Publications by authors named "Hamid Najafipour"

107 Publications

Association of C-peptide and lipoprotein(a) as two predictors with cardiometabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes in KERCADR population-based study.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(5):e0268927. Epub 2022 May 24.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

We sought association between serum Lipoprotein(a) and C-Peptide levels as two predictors with cardiometabolic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This nested case-control study was conducted on 253 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and control from the second phase of the KERCADR cohort study. The participants were randomly allocated into case and control groups. The quantitative levels of Lipoprotein(a) and C-Peptide were measured by ELISA. Atherogenic indices of plasma were measured. The plasma Atherogenic Index of Plasma significantly decreased (P = 0.002) in case-male participants, and plasma Castelli Risk Index II level significantly increased (P = 0.008) in control-male participants with the highest dichotomy of Lipoprotein(a). The plasma Atherogenic Index of Plasma level in case-female participants significantly increased (P = 0.023) with the highest dichotomy of C-Peptide. Serum C-Peptide level significantly increased (P = 0.010 and P = 0.002, respectively) in control-male participants with the highest dichotomies of Atherogenic Index of Plasma and Castelli Risk Index I. There was a significant association between the highest quartile of C-Peptide and higher anthropometric values in case participants; and higher atherogenic indices of plasma and anthropometric values in control participants. Raised serum C-peptide than raised Lipoprotein(a) can be a prior predictor for cardiometabolic disease risk in healthy participants and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with increased cardiometabolic biomarkers. Case and control males with general and visceral obesity and case and control females with visceral obesity are exposure to increased C-peptide, respectively. Lipoprotein(a) may be risk independent biomarker for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Reducing raised Lipoprotein(a) levels to less than 30ng/ml with strict control of low density lipoprotein cholesterol would be the best approach to prevent coronary artery disease consequences. It is suggested that a screening system be set up to measure the Lp(a) levels in the community for seemingly healthy people or individuals with one or more cardiometabolic biomarkers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0268927PLOS
May 2022

Promotion of aging heart function and its redox balance following hind-limb blood flow restriction plus endurance exercise training in rats: klotho and PGC1-α as involving candidate molecules.

Pflugers Arch 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Mild to moderate-intensity endurance exercise training combined with hind-limb blood flow restriction (BFR) induces elderly heart rejuvenation and improves cardiac inotropy and resistance to ischemia. However, the mediators of these beneficial effects are still not well known. The present study investigated the possible role of some important molecules in the mediatory of this model of exercise training in the promotion of heart health in aged rats. Male old Wistar rats randomly were divided into control-sham (CTL), hind limbs blood flow restriction (BFR), sham-operated plus 10 weeks' treadmill exercise training (Ex), and BFR plus exercise (BFR + Ex) groups. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), contractility, and Tau indices were measured. ELISA and western blot tests were used for measuring determined cardiac biochemical factors. BFR + Ex displayed significantly lower LVEDP (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs. Ex, and other groups, respectively), improved heart cardiac contractility (P < 0.01), and significantly reduced Tau index in comparison with other groups. BFR + Ex significantly reduced both BAX and BAX to BCL2 ratio (P < 0.05) and as well MDA to TAC ratio (P < 0.05, compared to the CTL group). Also, BFR + Ex significantly increased the level of klotho (P < 0.05) and PGC1-α (P < 0.001) proteins compared to the CTL group but had no significant effect on P-STAT3 expression. Exercise training alone increased Apelin protein (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that mild to moderate BFR endurance training improves heart performance in the aging rat partly through ameliorating apoptosis, recovering redox balance, improving the longevity factor klotho, and increasing the key energy metabolism regulator PGC1-α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-022-02702-xDOI Listing
May 2022

Associations between serum vitamin D, atherogenic indices of plasma and cardiometabolic biomarkers among patients with diabetes in the KERCADR study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 May 12;22(1):126. Epub 2022 May 12.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: We sought the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels and atherogenic indices of plasma as novel predictive biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: The present study was a nested case-control study conducted on 252 participants with T2DM and controls from the second phase of the KERCADR cohort study. The participants with a mean (±SD) age of 49.79 ± 5.85 years were randomly selected and allocated into case and control groups. Independent t-test, Hierarchical Linear Regression, Univariate ANOVA, and partial correlation were used for analysis the data. Atherogenic indices of plasma include Castelli Risk Index I (CRI I), Castelli Risk Index II (CRI II), and the novel Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), and Atherogenic Coefficient (AC).

Results: There was a significant difference among case and control groups for AIP in males and females (P < 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). The levels of AIP, CRI I, and AC significantly decreased (P = 0.017, P = 0.029, and P = 0.029, respectively) with improved serum vitamin D status only in control male participants. The main effect of BMI and vitamin D status on AIP, CRI I, and AC, and the main effect of BMI on CRI I, CRI II, and AC were significant in control males and females, respectively.

