Publications by authors named "Han Zhang"

1,881 Publications

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Effects of dopamine transporter changes in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain on cognitive function in aged rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jul 27:102009. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 832000, China. Electronic address:

The pathogenesis of Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) is a synergistic effect of many factors. Up to now, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The dopamine pathway in the brain is one of the paths involved in the means of cognitive function. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between changes in dopamine transporters in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain and postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly rats. In this study, a mental dysfunction model in elderly rats was established after splenectomy under general anesthesia. Eighty male SD rats, aged 18-20 months, with a body mass of 300-500 g. Randomly divided into eight groups: Normal group (Normal, N) and Sham group (sham, S), Model 3 day group(PND, P3), Model 7 day group(PND, P7), Virus 3 days AAV·DAT·RNAi (AAV3), Virus 7 days AAV·DAT·RNAi (AAV7), Virus control for three days AAV·NC(NC3), Virus control for seven days AAV·NC(NC7). The results show that knockdown of dopamine transporter in the VTA region can significantly improve the cognitive dysfunction of elderly rats after surgery. These results suggest that dopamine transporter in the VTA region is involved in cognitive dysfunction in elderly rats. The effect of DAT changes in the VTA region on postoperative cognitive function in elderly rats may be related to the regulation of α-syn and Aβ1-42 protein aggregation in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.102009DOI Listing
July 2021

Disentangled Intensive Triplet Autoencoder for Infant Functional Connectome Fingerprinting.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2020 29;12267:72-82. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Functional connectome "fingerprint" is a highly characterized brain pattern that distinguishes one individual from others. Although its existence has been demonstrated in adults, an unanswered but fundamental question is whether such individualized pattern emerges since infancy. This problem is barely investigated despites its importance in identifying the origin of the intrinsic connectome patterns that mirror distinct behavioral phenotypes. However, addressing this knowledge gap is challenging because the conventional methods are only applicable to developed brains with subtle longitudinal changes and typically fail on the dramatically developing infant brains. To tackle this challenge, we invent a novel model, namely, disentangled intensive triplet autoencoder (DI-TAE). First, we introduce the triplet autoencoder to embed the original connectivity into a latent space with higher discriminative capability among infant individuals. Then, a disentanglement strategy is proposed to separate the latent variables into identity-code, age-code, and noise-code, which not only restrains the interference from age-related developmental variance, but also captures the identity-related invariance. Next, a cross-reconstruction loss and an intensive triplet loss are designed to guarantee the effectiveness of the disentanglement and enhance the inter-subject dissimilarity for better discrimination. Finally, a variance-guided bootstrap aggregating is developed for DI-TAE to further improve the performance of identification. DI-TAE is validated on three longitudinal resting-state fMRI datasets with 394 infant scans aged 16 to 874 days. Our proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art methods by increasing the identification rate by more than 50%, and for the first time suggests the plausible existence of brain functional connectome "fingerprint" since early infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59728-3_8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318317PMC
September 2020

Automatic arteriosclerotic retinopathy grading using four-channel with image merging.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 21;208:106274. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Computer Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Arteriosclerosis can reflect the severity of hypertension, which is one of the main diseases threatening human life safety. But Arteriosclerosis retinopathy detection involves costly and time-consuming manual assessment. To meet the urgent needs of automation, this paper developed a novel arteriosclerosis retinopathy grading method based on convolutional neural network.

Methods: Firstly, we propose a good scheme for extracting features facing the fundus blood vessel background using image merging for contour enhancement. In this step, the original image is dealt with adaptive threshold processing to generate the new contour channel, which merge with the original three-channel image. Then, we employ the pre-trained convolutional neural network with transfer learning to speed up training and contour image channel parameter with Kaiming initialization. Moreover, ArcLoss is applied to increase inter-class differences and intra-class similarity aiming to the high similarity of images of different classes in the dataset.

Results: The accuracy of arteriosclerosis retinopathy grading achieved by the proposed method is up to 65.354%, which is nearly 4% higher than those of the exiting methods. The Kappa of our method is 0.508 in arteriosclerosis retinopathy grading.

Conclusions: An experimental study on multiple metrics demonstrates the superiority of our method, which will be a useful to the toolbox for arteriosclerosis retinopathy grading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106274DOI Listing
July 2021

Black Phosphorus/Polymers: Status and Challenges.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 29:e2100113. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Microscale Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China.

As a newly emerged mono-elemental nanomaterial, black phosphorus (BP) has been widely investigated for its fascinating physical properties, including layer-dependent tunable band gap (0.3-1.5 eV), high ON/OFF ratio (10 ), high carrier mobility (10 cm V s ), excellent mechanical resistance, as well as special in-plane anisotropic optical, thermal, and vibrational characteristics. However, the instability caused by chemical degradation of its surface has posed a severe challenge for its further applications. A focused BP/polymer strategy has more recently been developed and implemented to hurdle this issue, so at present BP/polymers have been developed that exhibit enhanced stability, as well as outstanding optical, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties. This has promoted researchers to further explore the potential applications of black phosphorous. In this review, the preparation processes and the key properties of BP/polymers are reviewed, followed by a detailed account of their diversified applications, including areas like optoelectronics, bio-medicine, and energy storage. Finally, in accordance with the current progress, the prospective challenges and future directions are highlighted and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100113DOI Listing
July 2021

A novel deposition mechanism of Au on Ag nanostructures involving galvanic replacement and reduction reactions.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106, China. and Key Laboratory of Aerospace Information Materials and Physics (NUAA), MIIT, Nanjing 211106, China.

