specific autophagy deficiency. 11G5 infection, but not 11G5∆clbQ infection, triggered the formation of invasive carcinomas, and this was further increased by autophagy deficiency. The increase in invasive carcinomas was correlated with enhanced DNA damage and independent of inflammation. : CoPEC induce colorectal carcinogenesis in a CRC mouse model lacking genetic susceptibility and carcinogen. This work highlights the role of (i) CoPEC as a driver of CRC development, and (ii) autophagy in inhibiting the carcinogenic properties of CoPEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123153PMC
April 2021

Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Spherical Nd Substituted ZnFeO Nanoparticles.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

NTT Hi-Tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh 700000, Vietnam.

In this study, nanocrystalline ZnNdFeO ferrites with x = 0.0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 were fabricated and used as a catalyst for dye removal potential. The effect of Nd ions substitution on the structural, optical and photo-Fenton activity of ZnNdFeO has been investigated. The addition of Nd ions caused a decrease in the grain size of ferrites, the reduction of the optical bandgap energies and thus could be well exploited for the catalytic study. The photocatalytic activity of the ferrite samples was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of HO under visible light radiation. The results indicated that the ZnNdFeO samples exhibited higher removal efficiencies than the pure ZnFeO ferrites. The highest degradation efficiency was 98.00%, attained after 210 min using the ZnNdFeO sample. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the ZnFeO doped with Nd is explained due to the efficient separation mechanism of photoinduced electron and holes. The effect of various factors (HO oxidant concentration and catalyst loading) on the degradation of RhB dye was clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14082054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073402PMC
April 2021

Deciphering the Relationship Between Cycloheximides Structures and Their Different Biological Activities.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:644853. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

species are the most important sources of antibacterial, antifungal, and phytotoxic metabolites. In this study, cycloheximide (CH) and acetoxycycloheximide (ACH) were isolated from the fermentation broth of sp. JCK-6092. The antifungal and phytotoxic activities of the two compounds (CH and ACH) and a cycloheximide derivative, hydroxycycloheximide (HCH), were compared. CH exhibited the strongest antagonistic activity against all the true fungi tested, followed by ACH and HCH. However, both CH and ACH displayed similar mycelial growth inhibitory activities against several phytopathogenic oomycetes, and both were more active than that of HCH. Disparate to antifungal ability, ACH showed the strongest phytotoxic activity against weeds and crops, followed by HCH and CH. ACH caused chlorophyll content loss, leaf electrolytic leakage, and lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. Its phytotoxicity was stronger than that of glufosinate-ammonium but weaker than that of paraquat in the experiments. CH and its derivatives are well-known protein synthesis inhibitors; however, the precise differences between their mechanism of action remain undiscovered. A computational study revealed effects of CHs on the protein synthesis of (oomycetes), (true fungus), and (plant) and deciphered the differences in their biological activities on different targets. The binding energies and conformation stabilities of each chemical molecule correlated with their biological activities. Thus, molecular docking study supported the experimental results. This is the first comparative study to suggest the ribosomal protein alteration mechanisms of CHs in plants and fungi and to thus show how the protein inhibitory activities of the different derivatives are altered using molecular docking. The correlation of structures features of CHs in respect to bond formation with desired protein was revealed by density functional theory. Overall collective results suggested that CHs can be used as lead molecules in the development of more potent fungicides and herbicides molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.644853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058199PMC
April 2021

Can a monthly exenatide extended release regimen provide a therapeutic and cost benefit?

Biopharm Drug Dispos 2021 Jun 30;42(6):245-251. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Pharmacy, West Coast University, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Exenatide is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. The current regimen is a 2 mg extended release (ER) weekly injection. The aim of our study was to prove the efficacy of exenatide ER if administered once-monthly. The proposed monthly dose was based on an Excel simulation using pharmacokinetic parameters extracted using Plot Digitizer® (version 2.6.8) from Cirincione et al. (2017), as well as accounting for the exenatide ER formulation characteristics, in vivo and in vitro exenatide stability. A PBPK model of exenatide molecule was developed using (Simcyp version 19) based on data from in vitro and clinical PK studies. The model was used to confirm the Excel simulation findings of the effectiveness of exenatide ER monthly in maintaining the plasma level above the minimum effective concentration (MEC). Our simulation from Excel and Simcyp showed that the drug plasma levels of the once monthly ER dose maintained a steady state concentration (C ) above the MEC. The simulated Excel plasma level ranged from C to C of 60-130ng/L, respectively. The exenatide compound was successfully modeled and used to predict the C of the ER monthly dose. The Simcyp® simulated C of the ER was 117 ng/L. A monthly exenatide ER dose provides a plasma level within the therapeutic range. This new proposed dose has a significant pharmacoeconomic benefit and could well improve patient adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdd.2279DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 associated mortality and cardiovascular disease outcomes among US women veterans.