Conclusion: We conclude that there is a reverse significant association between AIP and serum vitamin D among healthy males. Low serum level of vitamin D is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Therefore, improving vitamin D status as an important indicator may alleviate AIP as a surrogate marker for predicting the risk of CVD events in healthy men and women with normal BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01043-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9103410PMC
May 2022

Exercise Training Attenuates Cardiac Vulnerability and Promotes Cardiac Resistance to Isoproterenol-Induced Injury Following Hookah Smoke Inhalation in Male Rats: Role of Klotho and Sirtuins.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2022 Jun 22;22(6):501-514. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Pathology and Stem Cell Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Hookah smoking is on the rise around the world. Present study investigated the heart resistance to harmful stress following long-term waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) and moderate-intensity exercise training intervention in male Wistar rats. Animals were randomly divided into a non-ischemic heart control group and four ischemic heart groups including ISO (isoproterenol-treated), Ex + ISO (subjected to exercise plus ISO), S + ISO (exposed to hookah smoke plus ISO), and Ex + S + ISO (subjected to exercise along with hookah smoke plus ISO). After eight weeks of training and WTS, heart ischemia induced by isoproterenol injections. Then, cardiac functional indices and some biochemical and histopathological parameters were assessed. WTS + ISO reduced systolic pressure, ± dP/dt max, and contractility indices (P < 0.001 vs. ISO group) and increased end diastolic pressure and Tau index (P < 0.001 vs. ISO) of the left ventricle. Also, WTS + ISO was associated with an increase in Bax protein level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (P < 0.05 and P < 001, respectively, vs. ISO group) as apoptotic markers of heart tissue. Hookah smoke significantly decreased SIRT1 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively, vs. ISO) and klotho (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively, vs. ISO) in serum and heart, and SIRT3 and pS9-GSK-3β (P < 001 and P < 0.05, respectively, vs. ISO) in heart tissue. Combination of exercise with WTS prevented the hookah smoke-induced alterations in apoptotic markers, cardiac functional indices, and SIRT1, SIRT3, klotho, and pS9-GSK-3β proteins. The findings demonstrated that hookah smoke inhalation intensifies ventricular dysfunction and decreases heart resistance to harmful stresses. Moderate-intensity exercise training attenuated these complications partly through recovering the klotho and sirtuins levels and apoptosis-survival balancing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-022-09733-xDOI Listing
June 2022

Daidzein Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in the Injured Kidney of Ovariectomized Rats: AT1 and Mas Receptor Functions.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2022 Jan;1(1):32-43

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, and Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a health problem in postmenopausal women, and renal fibrosis is a common feature of CKD. In the renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. This study investigated the effect of the phytoestrogen daidzein on oxidative stress and inflammation and the mediation of the angiotensin AT1 and Mas receptors in a fibrotic model of kidney disease of ovariectomized (OVX) rats.

Methods: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was performed to induce chronic renal inflammation and fibrosis in 84 OVX rats, which were divided into four main groups (each = 21) including sham + Vehicle (Veh.), UUO + Veh, UUO + estradiol (E2), and UUO + daidzein. Each main group composed of three subgroups (n = 7), which received saline, losartan (AT1R antagonist), or A779 (Mas receptor [MasR] antagonist) for 15 days after UUO or sham operation. Renal pathology, serum and kidney oxidants and antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), protein carbonyl (PC), and pro-inflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines were examined.

Results: UUO increased renal glomerulosclerosis, inflammation, serum and kidney tissue MDA, NOx, and PC together with an increase in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression. Moreover, UUO decreased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and IL-10 level in the serum and kidney tissue. AT1R blockade reduced and MasR blockade worsened renal impairment. Daidzein and E2 alone and in co-treatment with losartan significantly ameliorated these effects.

Conclusion: Via interaction with AT1R and MasRs, daidzein improved glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in UUO-OVX rats. Daidzein may be a candidate for estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal or older women against postmenopausal kidney damage.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6602.
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January 2022

Perillyl alcohol and quercetin modulate the expression of non-coding RNAs MIAT, H19, miR-29a, and miR-33a in pulmonary artery hypertension in rats.

Noncoding RNA Res 2022 Mar 28;7(1):27-33. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Non-coding RNAs, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), play critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). LncRNA H19, myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT), miR-29a, and miR-33a have been suggested as potential targets for treating arterial hypertension. We explored the expression pattern of non-coding RNAs H19, MIAT, miR-29a, and miR-33a in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats. Moreover, we investigated whether perillyl alcohol (PA) and quercetin (QS), two plant derivatives with beneficial effects on PAH-induced abnormalities, act through regulating the expression of these non-coding RNAs.

Methods: Male Wistar rats ( = 30) were divided into five groups. MCT (60 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to induce PAH. PA (50 mg/kg daily) and QS (30 mg/kg daily) were administered three weeks after induction of PAH. H&E staining and qRT-PCR were performed to assess arteriole wall thickness and gene expression, respectively.

Results: Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) increased in MCT and MCT + Veh. groups compared to the control group (in both  < 0.001). QS and PA decreased RVSP and RVH significantly. Wall thickness and fibrosis score in the MCT group (score 3) increased compared to the control group (score 0). PA and QS ameliorated wall thickness and fibrosis to score 1 (mild). Also, the expression of miR-29a and miR-33a decreased in the PAH group (in both,  < 0.001). Treatment with PA and QS decreased the expression of H19 ( < 0.001) and MIAT ( < 0.01) and increased the expression of miR-29a ( < 0.01) and miR-33a significantly ( < 0.05 for QS and  < 0.001 for PA).