Combining a galvanic replacement reaction with a reduction reaction can provide more possibility in the synthesis of Au-Ag hollow nanostructures. However, the detailed atomic deposition mechanism involving these two reactions is unclear. Herein, we proposed a novel deposition mechanism of the Au atoms on Ag nanostructures involving simultaneous galvanic replacement and reduction reactions. The Au atoms originating from galvanic replacement reaction will deposit at surface energy-related facets of the Ag nanostructures while the others originated from reduction reaction at high curvature sites, with the morphology of the final [email protected] nanostructures determined by the ratio between the two reactions. This mechanism has been verified by experiments on Ag nanorods using varied volumes of Au precursor. Moreover, it can also be extended to Ag cuboctahedrons, suggesting the generality of this mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02674gDOI Listing
July 2021

CHARMM-GUI for Ligand Binding Site Prediction and Refinement.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Bioengineering, and Computer Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, United States.

A protein performs its task by binding a variety of ligands in its local region that is also known as the ligand-binding-site (LBS). Therefore, accurate prediction, characterization, and refinement of LBS can facilitate protein functional annotations and structure-based drug design. In this work, we present CHARMM-GUI (https://www.charmm-gui.org/input/lbsfinder) that predicts potential LBS, offers interactive features for local LBS structure analysis, and prepares various molecular dynamics (MD) systems and inputs by setting up distance restraint potentials for LBS structure refinement. supports 5 different commonly used simulation programs, such as NAMD, AMBER, GROMACS, GENESIS, and OpenMM, for LBS structure refinement together with hydrogen mass repartitioning. The capability of is illustrated through LBS structure predictions and refinements of 48 modeled and 20 apo benchmark target proteins. Overall, successful LBS structure predictions and refinements are seen in our benchmark tests. We hope that is useful to predict, characterize, and refine potential LBS on any given protein of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.1c00561DOI Listing
July 2021

Fascinating MXene nanomaterials: emerging opportunities in the biomedical field.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

In recent years, there has been rapid progress in MXene research due to its distinctive two-dimensional structure and outstanding properties. Especially in biomedical applications, MXenes have attracted widespread favor with numerous studies on biosafety, bioimaging, therapy, and biosensing, although their development is still in the experimental stage. A comprehensive understanding of the current status of MXenes in biomedicine will promote their use in clinical applications. Here, we review advances in MXene research. First, we introduce the methods of synthesis, surface modification and functionalization of MXenes. Then, we summarize the biosafety and biocompatibility, paving the way for specific biomedical applications. On this basis, MXene nanostructures are described with respect to their use in antibacterial, bioimaging, cancer therapy, tissue regeneration and biosensor applications. Finally, we discuss MXene as a promising candidate material for further applications in biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00526jDOI Listing
July 2021

Doping regulation in transition metal compounds for electrocatalysis.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, P. R. China.

In electrocatalysis, doping regulation has been considered as an effective method to modulate the active sites of catalysts, providing a powerful means for creating a large variety of highly efficient catalysts for various reactions. Of particular interest, there has been growing research concerning the doping of two-dimensional transition-metal compounds (TMCs) to optimize their electrocatalytic performance. Despite the previous achievements, mechanistic insights of doping regulation in TMCs for electrocatalysis are still lacking. Herein, we provide a systematic overview of doping regulation in TMCs in terms of background, preparation, impacts on physicochemical properties, and typical applications including the hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, CO2 reduction reaction, and N2 reduction reaction. Notably, we bridge the understanding between the doping regulation of catalysts and their catalytic activities via focusing on the physicochemical properties of catalysts from the aspects of vacancy concentrations, phase transformation, surface wettability, electrical conductivity, electronic band structure, local charge distribution, tunable adsorption strength, and multiple adsorption configurations. We also discuss the existing challenges and future perspectives in this promising field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00330eDOI Listing
July 2021

PICK1 Deficiency Exacerbates Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury.

