Publications by authors named "Hamizatul Akmal Abd Hamid"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polysubstance use among adolescents in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(1):e0245593. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Polysubstance use is defined as the use of more than one non-prescribed licit or illicit substance either concurrently or simultaneously. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of single substance users and polysubstance users and 'their associated factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017, a cross-sectional survey conducted among Malaysian school-going adolescents aged 13 to 17. The NHMS utilised a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Multivariate Multinomial Logistic Regression analysis was applied.

Results: The overall prevalence of single substance use and polysubstance use among adolescents were 17.2% and 5.1% respectively. The multinomial model showed a higher likelihood of being single or polysubstance user among male (single user OR = 3.0, poly user OR = 4.6), others Bumiputeras vs Malay (single user OR = 1.7, poly user OR = 5.3), those who live with a single parent (single user OR = 1.2, poly user OR = 1.4), involved in truancy (single user OR = 1.7, poly user OR = 3.6) and being bullied (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 3.4), those who had lack of peer support (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 1.4), poor parental bonding (single user OR = 1.4, poly user OR = 1.8), depression (single user OR = 1.4, poly user OR = 3.2) and those who had no close friend (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 2.7).

Conclusion: Our study highlighted multiple significant associated factors of single and polysubstance use among adolescents in Malaysia. This result can assist in the development of specific intervention and prevention programs targeting high-risk groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819602PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among the elderly in Malaysia: Findings from The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238566. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Obesity is a crucial public health problem and is rising globally. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among the elderly in Malaysia.

Methods: Data were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected using pre-tested self-administered questionnaire in the form of sociodemographic profile, non-communicable diseases (NCD) comorbidities (status on hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) and NCD risk factors (current smoker and physical activity). Obesity has been defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) Body Mass Index (BMI) guideline, 1998. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for obesity were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis.

Results: A total of 3794 respondents were included in this study. The prevalence of obesity among Malaysian elderly was 30.2%. The prevalence of obesity among the elderly was significantly higher in females, respondents from urban areas and Indians. Approximately one third of the elderly with non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (33.1%) and diabetes (38.8%), respectively, were obese. Among elderly who were obese, majority of them (89.8%) had at least one NCD. The prevalence of obesity was 16.8% among current smokers (aOR 0.59). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly females (aOR [adjusted odds ratio] 1.52), having secondary education (aOR 1.96) with household income of RM 3000 and above (aOR 1.57) as well as being hypertensive (aOR 1.61) and diabetic (aOR 1.50) were more likely to be obese. In contrast, the Chinese elderly respondents (aOR 0.62) and current smokers (aOR 0.59) were less likely to be obese. There were no significant associations of obesity with hypercholesterolemia or with physical activity.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian elderly were obese, and factors associated with obesity among them were being female, having secondary education with a household income of RM 3000 and above and being hypertensive or diabetic. Enhanced health promotion and education should be targeted at younger people in order to prevent obesity in the later years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238566PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486079PMC
October 2020

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors in Malaysia; findings from a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study.

BMC Nephrol 2020 08 14;21(1):344. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Malaysia was 9.07% in 2011. We aim to determine the current CKD prevalence in Malaysia and its associated risk factors.

Methods: A population-based study was conducted on a total of 890 respondents who were representative of the adult population in Malaysia, i.e., aged ≥18 years old. Respondents were randomly selected using a stratified cluster method. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated from calibrated serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m or the presence of persistent albuminuria if eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m.

Results: Our study shows that the prevalence of CKD in Malaysia was 15.48% (95% CI: 12.30, 19.31) in 2018, an increase compared to the year 2011 when the prevalence of CKD was 9.07%. An estimated 3.85% had stage 1 CKD, 4.82% had stage 2 CKD, and 6.48% had stage 3 CKD, while 0.33% had stage 4-5 CKD. Hypertension (aOR 3.72), diabetes mellitus (aOR 3.32), increasing BMI (aOR 1.06), and increasing age (aOR 1.06) were significantly associated with CKD.

Conclusion: Our study has shown that CKD has become one of the leading public health issues in Malaysia. Thus, there is an urgent need to screen for CKD and prevent its progression, associated morbidity, and mortality at the national level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01966-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427283PMC
August 2020

Association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Malaysian adults.