Conclusions: The beneficial effects of PA and QS on PAH-induced abnormalities were exerted through returning the dysregulated expression of H19, MIAT, miR-29a, and miR-33a to normal levels in rats with MTC-induced PAH. This study emphasized the therapeutic potential of PA and QS in PAH. However, more detailed investigations are needed to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncrna.2022.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8818487PMC
March 2022

Oral Health Determinants among Opium Users in Kerman, Iran.

Addict Health 2021 Jul;13(3):156-164

Endodontology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Promoting oral health is a complicated issue among drug abusers and opium is the most frequent drug abused in Iran. This study aims to find the oral health determinants of opium users in Kerman, Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was a part of the second phase of Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (KERCADRS, 2014-2018). In this survey, the data of 1140 opium users were analyzed. The information about using a toothbrush, dental floss, number of dental visits at last year, age of first use of opium, duration, and opium consumption frequency was recorded. The total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was recorded by an oral examination. Poisson and logistic regressions analyses were used for assessing the relationship among variables.

Findings: The mean age of participants was 52 ± 12 years. 74.4% were men and 24.6% were women. The average DMFT index was 15.7 ± 7.6 and the prevalence of a healthy CPI score was 18.5%. Educational level (P < 0.001), brushing (P < 0.001), flossing (P < 0.001), dental visit (P < 0.001), first age of using opium (P < 0.001), frequency of consumption (P < 0.001), and age (P < 0.001) were associated with DMFT index. Only using floss (P < 0.001), dental visit [odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, P = 0.030], frequency of consumption (OR = 2.92, P < 0.001), and age (P = 0.001) were associated with CPI score.

Conclusion: The frequency of opium consumption has the same effect on caries incidence as oral hygiene habits. Moreover, using dental floss has a more significant effect on the periodontal health of participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ahj.v13i3.307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8730451PMC
July 2021

Substitution of calorie restriction for protective effects of estrogen on cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress in obese postmenopausal rat model.

Life Sci 2022 Apr 29;294:120367. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Afzalipour Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Estrogen has an anti-obesity effect and plays an important role in improving cardiometabolic disorders. Weight loss and reduction in calorie intake impede the development of obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, we investigated the substitution of calorie restriction for effects of estrogen on cardiometabolic risk factors and oxidative stress in obese postmenopausal rat model. In this study, adult female Wistar rats were allocated into Sham and ovariectomized (OVX) groups and were given standard diet (SD) or 60% high-fat diet (HFD) or 30% calorie restriction (CR) for 16 weeks, following this, animals received E2 (17-β estradiol; 1 mg/kg; i.p.) every four days for 4 weeks. Results showed that HFD elevated the body weight, BMI, food intake, and blood glucose (BG) level in both sham and OVX groups. In addition, HFD had negative effects on lipid profile and oxidative stress in these groups. Whereas CR decreased these indices in both Sham and OVX groups fed an HFD, it could not diminish the BG level in the OVX-HFD group. E2 treatment in OVX animals with or without CR reduced body weight, BMI, food intake, and BG level, and also had positive effects on lipid profile alterations and oxidative stress reduction. In comparison, no significant differences were observed regarding the effects of E2 with CR between two groups for body weight, lipid profile, BG, and oxidative stress in the OVX-HFD rats. Overall, CR prevents and ameliorates cardiometabolic risk factors induced by obesity in postmenopausal conditions and is also a good candidate for E2 substitution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2022.120367DOI Listing
April 2022

Effect of Combined Endurance Training and MitoQ on Cardiac Function and Serum Level of Antioxidants, NO, miR-126, and miR-27a in Hypertensive Individuals.

Biomed Res Int 2022 13;2022:8720661. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Despite advances in treatment and control of HTN, the prevalence of HTN is still increasing. MitoQ is a supplement that acts on mitochondria and attenuates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays an important role in cardiovascular health. miRNAs play an important role in the pathophysiology of HTN. We evaluated the effects of MitoQ supplementation and endurance training (ET), alone and in combination, on functional indices of the heart and serum levels of miR-126, miR-27a, antioxidants, and NO, in patients with HTN.

Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 52 male participants (age 40-55 years) were randomly divided into four groups ( = 13) of placebo, MitoQ (20 mg/day, oral), ET (cycle ergometer, moderate intensity, 40-60% VO peak, heart rate 120-140 b/min, 45 min a day, three days/week for six weeks), and MitoQ+ET. Cardiac function indices were assessed by echocardiography before and after interventions.

Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased in all intervention groups ( < 0.001) while DBP ( < 0.01) and LV hypertrophy ( < 0.05) were significantly decreased only in the MitoQ+ET group. Serum levels of SOD, GPx, and NO and the level of miR-126 significantly increased in all treatment groups, while miR-27a reduced in the ET ( < 0.05) and MitoQ+ET ( < 0.01) groups.