Biomed Res Int 2021 8;2021:9884297. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

We performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to explore the role of protein kinase C-binding protein 1 (PICK1), an intracellular transporter involved in oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases, in sepsis-related acute kidney injury (AKI). Firstly, PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the expression of PICK1 after lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced AKI. Secondly, by inhibiting PICK1 in vivo and silencing PICK1 in vitro, we further explored the effect of PICK1 on AKI. Finally, the relationship between PICK1 and oxidative stress and the related mechanisms were explored. We found that the expression of PICK1 was increased in LPS-induced AKI models both in vitro and in vivo. PICK1 silencing significantly aggravated LPS-induced apoptosis, accompanied by ROS production in renal tubular epithelial cells. FSC231, a PICK1-specific inhibitor, aggravated LPS-induced kidney injury. Besides, NAC (N-acetylcysteine), a potent ROS scavenger, significantly inhibited the PICK1-silencing-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, PICK1 might protect renal tubular epithelial cells from LPS-induced apoptosis by reducing excessive ROS, making PICK1 a promising preventive target in LPS-induced AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9884297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285178PMC
July 2021

Significance of Tumor Mutation Burden Combined With Immune Infiltrates in the Progression and Prognosis of Advanced Gastric Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 9;12:642608. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is a serious malignant tumor with high mortality and poor prognosis. The prognosis and survival are much worse for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Recently, immunotherapy has been widely promoted for AGC patients, and studies have shown that tumor mutation burden (TMB) is closely related to immunotherapy response. Here, RNA-seq data, matched clinical information, and MAF files were downloaded from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA)-STAD project in the TCGA database. The collation and visual analysis of mutation data were implemented by the "maftools" package in R. We calculated the TMB values for AGC patients and divided the patients into high- and low-TMB groups according to the median value of TMB. Then, the correlation between high or low TMB and clinicopathological parameters was calculated. Next, we examined the differences in gene expression patterns between the two groups by using the "limma" R package and identified the immune-related genes among the DEGs. Through univariate Cox regression analysis, 15 genes related to prognosis were obtained. Furthermore, the two hub genes (APOD and SLC22A17) were used to construct a risk model to evaluate the prognosis of AGC patients. ROC and survival curves and GEO data were used as a validation set to verify the reliability of this risk model. In addition, the correlation between TMB and tumor-infiltrating immune cells was examined. In conclusion, our results suggest that AGC patients with high TMB have a better prognosis. By testing the patient's TMB, we could better guide immunotherapy and understand patient response to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.642608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8299211PMC
July 2021

[Observation of the short-term effect of tympanoplasty(type Ⅰ) in dry and wet ears with chronic otitis media].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;35(7):617-620

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital.

To explore the difference of short-term effect of transear endoscopic tympanoplasty (type Ⅰ) in the dry and wet ear of chronic otitis media. Patients with chronic suppurative otitis media were prospectively recruited in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital from July 2018 to July 2020. Two otoscopicians independently judged the condition of tympanic membrane and tympanic mucosa before operation. One hundred and ten patients were divided into dry ear group (n=78) and wet ear group(n=32). The healing rate of tympanic membrane and the degree of hearing improvement were recorded at postoperative 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. Six months after operation, the healing rate of dry ear group was 97.4% (76/78), and that of wet ear group was 96.9%(31/32) 6 months after operation, there was no significant difference in tympanic membrane healing rate between the two groups (>0.05). The hearing of the patients in both groups was improved, and the air conduction hearing in the dry ear group increased by (10.57±8.73) dB, and decreased by (6.44±4.98) dB after operation. In the wet ear group, the air conduction hearing increased by (8.91±11.79) dB, and decreased by (6.89±6.99) dB after operation. There was no significant difference in the degree of hearing improvement between the two groups(>0.05). For quiescent chronic otitis media without ossicular chain lesions, the preoperative wet ear state is not a taboo in tympanoplasty (typeⅠ), and the postoperative tympanic membrane healing rate and hearing improvement are the same as those in dry ear surgery, and can reduce the preoperative waiting time of patients, reduce the use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.07.009DOI Listing
July 2021

[Observation on the efficacy of Eustachian tube dilation hormone under the guidance of endoscope in the treatment of sudden deafness].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;35(5):424-427

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital,Xi'an,710068,China.

To evaluate the efficacy of Eustachian tube dilation hormone under the guidance of otoscope in the treatment of patients with sudden deafness. One hundred and seventy-six patients(185 ears) with sudden deafness treated by otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery in Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital from January 2020 to December 2020 were selected. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 176 patients(185 ears) were randomly divided into control group(=86, 90 ears) and study group(=90, 95 ears). The control group was treated with intratympanic injection of methylprednisolone(methylprednisolone sodium succinate for injection), and the study group was treated with tympanic tympanoplasty under otoendoscope. The pure tone hearing threshold, effective rate and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. The total effective rate of the study group was 84.21%(80/95), slightly lower than that of the control group(84.44%), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. The hearing threshold of pure tone in the two groups was significantly higher than that before treatment, and the average improvement of hearing in the study group(25.47±6.29) dB was slightly lower than that in the control group(27.33±7.55) dB, but there was no significant difference between the two groups(>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of mild adverse reactions between the two groups(>0.05). There were no serious adverse reactions. The total effective rate, hearing improvement level and adverse reaction rate of patients with sudden deafness treated with Eustachian tube tympanic dilatation hormone under endoscope are the same as that of tympanic hormone injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.05.009DOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-Wide Identification of GRAS Gene Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stress in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Alfalfa () is a high-quality legume forage crop worldwide, and alfalfa production is often threatened by abiotic environmental stresses. GRAS proteins are important transcription factors that play a vital role in plant development, as well as in response to environmental stress. In this study, the availability of alfalfa genome "Zhongmu No.1" allowed us to identify 51 GRAS family members, i.e., MsGRAS. MsGRAS proteins could be classified into nine subgroups with distinct conserved domains, and tandem and segmental duplications were observed as an expansion strategy of this gene family. In RNA-Seq analysis, 14 MsGRAS genes were not expressed in the leaf or root, 6 GRAS genes in 3 differentially expressed gene clusters were involved in the salinity stress response in the leaf. Moreover, qRT-PCR results confirmed that MsGRAS51 expression was induced under drought stress and hormone treatments (ABA, GA and IAA) but down-regulated in salinity stress. Collectively, our genome-wide characterization, evolutionary, and expression analysis suggested that the MsGRAS proteins might play crucial roles in response to abiotic stresses and hormonal cues in alfalfa. For the breeding of alfalfa, it provided important information on stress resistance and functional studies on MsGRAS and hormone signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304046PMC
July 2021