Sci Rep 2021 04 19;11(1):8497. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX, USA.

The burden of COVID-19 has been noted to be disproportionately greater in minority women, a population that is nevertheless still understudied in COVID-19 research. We conducted an observational study to examine COVID-19-associated mortality and cardiovascular disease outcomes after testing (henceforth index) among a racially diverse adult women veteran population. We assembled a retrospective cohort from a Veterans Affairs (VA) national COVID-19 shared data repository, collected between February and August 2020. A case was defined as a woman veteran who tested positive for SARS-COV-2, and a control as a woman veteran who tested negative. We used Kaplan-Meier curves and the Cox proportional hazards model to examine the distribution of time to death and the effects of baseline predictors on mortality risk. We used generalized linear models to examine 60-day cardiovascular disease outcomes. Covariates studied included age, body mass index (BMI), and active smoking status at index, and pre-existing conditions of diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and a history of treatment with antiplatelet or anti-thrombotic drug at any time in the 2 years prior to the index date. Women veterans who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had 4 times higher mortality risk than women veterans who tested negative (Hazard Ratio 3.8, 95% Confidence Interval CI 2.92 to 4.89) but had lower risk of cardiovascular events (Odds Ratio OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92) and developing new heart disease conditions within 60 days (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.77). Older age, obesity (BMI > 30), and prior CVD and COPD conditions were positively associated with increased mortality in 60 days. Despite a higher infection rate among minority women veterans, there was no significant race difference in mortality, cardiovascular events, or onset of heart disease. SARS-CoV-2 infection increased short-term mortality risk among women veterans similarly across race groups. However, there was no evidence of increased cardiovascular disease incidence in 60 days. A longer follow-up of women veterans who tested positive is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88111-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055870PMC
April 2021

Yersiniabactin Siderophore of Crohn's Disease-Associated Adherent-Invasive Is Involved in Autophagy Activation in Host Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 29;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

M2iSH (Microbes, Intestin, Inflammation and Susceptibility of the Host), Inserm U1071, INRAE USC 2018, Université Clermont Auvergne, CRNH, 63001 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: Adherent-invasive (AIEC) have been implicated in the etiology of Crohn's disease. The AIEC reference strain LF82 possesses a pathogenicity island similar to the high pathogenicity island of spp., which encodes the yersiniabactin siderophore required for iron uptake and growth of the bacteria in iron-restricted environment. Here, we investigated the role of yersiniabactin during AIEC infection.

Methods: Intestinal epithelial T84 cells and CEABAC10 transgenic mice were infected with LF82 or its mutants deficient in yersiniabactin expression. Autophagy was assessed by Western blot analysis for p62 and LC3-II expression.

Results: Loss of yersiniabactin decreased the growth of LF82 in competitive conditions, reducing the ability of LF82 to adhere to and invade T84 cells and to colonize the intestinal tract of CEABAC10 mice. However, yersiniabactin deficiency increased LF82 intracellular replication. Mechanistically, a functional yersiniabactin is necessary for LF82-induced expression of HIF-1α, which is implicated in autophagy activation in infected cells.

Conclusion: Our study highlights a novel role for yersiniabactin siderophore in AIEC-host interaction. Indeed, yersiniabactin, which is an advantage for AIEC to growth in a competitive environment, could be a disadvantage for the bacteria as it activates autophagy, a key host defense mechanism, leading to bacterial clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037853PMC
March 2021

Comparison of Two Transmission Electron Microscopy Methods to Visualize Drug-Induced Alterations of Gram-Negative Bacterial Morphology.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Australia Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Ecology, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Roseworthy Campus, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy, SA 5371, Australia.

In this study, we optimized and compared different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods to visualize changes to Gram-negative bacterial morphology induced by treatment with a robenidine analogue (NCL195) and colistin combination. Aldehyde-fixed bacterial cells (untreated, treated with colistin or NCL195 + colistin) were prepared using conventional TEM methods and compared with ultrathin Tokuyasu cryo-sections. The results of this study indicate superiority of ultrathin cryo-sections in visualizing the membrane ultrastructure of and , with a clear delineation of the outer and inner membrane as well as the peptidoglycan layer. We suggest that the use of ultrathin cryo-sectioning can be used to better visualize and understand drug interaction mechanisms on the bacterial cell membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002630PMC
March 2021
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