Environ Health 2020 04 3;19(1):37. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Environment, Ministry of Energy, Technology, Science, Environment and Climate Change, 62662, Putrajaya, Malaysia.

Background: Malaysia has the highest rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Southeast Asian region, and has ongoing air pollution and periodic haze exposure.

Methods: Diabetes data were derived from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys conducted in 2006, 2011 and 2015. The air pollution data (NO, NO, SO, O and PM) were obtained from the Department of Environment Malaysia. Using multiple logistic and linear regression models, the association between long-term exposure to these pollutants and prevalence of diabetes among Malaysian adults was evaluated.

Results: The PM concentration decreased from 2006 to 2014, followed by an increase in 2015. Levels of NO decreased while O increased annually. The air pollutant levels based on individual modelled air pollution exposure as measured by the nearest monitoring station were higher than the annual averages of the five pollutants present in the ambient air. The prevalence of overall diabetes increased from 11.4% in 2006 to 21.2% in 2015. The prevalence of known diabetes, underdiagnosed diabetes, overweight and obesity also increased over these years. There were significant positive effect estimates of known diabetes at 1.125 (95% CI, 1.042, 1.213) for PM, 1.553 (95% CI, 1.328, 1.816) for O, 1.271 (95% CI, 1.088, 1.486) for SO, 1.124 (95% CI, 1.048, 1.207) for NO, and 1.087 (95% CI, 1.024, 1.153) for NO for NHMS 2006. The adjusted annual average levels of PM [1.187 (95% CI, 1.088, 1.294)], O [1.701 (95% CI, 1.387, 2.086)], NO [1.120 (95% CI, 1.026, 1.222)] and NO [1.110 (95% CI, 1.028, 1.199)] increased significantly from NHMS 2006 to NHMS 2011 for overall diabetes. This was followed by a significant decreasing trend from NHMS 2011 to 2015 [0.911 for NO, and 0.910 for NO].

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that long-term exposure to O is an important associated factor of underdiagnosed DM risk in Malaysia. PM, NO and NO may have mixed effect estimates towards the risk of DM, and their roles should be further investigated with other interaction models. Policy and intervention measures should be taken to reduce air pollution in Malaysia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00579-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119016PMC
April 2020

Cigarette Smoking Among Secondary School-Going Male Adolescents in Malaysia: Findings From the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 19;31(8_suppl):80S-87S. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Smoking is a learned behavior during adolescence, and it is found predominantly among male adolescents in Malaysia. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictive factors of current cigarette smoking among school-going male adolescents in Malaysia. Data were derived from the National Health and Morbidity Survey: Adolescent Health Survey 2017, a cross-sectional study that utilized a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling to select a nationally representative sample of school-going adolescents in Malaysia (n = 27 497). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with current cigarette smoking among male adolescents in Malaysia. Male adolescents aged 16 to 17 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.70), current illicit drug users (AOR = 8.14; 95% CI = 6.37-10.41), current alcohol users (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI = 1.65-2.23), those from rural schools (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.46-1.76), those whose parents were widowed/divorced/separated (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.21-1.55), and those whose parents/guardians were tobacco product users (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.33-5.16) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. Tobacco control strategies should be aimed at both adolescents at risk and at promoting parental smoking cessation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519874948DOI Listing
November 2019

Factors Associated With E-Cigarette Usage and the Reasons for Initiation Among Malaysian Adolescents.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 14;31(7_suppl):44S-52S. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are handheld devices that deliver an aerosol by heating a solution made up of propylene glycol and/or glycerol with or without flavoring agents and nicotine. This nationwide cross-sectional survey examined factors associated with e-cigarette usage and reasons for its initiation among 13 162 Malaysian adolescents. Data from TECMA (Tobacco and E-Cigarette Survey among Malaysian Adolescents) were used. Nine percent of adolescents had used e-cigarettes in the past month. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.36-4.95), 16 to 19 year olds (aOR = 2.64; 95% CI = 2.13-3.26), Malays (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.79-2.83), Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputeras (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.61-3.15), and cigarette smokers (aOR = 13.16; 95% CI = 11.14-15.54) were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Three main reasons for e-cigarette initiation among adolescents were its taste and smell, experimentation, and popularity. Sale of e-cigarettes with or without nicotine to people aged younger than 18 years should be banned. Flavored e-cigarettes should also be banned since there is evidence suggesting increased appeal among the younger generation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519870663DOI Listing
October 2019