Inhalable nanocatchers for SARS-CoV-2 inhibition.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 07 2;118(29). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China;

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), presents an urgent health crisis. More recently, an increasing number of mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified globally. Such mutations, especially those on the spike glycoprotein to render its higher binding affinity to human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) receptors, not only resulted in higher transmission of SARS-CoV-2 but also raised serious concerns regarding the efficacies of vaccines against mutated viruses. Since ACE2 is the virus-binding protein on human cells regardless of viral mutations, we design hACE2-containing nanocatchers (NCs) as the competitor with host cells for virus binding to protect cells from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hACE2-containing NCs, derived from the cellular membrane of genetically engineered cells stably expressing hACE2, exhibited excellent neutralization ability against pseudoviruses of both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the D614G variant. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in the lung, the most vulnerable organ for COVID-19, we develop an inhalable formulation by mixing hACE2-containing NCs with mucoadhesive excipient hyaluronic acid, the latter of which could significantly prolong the retention of NCs in the lung after inhalation. Excitingly, inhalation of our formulation could lead to potent pseudovirus inhibition ability in hACE2-expressing mouse model, without imposing any appreciable side effects. Importantly, our inhalable hACE2-containing NCs in the lyophilized formulation would allow long-term storage, facilitating their future clinical use. Thus, this work may provide an alternative tactic to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infections even with different mutations, exhibiting great potential for treatment of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2102957118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307760PMC
July 2021

Dynamic Routing Capsule Networks for Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2019 10;2019:620-628. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that could cause severe cognitive damage to the patients. Diagnosis of AD at its preclinical stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI), could help to prevent or slow down AD progression. With machine learning, automatic MCI diagnosis could be achieved. Most of the previous studies mainly share a similar framework, i.e., building a classifier based on the features extracted from static or dynamic functional connectivity. Recently, inspired by the great successes achieved by deep learning in other areas of medical image analysis, researchers have introduced neural network models for MCI diagnosis. In this paper, we propose dynamic routing capsule networks for MCI diagnosis. Our proposed methods are based on a novel neural network fashion of . Two variants of capsule net are designed and discussed, which respectively uses the intra-ROIs and inter-ROIs dynamic routing to obtain functional representation. More importantly, we design a learnable dynamic functional connectivity metric in our inter-ROIs dynamic model, in which the functional connectivity is dynamically learned during network training. To the best of our knowledge, it's the first time to propose dynamic routing capsule networks for MCI diagnosis. Compared with other machine learning methods and deep learning model, our method can achieve superior performance from various aspects of evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-32251-9_68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291294PMC
October 2019

Multiscale neural modeling of resting-state fMRI reveals executive-limbic malfunction as a core mechanism in major depressive disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 6;31:102758. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC USA. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents a grand challenge to human health and society, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that MDD is associated with abnormal interactions and dynamics in two major neural systems including the default mode - salience (DMN-SAL) network and the executive - limbic (EXE-LIM) network, but it is not clear which network plays a central role and which network plays a subordinate role in MDD pathophysiology. To address this question, we refined a newly developed Multiscale Neural Model Inversion (MNMI) framework and applied it to test whether MDD is more affected by impaired circuit interactions in the DMN-SAL network or the EXE-LIM network. The model estimates the directed connection strengths between different neural populations both within and between brain regions based on resting-state fMRI data collected from normal healthy subjects and patients with MDD. Results show that MDD is primarily characterized by abnormal circuit interactions in the EXE-LIM network rather than the DMN-SAL network. Specifically, we observe reduced frontoparietal effective connectivity that potentially contributes to hypoactivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and decreased intrinsic inhibition combined with increased excitation from the superior parietal cortex (SPC) that potentially lead to amygdala hyperactivity, together resulting in activation imbalance in the PFC-amygdala circuit that pervades in MDD. Moreover, the model reveals reduced PFC-to-hippocampus excitation but decreased SPC-to-thalamus inhibition in MDD population that potentially lead to hypoactivity in the hippocampus and hyperactivity in the thalamus, consistent with previous experimental data. Overall, our findings provide strong support for the long-standing limbic-cortical dysregulation model in major depression but also offer novel insights into the multiscale pathophysiology of this debilitating disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102758DOI Listing
July 2021

Tracking the Differentiation Status of Human Neural Stem Cells through Label-Free Raman Spectroscopy and Machine Learning-Based Analysis.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, 4105 Old Main Hill, ENGR 402, Logan, Utah 84322, United States.