Conclusions: Compared to MitoQ and ET alone, their combination has more prominent improving effects on cardiac health and amelioration of BP in the patients with HTN. These effects are through miR-126 and miR-27a modulation and ameliorating mitochondrial ROS production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8720661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8776465PMC
April 2022

Prevalence and 5-year incidence rate of dyslipidemia and its association with other coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: Results of the Kerman coronary artery disease risk factors study (Phase 2).

J Res Med Sci 2021 18;26:99. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Dyslipidemia (DL) is an important risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated DL prevalence and its 5-year incidence rate in southeastern Iran, to assess the severity and growth rate of this CAD risk factor in the region.

Materials And Methods: This study was a part of the Kerman CAD Risk Factors Study Phase 2 (2014-2018) among 9996 individuals aged 15-80 years, from whom 2820 individuals had also participated in Phase 1 (2009-2011). In mg/dl, cholesterol ≥240 and/or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 for men and <50 for women and/or triglyceride >200 were defined as DL.

Results: The lipid profile of 9911 persons was analyzed. Overall 19.6% had borderline cholesterol and 6.4% suffered from hypercholesterolemia. 56.6% of the population (62.5% of females vs. 48.5% of males) suffer from DL, from whom 73.4% were undiagnosed. Female gender, advanced age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anxiety, and depression predicted DL in the study population. The prevalence of DL was significantly lower in Phase 2 (56.6%) compared to Phase 1 (81.4%). The prevalence of undiagnosed DL (UDL) and diagnosed DL (DDL) was 40.7% and 16.2%, respectively. The 5-year incidence rate of DL was 2.58 persons/100 person-years (3.24 in females vs. 2.20 in males).

Conclusion: Although there were promising signs of a reduction in DL and increase in DDL in the last 5 years, a high percentage of the population have DL yet, from whom mostly are undiagnosed. DL was significantly associated with other CAD risk factors. Therefore, the health-care management system should improve its strategies to reduce the health burden of DL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_748_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607185PMC
October 2021

PEGylated Graphene Quantum Dot Improved Cardiac Function in Rats with Myocardial Infarction: Morphological, Oxidative Stress, and Toxicological Evidences.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 20;2021:8569225. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: The biocompatibility and potential application of graphene-based nanomaterials in biomedicine have been documented. The effects of polyethylene glycol-graphene quantum dots (GQDs-PEG) on cardiac function in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) were examined.

Methods: Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two main groups, each consisting of sham-Veh., MI-Veh., and MI+GQDs-PEG at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. MI was induced by the closure of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. After MI, GQDs-PEG were injected at different doses IP every other day for two weeks. In the end, hemodynamic and heart contractility indices were assessed. The levels of myocardial MDA (malondialdehyde), SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPX (glutathione peroxidase), and TAC (total antioxidant capacity) were measured by the ELISA method. The serum ALP, ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea levels were measured using the photometric method. The infarct size was assessed by TTC staining.

Results: GQDs-PEG decreased the infarct size at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg and recovered the MI-induced reductions of +dp/dt max and -dp/dt max in the study groups. GQDs-PEG normalized systolic blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure reduction at the dose of 20 mg/kg in the MI group. Heart SOD, GPX, and TAC increased in the GQDs-PEG 10 and 20 groups. Almost no signs of toxic effects due to GQDs-PEG administration were observed on the liver and kidneys.

Conclusions: The results provided clear evidence that GQDs-PEG improve cardiac performance and hemodynamic parameters in rats with MI by reducing oxidative stress. GQDs-PEG is proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8569225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8627339PMC
February 2022

Dietary status with demographic and anthropometric variables and some health affecting risk factors in people of Southeastern Iran: A population-based study (KERCADRS).

Caspian J Intern Med 2021 ;12(4):551-561

Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Institute for Future Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Dietary pattern is influenced by lifestyle, genetic, cultural, and socioeconomic factors. We investigated the status of prudent (PDP) and imprudent (IDP) dietary patterns and their relationship with demographic and anthropometric variables and health conditions in an urban population of Southeastern Iran.

Methods: The study was conducted on 9997 people aged 15-80 years randomly selected using one-stage cluster sampling. Demographic and anthropometric measurements were recorded through face-to-face interview, and their nutritional status was assessed by the food frequency questionnaire. PDP and IDP were identified based on scoring to the type and daily/weekly frequency of foods consumed and their production methods.

Results: Fifty nine percent of the participants were females. PDP participants reported daily intake of whole grains (99.5%), fruits (66.5%), and unsaturated oil (88.6%). Daily intake of sweets and high fat dairy products were 55.7% and 46%, respectively. Women (64.8% vs 35.2 %) and people with diabetes (p<0.001), hypertension (p<0.01), and higher BMI (p<0.02) had healthier dietary status. People with lower education, cigarette smokers and opium users had a higher rate of IDP (all p<0.001). The dietary pattern improved with aging (AOR of IDP decreased from 1 in 15-24 years to 0.20 for 65-75 years) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Younger people, men and those with lower education had unhealthier dietary pattern. It seems that dietary behavior is more related to the individuals' tendencies and taste preferences. Modification of nutritional behaviors of the population and leading young people, men, and those with lower education to improve their dietary pattern is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.12.4.551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8590400PMC
January 2021

Prevalence and Incidence Rate of Diabetes, Pre-diabetes, Uncontrolled Diabetes, and Their Predictors in the Adult Population in Southeastern Iran: Findings From KERCADR Study.

