Publications by authors named "Hamideh Moosapour"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

General approaches to ethical reasoning in Islamic biomedical ethics discourse.

J Med Ethics Hist Med 2018 9;11:11. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran .

Islamic and non-religious ethics discourses have similarities and differences at the levels of meta-, normative, and applied ethics (e.g. biomedical ethics). Mainstream biomedical ethics (MBME) uses the language of contemporary, non-religious, Western ethics. Significant effort has been dedicated to comparing Islamic biomedical ethics (IBME) and MBME in terms of meta- and normative ethical positions, and final decisions on practical ethical issues have been reached. However, less attention has been given to comparing the general approaches of the two aforementioned discourses to ethical reasoning. Furthermore, IBME uses different languages to approach ethical reasoning, but identification and conceptualization of these approaches are among the important gaps in the literature. The aim of this study was to conceptualize general approaches to ethical reasoning in IBME. Through review and content analysis of the existing literature and the comparison between the languages employed by IBME and MBME, an inductive distinction have been made. The languages used in conceptualized approaches include the followings: () a language in common with the one employed by MBME; () MBME language adjusted to the basic, common beliefs of Muslims; () a language based on ; and () a language based on IBME principles. In the authors' opinion, major challenges of the above-mentioned four approaches include, respectively: identifying the lack of religious sensitivity or Islamic considerations regarding an issue; acknowledging specific beliefs as the basic, common beliefs of Muslims; diverse and relations between juridical soundness and ethical soundness; and agreement on the same principles and rules as well as who should apply them.
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September 2018

Integration of Cognitive Skills as a Cross-Cutting Theme Into the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Jan;55(1):68-73

Education Development Center (EDC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The first step toward integrating cognitive skills into the curriculum was to assemble a taskforce of different faculty and students, including a wide variety of fields with multidisciplinary expertise using nonprobability sampling and the snowball method. Several meetings with the contribution of experts and some medical students were held to generate the draft of expected outcomes. Subsequently, the taskforce also determined what content would fit best into each phase of the program and what teaching and assessment methods would be more appropriate for each outcome. After a pilot curriculum with a small group of second-year medical students, we implemented this program for all first-year students since 2011 at TUMS. Based on findings, the teaching of four areas, including scientific and critical thinking skills (Basic sciences), problem-solving and reasoning (Pathophysiology), evidence-based medicine (Clerkship), and clinical decision-making (Internship) were considered in the form of a longitudinal theme. The results of this study could be utilized as a useful pattern for integration of psycho-social subjects into the medical curriculum.
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January 2017

Conceptualization of category-oriented likelihood ratio: a useful tool for clinical diagnostic reasoning.

BMC Med Educ 2011 Nov 17;11:94. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Evidence-Based Medicine & Critical Thinking Working Team, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran.

Background: In the diagnostic reasoning process medical students and novice physicians need to be made aware of the diagnostic values of the clinical findings (including history, signs, and symptoms) to make an appropriate diagnostic decision. Diagnostic reasoning has been understood in light of two paradigms on clinical reasoning: problem solving and decision making. They advocate the reasoning strategies used by expert physicians and the statistical models of reasoning, respectively. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies decision theory to the clinical diagnosis, which can be a challenging topic in medical education.This theoretical article tries to compare evidence-based diagnosis with expert-based strategies in clinical diagnosis and also defines a novel concept of category-oriented likelihood ratio (LR) to propose a new model combining both aforementioned methods.

Discussion: Evidence-based medicine advocates the use of quantitative evidence to estimate the probability of diseases more accurately and objectively; however, the published evidence for a given diagnosis cannot practically be utilized in primary care, especially if the patient is complaining of a nonspecific problem such as abdominal pain that could have a long list of differential diagnoses. In this case, expert physicians examine the key clinical findings that could differentiate between broader categories of diseases such as organic and non-organic disease categories to shorten the list of differential diagnoses. To approach nonspecific problems, not only do the experts revise the probability estimate of specific diseases, but also they revise the probability estimate of the categories of diseases by using the available clinical findings.

Summary: To make this approach analytical and objective, we need to know how much more likely it is for a key clinical finding to be present in patients with one of the diseases of a specific category versus those with a disease not included in that category. In this paper, we call this value category-oriented LR.
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November 2011

Evidence-based history taking under "time constraint".

J Res Med Sci 2011 Apr;16(4):559-64

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Physicians all through the world visit patients under time limitations. The most important troubled clinical skill under "time constraint" is the diagnostic approach. In this situation, clinicians need some diagnostic approaches to reduce both diagnostic time and errors. It seems that highly experienced physicians utilize some special tactics in this regard. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) as a relatively new paradigm for clinical practice stresses on using research evidences in diagnostic evaluations. The authors aimed to evaluate experts' strategies and assess what EBM can add to these tactics. They reviewed diagnostic strategies of some veteran internists in their busy outpatient clinics and proposed an evidence-based diagnostic model engaging clinical experience and research evidence. It appears that every clinician utilizes a set of "key pointer" questions for decision-making. In addition to use of evidence-based resources for making differential diagnosis and estimating utility of various diseases, clinicians should use "key pointers" with significant likelihood ratios and from independent systems to reduce time and errors of history taking. Clinical trainees can improve their practice by constructing their own set of pointers from valid research evidences. Using this diagnostic model, EBM can help physicians to struggle against their "time constraint".
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April 2011