The ability to noninvasively monitor stem cells' differentiation is important to stem cell studies. Raman spectroscopy is a non-harmful imaging approach that acquires the cellular biochemical signatures. Herein, we report the first use of label-free Raman spectroscopy to characterize the gradual change during the differentiation process of live human neural stem cells (NSCs) in the in vitro cultures. Raman spectra of 600-1800 cm were measured with human NSC cultures from the undifferentiated stage (NSC-predominant) to the highly differentiated one (neuron-predominant) and subsequently analyzed using various mathematical methods. Hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two cell types (NSCs and neurons) through the spectra. The subsequently derived differentiation rate matched that measured by immunocytochemistry. The key spectral biomarkers were identified by time-dependent trend analysis and principal component analysis. Furthermore, through machine learning-based analysis, a set of eight spectral data points were found to be highly accurate in classifying cell types and predicting the differentiation rate. The predictive accuracy was the highest using the artificial neural network (ANN) and slightly lowered using the logistic regression model and linear discriminant analysis. In conclusion, label-free Raman spectroscopy with the aid of machine learning analysis can provide the noninvasive classification of cell types at the single-cell level and thus accurately track the human NSC differentiation. A set of eight spectral data points combined with the ANN method were found to be the most efficient and accurate. Establishing this non-harmful and efficient strategy will shed light on the in vivo and clinical studies of NSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04941DOI Listing
July 2021

Free-Standing Ultrafine Nanofiber Papers with High PM Mechanical Filtration Efficiency by Scalable Blow and Electro-Blow Spinning.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 19;13(29):34773-34781. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

Particulate matter of 0.3 μm in diameter (PM) poses a serious threat to the environment and human beings. Ultrathin and -light nanofibrous filters with excellent filtration properties can significantly prevent the detrimental effects of these particles. Here, we develop free-standing polyamide PA-66 ultrafine nanofiber papers for PM filtration using effective and scalable blow and electro-blow spinning techniques. The smallest average fiber diameter is 61.7 nm, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of conventional textiles. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwovens are selected to fabricate free-standing nanofiber papers of various polymers, including polyamide, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinylpyrrolidone), and poly(ethylene oxide) owing to the smooth surfaces of the nonwovens. This underlying principle can be used to create similar free-standing nanofiber papers from other commodity polymers in the future. Mechanisms of capturing particulate matter with different nanofiber morphologies are discussed. Salt and oil particulates are used to characterize the filtration properties. PA-66 papers are promising reusable filters owing to their mechanical particle-capture mechanism. The blow-spun PA-66 papers show filtration performance of 98.75% efficiency and a pressure drop of 125.44 Pa owing to the "slip" effect caused by the ultrasmall diameter. In the electro-blow spinning process, a supplementary voltage supply is conducive to separating nanofiber bundles into random-oriented nanofibers. Electro-blown spun papers possess an ultrahigh efficiency of 99.99% with a reduced areal density of 0.9 g m. These PA-66 papers can be used in a variety of applications, such as reusable personal protective equipment, industrial waste gas treatment, and central ventilation purification systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04253DOI Listing
July 2021

Construction and Comprehensive Prognostic Analysis of a lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network and Tumor Immune Cell Infiltration in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 1;12:652601. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in almost all human tumors, including CRC. Competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks have become hot topics in cancer research. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) have also been reported to be closely related to the survival and prognosis of CRC patients. In this study, we used the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network combined with tumor immune cell infiltration to predict the survival and prognosis of 598 CRC patients. First, we downloaded the lncRNA, mRNA, and miRNA transcriptome data of CRC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and identified differentially expressed genes through "limma" package of R software. The ceRNA regulatory network was established by using the "GDCRNATools" R package. Then, univariate Cox analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis were performed to identify the optimal prognostic network nodes, including SRPX, UST, H19, SNHG7, hsa-miR-29b-3p, and TTYH3. Next, we analyzed the differences in 22 types of TICs between 58 normal subjects and 206 CRC patients and included memory CD4 T cells, dendritic cells and neutrophils in the construction of a prognostic model. Finally, we identified the relationship between the ceRNA prognostic model and the infiltrating immune cell prognostic model. In conclusion, we constructed two prognostic models that provide insights on the prognosis and treatment strategy of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.652601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281064PMC
July 2021

Detection of cell-surface sialic acids and photodynamic eradication of cancer cells using dye-modified polydopamine-coated gold nanobipyramids.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jul;9(29):5780-5784

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong, China.