Risk Factors for Illicit Drug Use Among Malaysian Male Adolescents.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 26;31(8_suppl):48S-56S. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and its associated factors among male adolescents in Malaysia. Data of 13 135 adolescents were extracted from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017, a cross-sectional survey among school-going adolescents in Malaysia aged between 13 and 17 years, using a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. A complex sample design analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. The overall prevalence of lifetime illicit drug use among male adolescents was 6.6%. The multivariable model showed that illicit drug use among male adolescents were associated with younger age, rural school area, marital status of parent, current smoker, ever having sex, truancy, involved in physical fight, and lack of peer support. The findings from this study can assist community and relevant authorities in their efforts to combat illicit drug usage among adolescents using intervention programs that diminishes risk factors and enhances the protective factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519865053DOI Listing
November 2019

Cessation of E-Cigarette Use Among Adolescents and Its Associated Factors.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 12;31(7_suppl):53S-60S. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

We assessed the prevalence of cessation of e-cigarette and its associated factors among adolescents in Malaysia. This study analyzed data from the Tobacco and E-Cigarette Survey among Malaysian Adolescent (TECMA) in 2016, a cross-sectional study with 2-stage stratification cluster sampling. A total of 14 832 school-going adolescents aged 10 to 19 years participated in this survey. A complex sampling design and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. Nearly half of the adolescents (49.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 44.9-55.0) who had ever used e-cigarette ceased the usage. Based on multivariate analysis, adolescents were more likely to quit e-cigarette because they could not afford the e-cigarette (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.78-3.20), if they are aged 13 year and older (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.25-2.61), and those who claimed their e-cigarette does not contain nicotine (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.03-1.78). E-cigarette prevention efforts among adolescents could consider the cessation factors described in this study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519854873DOI Listing
October 2019

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of hypertension in the Malaysian population: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006-2015.

J Hum Hypertens 2018 09 13;32(8-9):617-624. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Institute for Public Health, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Hypertension is strongly associated with chronic diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The objective of this study is to determine the trend of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Malaysian population since 2006 to 2015. The study used the data from National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2006, 2011, and 2015. It was a cross-sectional with two-stage stratified random sampling throughout Malaysia for eligible respondents 18 years old and above. Respondents were interviewed face to face and blood pressure was recorded as the average reading from two electronic pressure monitoring measurements. Data was analyzed using the Complex sample module in SPSS Version 20. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia was 34.6% (95% CI: 33.9, 35.3) in 2006, 33.6% (95% CI: 32.6, 34.6) in 2011 and 35.3% (95% CI: 34.5, 36.3) in 2015. Awareness of hypertension in 2006, 2011, and 2015 was 35.6% (95% CI: 34.6, 36.6), 40.7% (95% CI: 39.3, 42.1), and 37.5% (95% CI: 36.1, 38.9) respectively. The trend of receiving treatment from 2006 to 2015 was 78.9% (95% CI: 77.5, 80.2) to 83.2% (95% CI: 81.3, 84.8). The control of hypertension increased significantly from 27.5% (95% CI: 25.9, 29.2) in 2006 to 37.4% (95% CI: 35.3, 39.5) in 2015. Despite higher proportions receiving treatment over time, the control of hypertension remained below 40% since NHMS 2006 until 2015. The strategies to further reduce the prevalence and increase awareness of hypertension should be enhanced particularly among the targeted age group to ensure early detection, treatment, and control thus preventing from long-term complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0082-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150908PMC
September 2018

Alcohol consumption and risky drinking patterns in Malaysia: findings from NHMS 2011.

Alcohol Alcohol 2014 Sep-Oct;49(5):593-9. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, JalanBangsar, 50590 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Aims: To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia.

Methods: We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics.

Results: The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking.

Conclusion: There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agu042DOI Listing
May 2015

Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2014 Mar;45(2):467-80

Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2014