Front Public Health 2021 1;9:611652. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Diabetes mellitus is among the most serious health challenges worldwide. We assessed the prevalence of pre-diabetes (pre-DM) and diabetes (DM), the effectiveness of diabetes management, the 5-year incidence rate, and associated variables in the adult population in southeastern Iran. In a random cluster household survey (2014-2018), 9,959 adult individuals aged 15-80 years were assessed for coronary artery disease risk factors, including diabetes mellitus in Kerman (KERCADRS, phase 2). Among these people, 2,820 persons had also participated in phase 1 of the study 5 years earlier (2009-2011). Univariable and multivariable survey logistic regression models were used to identify the potential predictors of diabetes and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-DM was 12% (males 13.2% vs. females 11.1%), steadily increasing from 7.1% in the 15-24 years group to 18.4% in the 55-64 years group. The prevalence of DM was 10.2% (male and female, 7.9 and 10.8%, respectively), of which 1.9% were undiagnosed. DM was diagnosed in 10.6% of educated and 15.1% of illiterate people. The prevalence of diagnosed DM was lower in smokers (5.2 vs. 8.7%) and dependent opium users (5.4 vs. 8.8%). The prevalence of uncontrolled DM (HbA1c > 7%) was 48.8%, increasing with age. The frequency of uncontrolled DM among people without and with treatment was 32 and 55.9%, respectively. Illiterate people had worse uncontrolled DM (55.6 vs. 39.6%). The 5-year incidence rate (persons/100 person-years) was 1.5 for pre-DM and 1.2 for DM, respectively. The lowest and the highest incidence rate of DM belonged to the 15-34 years old group (0.5) and dependent opium users (2.4). The incidence rate was found to have a direct relationship with BMI and a reverse relationship with physical activity. Pre-DM and DM affected 22.2% of the population. One-third of patients with diabetes had undiagnosed DM, and in 55.9% of people with diagnosed DM, treatment had been ineffective. Appropriate health interventions are needed to reduce the prevalence and health consequences of diabetes in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.611652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8591105PMC
November 2021

Beneficial effects of PEGylated graphene quantum dot on arrhythmias induced by myocardial infarction.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Arrhythmias are one of the leading causes of early death following myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure. Graphene derivatives have emerged as an therapeutic target that have electrical conductivity. The study aimed to evaluate the impacts of polyethylene glycol-graphene quantum dots (GQDs-PEG) on arrhythmias created by MI in the rat. Animals were randomly assigned to five groups of sham, MI, and MI + GQDs-PEG at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. MI was induced by the closure of the left anterior descending artery. The day after MI, animals were administered vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) or GQDs-PEG at different doses every other day for 2 weeks. On day 15, electrocardiogram (ECG), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart contractility indices were recorded by the PowerLab data acquisition system. GQDs-PEG 20 mg/kg increased contractility and improved the reduction of MAP in the MI group. The prolonged QT and QTc intervals, inverted T wave, and deviated ST segment were modified by GQDs-PEG 10 and 20 mg/kg in rats with MI. The amplitude of the Q wave was also decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the GQDs-PEG-treated rats. The results demonstrated that 2 weeks of treatment with GQDs-PEG normalized ECG abnormalities and improved left ventricular dysfunction in rats with MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.2280DOI Listing
November 2021

SIRT1 and Klotho expression in the heart and kidneys of rats with acute and chronic renovascular hypertension.

Croat Med J 2021 Oct;62(5):504-512

Hamid Najafipour, Professor of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Boulevard Jahad, Ebne Sina Avenue, Kerman, Iran,

Aim: To evaluate Klotho and SIRT1 expression in the heart and kidneys of rats with acute and chronic renovascular hypertension.

Methods: Four and sixteen weeks after the induction of renovascular hypertension by clipping the left renal artery, systemic blood pressure, serum angiotensin II level, and the expression of Klotho and SIRT1 proteins and oxidative stress indices in the heart and kidneys were assessed.

Results: SIRT1 level was significantly reduced in the ischemic (left) kidney in acute and chronic phases of hypertension. In the heart, it decreased in the acute phase, but increased in the chronic phase. Klotho levels in the heart and kidneys did not change significantly in either hypertension phase. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the heart significantly decreased, and SOD, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the ischemic kidney significantly increased during the development of hypertension. Serum angiotensin II level significantly increased in the acute phase of hypertension.