A nanoprobe based on polydopamine-coated gold nanobipyramids surface modified with molecules of a phenylboronic acid-substituted distyryl boron dipyrromethene has been fabricated and characterised using various physical and spectroscopic methods. It serves as an ultrasensitive sensor for sialic acids on the surface of cancer cells based on its dual surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence response. This biomarker can also trigger the photodynamic activity of these nanobipyramids, effectively eradicating the cancer cells mainly through apoptosis as shown by various bioassays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01274fDOI Listing
July 2021

Impaired generation of mature neurons due to extended expression of Tlx by repressing Sox2 transcriptional activity.

Stem Cells 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Xenotransplantation, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

As a master regulator of the dynamic process of adult neurogenesis, timely expression and regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Tailless (Tlx) is essential. However, there is no study yet to directly investigate the essential role of precise spatiotemporal expressed Tlx. Here, we generated a conditional gain of Tlx expression transgenic mouse model, which allowed the extended Tlx expression in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny by mating with a TlxCreER mouse line. We demonstrate that extended expression of Tlx induced the impaired generation of mature neurons in adult subventricular zone and subgranular zone. Furthermore, we elucidated for the first time that this mutation decreased the endogenous expression of Sox2 by directly binding to its promoter. Restoration experiments further confirmed that Sox2 partially rescued these neuron maturation defects. Together, these findings not only highlight the importance of shutting-off Tlx on time in controlling NSC behavior, but also provide insights for further understanding adult neurogenesis and developing treatment strategies for neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3435DOI Listing
July 2021

Geometric modeling of attitude jitter for three-line-array imaging satellites.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):20952-20969

Attitude jitter causes image motion and degrades geometric accuracy of high-resolution satellite images. This work studies the mechanism of the attitude jitter effect on the imaging geometry of three-line-array push-broom sensors onboard satellites, which is a typical configuration used for topographic mapping. Based on a rigorous physical imaging model, we derived quantitative models of the geometric effect of attitude jitter in the roll, pitch, and yaw angles on the image distortions of the forward, nadir, and backward view sensors, and the accuracy of the derived models is validated through comprehensive experiments and analyses. The experimental results reveal the following. First, the attitude jitter in the roll angle dominates the cross-track image deviation; it does not affect the along-track geometry of the nadir-view sensor but marginally affects the off-nadir-view sensors, and the image distortions share a linear relationship with the image column coordinates. Second, the attitude jitter in the pitch angle dominates the along-track image deviation, and the image distortions in the off-nadir-view images are relatively larger than those in the nadir-view images. The attitude jitter in the pitch angle does not affect the cross-track geometry of the nadir-view sensor but marginally affects the off-nadir-view sensors, and the image distortions share a linear relationship with the image column coordinates. Finally, the attitude jitter in the yaw angle mainly causes the cross-track image deviation in the off-nadir-view sensors, and the along-track image geometries of all the three view sensors are marginally affected to the same extent by the yaw angle variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426192DOI Listing
June 2021

Brown Culm Rot of Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro Caused by Diaporthe guangxiensis in Sichuan Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

No. 211, Huimin Road, Wenjiang DistrictChengdu, Sichuan, China, 611130;

Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro, the most widely cultivated bamboo species in southern China, has high ornamental value used in gardens, while culms are also used for buildings and as fibers and edibles (Gao et al. 2011). In June 2020, brown culm rot of bamboo was observed in Yibin city, Sichuan Province, in an area of approximately 1000 hectares. Disease incidence was approximately 60%, of which 30% of the plants had died. At the end of June, the lesions expanded but did not surround the base of the culm. From the end of June to the beginning of September, the lesions expanded upward and formed a streak, of which the color gradually deepened to purple-brown and black-brown. At the same time, the disease spots at the base of the culm also expanded horizontally. After the spots surrounded the base of the culm, the diseased bamboo died. Ten culms showing typical symptoms were collected and cut into 5×5 mm pieces at the junction of infected and healthy tissues. The tissues were sterilized for 1 to 2 min in 3% sodium hypochlorite, decontaminated in 75% alcohol for 3 to 5 min, placed on modified potato glucose agar (PDA) with streptomycin sulfate (50 μg/ml), and incubated at 26°C. Two isolates were obtained by the single-spore method (Sivan et al. 1992). The isolates both produced white round colonies similar to Diaporthe guangxiensis and two types of conidia: one was α type (5.5 to 8.2×1.0 to 2.8 µm, n=30), colourless, single-celled, undivided, and oval, containing two oil droplets; and β type (21.1 to 30.2×0.8 to 1.4 µm, n=30), colourless, single celled and hook shaped. Genomic DNA was extracted from the two isolates by using a fungal genomic DNA extraction kit (Solarbio, Beijing). The products were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers for the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS) region (White et al. 1990), calmodulin (CAL) gene (Carbone and Kohn 1999), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene (Glass and Donaldson 1995) and beta-tubulin (TUB) gene (Soares et al. 2018). The amplified products were sequenced and blasted in GenBank (accession numbers MW380383, MW431318, MW431317 and MW431316 for ITS, CAL, TEF, and TUB, respectively). The ITS, CAL, TEF, and TUB sequences showed 100%, 99.33%, 100%, and 99.80% identity to D. guangxiensis JZB320094 (accession numbers MK335772.1, MK736727.1, MK523566.1, MK500168.1 in GenBank), respectively. To evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolates, five plants were each inoculated with two isolates. The cortex of potted bamboo were injured locally with sterilized needle, and the bamboo culms were inoculated with 100 μl of conidial suspension (105 cfu/ml). The surface of the inoculation wound was covered with gauze soaked with sterilized water. Five plants inoculated with sterile water were used as controls. The treated plants were maintained in a greenhouse at a temperature of 22 to 29°C and relative humidity of 70 to 80%. One month later, of all inoculated plants showed similar symptoms as those observed in the field. D. guangxiensis was re-isolated from all inoculated plants. The pathogenicity test was repeated three times with similar results. This is the first report of D. guangxiensis causing brown culm rot of D. latiflorus in China. These results will facilitate an enhanced understanding of factors affecting bamboo and the design of effective management strategies of the pathogenic species on bamboo and thus to develop corresponding control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0837-PDNDOI Listing
July 2021

