Publications by authors named "Hang N Nielsen"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

ATP1A2- and ATP1A3-associated early profound epileptic encephalopathy and polymicrogyria.

Brain 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Constitutional heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2 and ATP1A3, encoding for two distinct isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) alpha-subunit, have been associated with familial hemiplegic migraine (ATP1A2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ATP1A2/A3), rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-progressive optic atrophy, and relapsing encephalopathy with cerebellar ataxia (all ATP1A3). A few reports have described single individuals with heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2/A3 associated with severe childhood epilepsies. Early lethal hydrops fetalis, arthrogryposis, microcephaly, and polymicrogyria have been associated with homozygous truncating mutations in ATP1A2. We investigated the genetic causes of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies variably associated with malformations of cortical development in a large cohort and identified 22 patients with de novo or inherited heterozygous ATP1A2/A3 mutations. We characterized clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings, performed in silico and in vitro assays of the mutations' effects on the NKA-pump function, and studied genotype-phenotype correlations. Twenty-two patients harboured 19 distinct heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2 (six patients, five mutations) and ATP1A3 (16 patients, 14 mutations, including a mosaic individual). Polymicrogyria occurred in 10 (45%) patients, showing a mainly bilateral perisylvian pattern. Most patients manifested early, often neonatal, onset seizures with a multifocal or migrating pattern. A distinctive, 'profound' phenotype, featuring polymicrogyria or progressive brain atrophy and epilepsy, resulted in early lethality in seven patients (32%). In silico evaluation predicted all mutations to be detrimental. We tested 14 mutations in transfected COS-1 cells and demonstrated impaired NKA-pump activity, consistent with severe loss of function. Genotype-phenotype analysis suggested a link between the most severe phenotypes and lack of COS-1 cell survival, and also revealed a wide continuum of severity distributed across mutations that variably impair NKA-pump activity. We performed neuropathological analysis of the whole brain in two individuals with polymicrogyria respectively related to a heterozygous ATP1A3 mutation and a homozygous ATP1A2 mutation and found close similarities with findings suggesting a mainly neural pathogenesis, compounded by vascular and leptomeningeal abnormalities. Combining our report with other studies, we estimate that ∼5% of mutations in ATP1A2 and 12% in ATP1A3 can be associated with the severe and novel phenotypes that we describe here. Notably, a few of these mutations were associated with more than one phenotype. These findings assign novel, 'profound' and early lethal phenotypes of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies and polymicrogyria to the phenotypic spectrum associated with heterozygous ATP1A2/A3 mutations and indicate that severely impaired NKA pump function can disrupt brain morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab052DOI Listing
April 2021

Distinct effects of Q925 mutation on intracellular and extracellular Na and K binding to the Na, K-ATPase.

Sci Rep 2019 09 16;9(1):13344. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Three Na sites are defined in the Na-bound crystal structure of Na, K-ATPase. Sites I and II overlap with two K sites in the K-bound structure, whereas site III is unique and Na specific. A glutamine in transmembrane helix M8 (Q925) appears from the crystal structures to coordinate Na at site III, but does not contribute to K coordination at sites I and II. Here we address the functional role of Q925 in the various conformational states of Na, K-ATPase by examining the mutants Q925A/G/E/N/L/I/Y. We characterized these mutants both enzymatically and electrophysiologically, thereby revealing their Na and K binding properties. Remarkably, Q925 substitutions had minor effects on Na binding from the intracellular side of the membrane - in fact, mutations Q925A and Q925G increased the apparent Na affinity - but caused dramatic reductions of the binding of K as well as Na from the extracellular side of the membrane. These results provide insight into the changes taking place in the Na-binding sites, when they are transformed from intracellular- to extracellular-facing orientation in relation to the ion translocation process, and demonstrate the interaction between sites III and I and a possible gating function of Q925 in the release of Na at the extracellular side.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50009-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746705PMC
September 2019

Importance of a Potential Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation Site of Na+,K+-ATPase and Its Interaction Network for Na+ Binding.