Conclusion: Development of renovascular hypertension was associated with a reduction of SIRT1 expression in the heart and ischemic kidney. As angiotensin II and SIRT1 counteract each other's expression, a SIRT1 reduction in the heart and kidney, along with the influence of systemic/local angiotensin II, seems to be partly responsible for hypertension development. A combination of SIRT1 agonists and angiotensin II antagonists may be considered for use in the treatment of renovascular hypertension.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596473PMC
October 2021

Investigating the relationship between serum uric acid to high-density lipoprotein ratio and metabolic syndrome.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2022 01 27;5(1):e00311. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Aims: This study aimed to determine a parameter to more easily diagnose metabolic syndrome and predict its probability of occurrence in high-risk individuals.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data related to the study population in the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factor Study (KERCADRS) were examined. Subjects were divided into two groups with and without metabolic syndrome, and the relevant factors such as the ratios of uric acid to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (UHR) in these two groups were compared, and the best cut-off point was determined.

Results: Data related to 817 people including 96 people with metabolic syndrome and 721 people without metabolic syndrome were analysed. The mean UHR was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome (14.76 ± 6.33%) compared with those without metabolic syndrome (10.0 ± 3.10%) (p < .001). People with high UHR are 2.9 times more at risk of metabolic syndrome and the best cut-off point was 9.50% with 86% sensitivity and 55% specificity.

Conclusions: According to our study, UHR is also helpful in diagnosing metabolic syndrome and can also be used to screen people at risk for metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/edm2.311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8754234PMC
January 2022

Klotho and SIRT1 changes from pre-diabetes to diabetes and pre-hypertension to hypertension.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 Oct 20;13(1):115. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Hypertension and diabetes are among the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Klotho and SIRT1 are known as anti-aging factors with beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. In this study we investigated the serum Klotho and SIRT1 levels in pre-diabetic and pre-hypertensive individuals and then in diabetic and hypertensive patients to see their relationship with these diseases.

Method: 229 individuals divided into six groups with similar gender and age distribution 1-Control (normal BP and FBS) 2-pre-diabetic (FBS between 100 and 125 mg/dl) 3-diabetic (FBS ≥ 126 mg/dl), 4-pre-hypertensive (SBP 120-139 or DBP 80-89 mm Hg) 5-hypertensive (SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg), and 6-patients with combined hypertension/diabetes. Serum levels of Klotho and SIRT1 were measured by ELISA method.

Results: Serum Klotho and STRT1 levels decreased in pre-diabetes and returned to normal in diabetic patients. Their concentration increased in pre-hypertension and recovered to normal in hypertension. In the physiologic range of FBS there is a negative correlation between Klotho and SIRT1 with FBS. When pathologic ranges of FBS added to analysis, the negative correlation abolished/U shaped. Also an inverse U shape correlation observed between Klotho and SIRT1 with MAP in the range of normal to hypertensive BP levels. There was an overall positive relationship between the serum levels of Klotho and SIRT1 themselves.

Conclusion: The serum levels of the anti-aging proteins Klotho and SIRT1 increases or reduces at the onset of the disease, as a compensatory mechanism, but as the disease progresses their level recovers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-021-00736-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527754PMC
October 2021

Epidemiological update on prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity in adults in the south-east of the Islamic Republic of Iran: findings from the Kerman Coronary Artery Diseases Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS).

East Mediterr Health J 2021 Sep 21;27(9):874-883. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: Obesity is common worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

Aims: To update data on the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity, and to measure incidence rates for such outcomes in adults living in the south-east of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Methods: We enrolled 9997 adults (aged 15-80 years) between 2014 and 2018 (phase 2); 2820 of whom had participated in phase 1 (2009-2011). Participants were examined for overweight, obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, low physical activity, and dyslipidaemia. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the potential predictors of overweight, obesity and central obesity, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained. Incidence rate of overweight, obesity and central obesity was reported among those who had none of these outcomes in phase 1.

Results: The prevalence was 35.8% (37% men, 35% women) for overweight, 22.3% (16% men, 26.3% women) for obesity, and 31.1% (15.6% men, 41.2% women) for central obesity. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly associated with age (AOR = 2.8-7.4), higher education (AOR = 1.7), female gender (AOR = 1.4), low physical activity (AOR = 1.3), smoking (AOR = 0.55) and opium use (AOR = 0.79). The prevalence increased from 33.3% to 35.8% for overweight and from 15.4% to 22.3% for obesity between phases 1 and 2. The incidence rate per 100 person-years was 5.5 for overweight, 4.7 for obesity and 2.9 for central obesity.

Conclusion: Prevalence of overweight and obesity increased over 5 years. Middle-aged participants, women, and those with low physical activity were at higher risk for overweight/obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.21.035DOI Listing
September 2021