The Antitumor Activity and Mechanism of a Natural Diterpenoid From .

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:688195. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry Biology, College of Pharmacy, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Drug Research, and Drug Discovery Center for Infectious Disease, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Casearlucin A, a diterpenoid obtained from , has been reported to possess strong cytotoxic activity. However, the anti-tumor effects and the action mechanism of casearlucin A remain poorly understood. Our study revealed that casearlucin A arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 stage and induced cell apoptosis in cell level. Additionally, casearlucin A inhibited HepG2 cell migration regulating a few of metastasis-related proteins. Furthermore, it inhibited tumor angiogenesis in zebrafish . More importantly, casearlucin A significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration in an zebrafish xenograft model. Collectively, these results are valuable for the further development and application of casearlucin A as an anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.688195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267910PMC
June 2021

Comparative analysis of fatty acid metabolism based on transcriptome sequencing of wild and cultivated .

PeerJ 2021 1;9:e11681. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Background: is a species endemic to the alpine and high-altitude areas of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Although has been cultivated since the past few years, whether cultivated can completely replace wild remains to be determined.

Methods: To explore the differences of grown in varied environments, we conducted morphological and transcriptomic comparisons between wild and cultivated samples who with the same genetic background.

Results: The results of morphological anatomy showed that there were significant differences between wild and cultivated , which were caused by different growth environments. Then, a total of 9,360 transcripts were identified using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Differential expression analysis revealed that 73.89% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated in grown under natural conditions compared with that grown under artificial conditions. Functional enrichment analysis showed that some key DEGs related to fatty acid metabolism, including acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, were upregulated in wild . Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results confirmed that the fatty acid content of wild was significantly higher than that of cultivated and that unsaturated fatty acids accounted for a larger proportion.

Conclusion: These results provide a theoretical insight to the molecular regulation mechanism that causes differences between wild and cultivated and improving artificial breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255070PMC
July 2021

TiO supported single Ag atoms nanozyme for elimination of SARS-CoV2.

Nano Today 2021 Oct 7;40:101243. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of nanozymes and Translational Cancer Research, Department of Otolaryngology, and Institute of Translational Medicine, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital/the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen 518035, China.

The outbreak of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has become a global health emergency. Although enormous efforts have been made, there is still no effective treatment against the new virus. Herein, a TiO supported single-atom nanozyme containing atomically dispersed Ag atoms (Ag-TiO SAN) is designed to serve as a highly efficient antiviral nanomaterial. Compared with traditional nano-TiO and Ag, Ag-TiO SAN exhibits higher adsorption (99.65%) of SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus. This adsorption ability is due to the interaction between SAN and receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike 1 protein of SARS-CoV2. Theoretical calculation and experimental evidences indicate that the Ag atoms of SAN strongly bind to cysteine and asparagine, which are the most abundant amino acids on the surface of spike 1 RBD. After binding to the virus, the SAN/virus complex is typically phagocytosed by macrophages and colocalized with lysosomes. Interestingly, Ag-TiO SAN possesses high peroxidase-like activity responsible for reactive oxygen species production under acid conditions. The highly acidic microenvironment of lysosomes could favor oxygen reduction reaction process to eliminate the virus. With hACE2 transgenic mice, Ag-TiO SAN showed efficient anti-SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus activity. In conclusion, Ag-TiO SAN is a promising nanomaterial to achieve effective antiviral effects for SARS-CoV2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nantod.2021.101243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260506PMC
October 2021

Dynamic behaviors of multiple-soliton pulsation in an L-band passively mode-locked fiber laser with anomalous dispersion.