J Biol Chem 2016 May 24;291(20):10934-47. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

From the Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

The molecular mechanism underlying PKA-mediated regulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was explored in mutagenesis studies of the potential PKA site at Ser-938 and surrounding charged residues. The phosphomimetic mutations S938D/E interfered with Na(+) binding from the intracellular side of the membrane, whereas Na(+) binding from the extracellular side was unaffected. The reduction of Na(+) affinity is within the range expected for physiological regulation of the intracellular Na(+) concentration, thus supporting the hypothesis that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-938 regulates Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in vivo Ser-938 is located in the intracellular loop between transmembrane segments M8 and M9. An extended bonding network connects this loop with M10, the C terminus, and the Na(+) binding region. Charged residues Asp-997, Glu-998, Arg-1000, and Lys-1001 in M10, participating in this bonding network, are crucial to Na(+) interaction. Replacement of Arg-1005, also located in the vicinity of Ser-938, with alanine, lysine, methionine, or serine resulted in wild type-like Na(+) and K(+) affinities and catalytic turnover rate. However, when combined with the phosphomimetic mutation S938E only lysine substitution of Arg-1005 was compatible with Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function, and the Na(+) affinity of this double mutant was reduced even more than in single mutant S938E. This result indicates that the positive side chain of Arg-1005 or the lysine substituent plays a mechanistic role as interaction partner of phosphorylated Ser-938, transducing the phosphorylation signal into a reduced affinity of Na(+) site III. Electrostatic interaction of Glu-998 is of minor importance for the reduction of Na(+) affinity by phosphomimetic S938E as revealed by combining S938E with E998A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.701201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4865937PMC
May 2016

Relationship between intracellular Na+ concentration and reduced Na+ affinity in Na+,K+-ATPase mutants causing neurological disease.

J Biol Chem 2014 Feb 19;289(6):3186-97. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

From the Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark and.

The neurological disorders familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) are caused by mutations of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase α2 and α3 isoforms, expressed in glial and neuronal cells, respectively. Although these disorders are distinct, they overlap in phenotypical presentation. Two Na(+),K(+)-ATPase mutations, extending the C terminus by either 28 residues ("+28" mutation) or an extra tyrosine ("+Y"), are associated with FHM2 and RDP, respectively. We describe here functional consequences of these and other neurological disease mutations as well as an extension of the C terminus only by a single alanine. The dependence of the mutational effects on the specific α isoform in which the mutation is introduced was furthermore studied. At the cellular level we have characterized the C-terminal extension mutants and other mutants, addressing the question to what extent they cause a change of the intracellular Na(+) and K(+) concentrations ([Na(+)]i and [K(+)]i) in COS cells. C-terminal extension mutants generally showed dramatically reduced Na(+) affinity without disturbance of K(+) binding, as did other RDP mutants. No phosphorylation from ATP was observed for the +28 mutation of α2 despite a high expression level. A significant rise of [Na(+)]i and reduction of [K(+)]i was detected in cells expressing mutants with reduced Na(+) affinity and did not require a concomitant reduction of the maximal catalytic turnover rate or expression level. Moreover, two mutations that increase Na(+) affinity were found to reduce [Na(+)]i. It is concluded that the Na(+) affinity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is an important determinant of [Na(+)]i.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.543272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916523PMC
February 2014

Somatic mutations in ATP1A1 and ATP2B3 lead to aldosterone-producing adenomas and secondary hypertension.

Nat Genet 2013 Apr 17;45(4):440-4, 444e1-2. Epub 2013 Feb 17.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Primary aldosteronism is the most prevalent form of secondary hypertension. To explore molecular mechanisms of autonomous aldosterone secretion, we performed exome sequencing of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). We identified somatic hotspot mutations in the ATP1A1 (encoding an Na(+)/K(+) ATPase α subunit) and ATP2B3 (encoding a Ca(2+) ATPase) genes in three and two of the nine APAs, respectively. These ATPases are expressed in adrenal cells and control sodium, potassium and calcium ion homeostasis. Functional in vitro studies of ATP1A1 mutants showed loss of pump activity and strongly reduced affinity for potassium. Electrophysiological ex vivo studies on primary adrenal adenoma cells provided further evidence for inappropriate depolarization of cells with ATPase alterations. In a collection of 308 APAs, we found 16 (5.2%) somatic mutations in ATP1A1 and 5 (1.6%) in ATP2B3. Mutation-positive cases showed male dominance, increased plasma aldosterone concentrations and lower potassium concentrations compared with mutation-negative cases. In summary, dominant somatic alterations in two members of the ATPase gene family result in autonomous aldosterone secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2550DOI Listing
April 2013