Involvement of Sirtuins and Klotho in Cardioprotective Effects of Exercise Training Against Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking-Induced Heart Dysfunction.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:680005. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Pathology and Stem Cell Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Despite its negative effect on the cardiovascular system, waterpipe smoking (WPS) is currently popular worldwide, especially among youth. This study investigated the effects of moderate endurance exercise on heart function of rats exposed to WPS and its possible mechanism. The animals were randomly divided into four groups: control group (CTL), the exercise group (Ex) which trained for 8 weeks, the waterpipe tobacco smoking group (S) exposed to smoke inhalation (30 min per day, 5 days each week, for 8 weeks), and the group that did exercise training and received waterpipe tobacco smoke inhalation together (Ex + S). One day after the last session of Ex and WPS, cardiac pressures and functional indices were recorded and calculated. The levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, Klotho, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the serum and heart, the expression of phosphorylated GSK3β of heart tissue, and cardiac histopathological changes were assessed. WPS reduced systolic pressure, +dP/dt max, -dP/dt max, and heart contractility indices ( < 0.001 vs. CTL) and increased cardiac tissue lesions ( < 0.05 vs. CTL) and end diastolic pressure and Tau index ( < 0.001 vs. CTL) of the left ventricle. Exercise training normalized the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, +dP/dt max, and contractility index. Also, exercise improved the levels of SIRT1, SIRT3, Klotho, and Bcl-2 and reduced Bax level in the heart. The findings showed that WPS causes left ventricular dysfunction. Moderate exercise prevented WPS-induced heart dysfunction partly through its anti-apoptotic features and activation of the sirtuins and Klotho pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.680005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329540PMC
July 2021

Trends in the prevalence and incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Iran: findings from KERCADRS.

Fam Med Community Health 2021 07;9(3)

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: Anxiety and depression (A&D) are common mental disorders with high economical and health burdens. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the incidence rate of A&D symptoms and their relationship with sociodemographic and other risk factors and comorbidities in adults living in southeastern Iran.

Design: A population-based cohort study with random cluster household survey sampling method.

Setting: Second round of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study (KERCADRS) (2014-2018) performed in Southeastern, Iran.

Participants: We recruited 9997 participants (15-80 years) in the second round of the study, from whom 2820 persons were the people who also participated in the first round of KERCADRS in 2009-2012. The age-standardised A&D prevalence was measured among all participants, and the 5-year A&D incidence rate was measured in those who were free from A&D in the first round in 2009-2012 and were at risk of A&D in the follow-up. The relationship between A&D and demographic characteristics, smoking, opium use, obesity and physical activity was assessed by logistic regression models.

Results: Overall, the prevalence of anxiety (48.1% to 16.4%, p<0.001) and depression (5.9% to 1.3%, p<0.001) decreased between the two rounds. The highest prevalence of anxiety was among widowed (31.4%), unemployed (21.3%), obese (19.4%), and opium users (17.4%). Young adults, women, those divorced or widowed, and those with obesity and low physical activity had a higher chance of developing anxiety. The 5-year incidence rate (person/1000 person-years) was 15.0 for anxiety and 3.9 for depression.

Conclusion: Despite the overall decrease in the prevalence of A&D symptoms in last 5 years in the area, young adults, women, unemployed, opium users, people with low physical activity and those with obesity had a higher chance of developing anxiety and are in need of more targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/fmch-2021-000937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256739PMC
July 2021

Quercetin, Perillyl Alcohol, and Berberine Ameliorate Right Ventricular Disorders in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Effects on miR-204, miR-27a, Fibrotic, Apoptotic, and Inflammatory Factors.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 06;77(6):777-786

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease causing right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, failure, and death. Some miRNAs are involved in the pathophysiology of PAH. As the current treatments cannot prevent the progression of the disease, we investigated whether 3 plant derivatives, namely perillyl alcohol (PA), quercetin (QS), and berberine (BBR), can improve RV function and affect the expression of miR-204, miR-27a, and biochemical factors in monocrotaline-induced PAH (MCT-PAH). Thirty-six rats were divided into control (CTL), MCT, MCT+Veh (vehicle), MCT+PA, MCT+QS, and MCT + BBR groups (n = 6 each). After inducing PAH using MCT (60 mg/kg), PA (50 mg/kg), QS (30 mg/kg), and BBR (30 mg/kg) were administrated daily for 3 weeks. miR-204 expression, total antioxidant capacity, and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 significantly declined in the RV of PAH rats, and PA, QS, and BBR treatment significantly compensated for these decreases. Proapoptotic protein Bax and p21 cell cycle inhibitor increased in the RV. All 3 herbal derivatives compensated for Bax increase, and BBR caused a decrease in p21. TNFα, IL-6, and malondialdehyde increased in the RV, and PA, QS, and BBR significantly counterbalanced these increases. miR-27a expression was not affected by MCT and plant derivatives. Overall, PA, QS, and BBR improved ventricular disorders in rats with PAH by decreasing inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis and increasing the antioxidant-to-oxidant ratio. Therefore, these herbal derivatives may be considered as target therapeutic goals for this disease either alone or in combination with current medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000001015DOI Listing
June 2021

The effect of demographic characteristics on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth in Iran: a cross-sectional, case-control study.

Epidemiol Health 2021 28;43:e2021017. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: The effect of age, sex, and other demographic factors on the relationship between smoking and dry mouth remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics on the relationship between dry mouth, also known as xerostomia, and smoking.

Methods: This case-control study included 5,640 randomly-selected subjects from the second phase of the Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors Study, which observed 10,000 participants from 2014 to 2018. A checklist was used to record the participants' demographic characteristics and smoking frequency. Each participant completed a six-item Fox questionnaire to measure dry mouth as a dependent variable. The interaction terms of daily cigarette smoking with sex, age, educational level, and marital status were entered into the model. Non-significant terms were removed using hierarchical model selection.