Chaos 2021 Jun;31(6):063122

International Collaborative Laboratory of 2D Materials for Optoelectronics Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Microscale Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

As a universal phenomenon in nonlinear optical systems, the soliton pulsating behavior is useful to achieve high pulse energy and can further enrich the complex soliton dynamics. To the best of our knowledge, herein we have demonstrated the observation of multiple-soliton pulsations in an L-band mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror with anomalous dispersion for the first time. Based on the dispersive Fourier transform method, we find that the pulsations in the multi-soliton regime are accompanied with the pulse width breathing and spectrum oscillation. In addition, the corresponding number of pulsating solitons increases linearly from 8 to 16 with the pump power. Our findings can facilitate a better understanding of the complex mechanism of soliton pulsations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0049705DOI Listing
June 2021

Genomic Insights Into the Admixture History of Mongolic- and Tungusic-Speaking Populations From Southwestern East Asia.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:685285. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

As a major part of the modern Eurasian or Altaic language family, most of the Mongolic and Tungusic languages were mainly spoken in northern China, Mongolia, and southern Siberia, but some were also found in southern China. Previous genetic surveys only focused on the dissection of genetic structure of northern Altaic-speaking populations; however, the ancestral origin and genomic diversification of Mongolic and Tungusic-speaking populations from southwestern East Asia remain poorly understood because of the paucity of high-density sampling and genome-wide data. Here, we generated genome-wide data at nearly 700,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 Mongolians and 55 Manchus collected from Guizhou province in southwestern China. We applied principal component analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE, statistics, analysis, , TreeMix, Fst, and ALDER to infer the fine-scale population genetic structure and admixture history. We found significant genetic differentiation between northern and southern Mongolic and Tungusic speakers, as one specific genetic cline of Manchu and Mongolian was identified in Guizhou province. Further results from ADMIXTURE and statistics showed that the studied Guizhou Mongolians and Manchus had a strong genetic affinity with southern East Asians, especially for inland southern East Asians. The -based estimates of ancestry admixture proportion demonstrated that Guizhou Mongolians and Manchus people could be modeled as the admixtures of one northern ancestry related to northern Tungusic/Mongolic speakers or Yellow River farmers and one southern ancestry associated with Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, and Austroasiatic speakers. The -based phylogeny and neighbor-joining tree further confirmed that Guizhou Manchus and Mongolians derived approximately half of the ancestry from their northern ancestors and the other half from southern Indigenous East Asians. The estimated admixture time ranged from 600 to 1,000 years ago, which further confirmed the admixture events were mediated the Mongolians Empire expansion during the formation of the Yuan dynasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.685285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258170PMC
June 2021

Molecular Characteristics of From Food Samples and Food Poisoning Outbreaks in Shijiazhuang, China.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:652276. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang, China.

As an opportunistic pathogen worldwide, can cause food poisoning and human infections. This study investigated the sequence typing, the penicillin (blaZ) and methicillin (mec) resistance profiles of from food samples and food poisoning outbreaks in Shijiazhuang City, and the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) types of the isolates from food poisoning. A total of 138 foodborne isolates were distributed into 8 clonal complexes (CCs) and 12 singletons. CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC97, CC59, CC398, CC88, and CC7 were the predominant CCs of foodborne isolates. Moreover, CC59, CC15, and CC5 were the most prevalent CCs in food poisoning outbreaks. SEE was the most commonly detected SE in food poisoning isolates. One hundred thirty-three isolates harbored the penicillin-resistant gene , and nine isolates carried the gene. The present study further explained the relationship between and foods and food poisoning and indicated the potential risk of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.652276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258372PMC
June 2021

Delineating spatiotemporal and hierarchical development of human fetal innate lymphoid cells.

Cell Res 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Sciences, Beijing, China.

Whereas the critical roles of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in adult are increasingly appreciated, their developmental hierarchy in early human fetus remains largely elusive. In this study, we sorted human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, lymphoid progenitors, putative ILC progenitor/precursors and mature ILCs in the fetal hematopoietic, lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, from 8 to 12 post-conception weeks, for single-cell RNA-sequencing, followed by computational analysis and functional validation at bulk and single-cell levels. We delineated the early phase of ILC lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which mainly occurred in fetal liver and intestine. We further unveiled interleukin-3 receptor as a surface marker for the lymphoid progenitors in fetal liver with T, B, ILC and myeloid potentials, while IL-3RA lymphoid progenitors were predominantly B-lineage committed. Notably, we determined the heterogeneity and tissue distribution of each ILC subpopulation, revealing the proliferating characteristics shared by the precursors of each ILC subtype. Additionally, a novel unconventional ILC2 subpopulation (CRTH2 CCR9 ILC2) was identified in fetal thymus. Taken together, our study illuminates the precise cellular and molecular features underlying the stepwise formation of human fetal ILC hierarchy with remarkable spatiotemporal heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00529-2DOI Listing
July 2021
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