Results: Of the sample, 3,429 (60.8%) did not have dry mouth and were analyzed as controls, whereas 2,211 (39.2%) had xerostomia and were deemed to be cases. Smokers were more likely to have dry mouth in all ages and both sexes (p < 0.001). As male became older, the chance of having dry mouth increased more rapidly than among female smokers (p < 0.001). In addition, female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth than male smokers (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The likelihood of dry mouth among daily smokers depended on age and sex. Female smokers were more likely to have dry mouth, and its likelihood increased with age in daily smokers of both sexes, though more rapidly in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062766PMC
May 2021

Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence among Iranian women.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 02 7;40(2):642-652. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Urinary incontinence is a common condition among women. Although it is not a life-threatening condition, it dramatically influences the quality of life. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its risk factors among Iranian women in Kerman, Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on 3100 Iranian women aged 15-80 years in 2017 in Kerman, Iran. The participants were selected via cluster sampling and were invited to complete the questionnaires. Their demographic information and medical history were assessed, the urinary incontinence questionnaire was completed, and the associated risk factors were also recorded. Quantitative variables are reported as mean ± SD, while qualitative and ranked variables are expressed in percentage. All analyses were conducted in Stata version 12 (Stata Corp.).

Results: The mean age of the participants was 46 years, and the overall prevalence of urinary incontinence was estimated to be 63%. The highest and lowest prevalence rates of urinary incontinence were reported in the elderly and the youth, respectively (79% and 41%, respectively). Age, increase of body mass index (BMI), pregnancy, diabetes, anxiety, and depression were the associated risk factors.

Conclusion: We found that the prevalence of urinary incontinence is high in Iran. Therefore, to control this condition and improve women's quality of life, effective plans are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24597DOI Listing
February 2021

Perillyl alcohol suppresses monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats via anti-remodeling, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2021 Apr 15;43(3):270-280. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman, Iran.

: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disastrous disease that current treatments cannot prevent its progression. The present study investigated the effects of perillyl alcohol (PA), a natural monoterpene, on the experimental PAH in male Wistar rats. : Rats divided into eight groups of control, Monocrotaline (MCT), MCT+vehicle, and MCT+PA with doses of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg. PAH was induced by a single injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) on day 0. The animals in the groups of MCT+vehicle and MCT+PA received the vehicle or PA from day 22 to 42 once a day. On day 43, under general anesthesia, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), as an index of pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and the ratio of the right ventricle to the left ventricle plus septum weight, as the right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI), were measured. Also, some histological and biochemical indices were assessed in the lung tissue. : MCT significantly ( < .001) enhanced the RVSP and RVHI compared to the control group (89.4 ± 8.2 vs 23 ± 3.3 mmHg & 0.63 ± 0.08 vs 0.26 ± 0.04 respectively). It also increased oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines and reduced Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Treatment with PA significantly recovered RVSP and hypertrophy index and suppressed vascular cell proliferation, oxidant production, and inflammatory processes. : PA exerted noticeable protective and curative effects against MCT-induced PAH and pulmonary vascular remodeling through inhibiting cellular proliferation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Therefore, PA can be considered as a new therapeutic goal for the treatment of PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2020.1860080DOI Listing
April 2021

Improvement of Cardiac Function in Rats With Myocardial Infarction by Low-Intensity to Moderate-Intensity Endurance Exercise Is Associated With Normalization of Klotho and SIRT1.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 01;77(1):79-86

Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Afzalipour Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Abstract: Exercise training (Ex) has beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases by increasing Klotho and SIRT1. This study aimed to investigate whether the beneficial impact of Ex on myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated through Klotho and SIRT1. Fifty-six Wistar rats were divided into 4 main groups of Sham, MI, Ex, and MI + Ex. MI was induced by the closure of the left anterior descending. Animals were trained by endurance exercise for 4 weeks. In the end, hemodynamic and heart contractility indices were assessed. The levels of Klotho and SIRT1 in the serum and heart were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot, respectively. The ADAM17 level in the heart and kidneys was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The infarct size and fibrosis area were assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Masson trichrome staining, respectively. Ex recovered the reduction of dp/dt max and dp/dt min and decreased myocardial infarct size and fibrotic area in the MI group. Ex normalized the increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, and left ventricular end diastolic pressure in the MI group. Ex also normalized the reduction of the levels of Klotho and SIRT1 in serum and heart in the MI group. The changes of Klotho and SIRT1 in serum were positively correlated. Ex also restored ADAM17 levels in the MI group. Ex improved cardiac function in the MI group and is associated with reduction of the infarct size and normalization of Klotho and SIRT1 levels. Regarding unidirectional changes in Klotho and SIRT1, these proteins may play a role in beneficial effects of Ex on MI recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000000935DOI Listing
January 2021

Prevalence and incidence of pre-hypertension and hypertension (awareness/control) in Iran: findings from Kerman coronary artery diseases risk factors study 2 (KERCADRS).

J Hum Hypertens 2022 May 14;36(5):461-472. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of pre-HTN, diagnosed and undiagnosed HTN, as well as its control and associated factors in adult population in southeast Iran. In a randomized household survey, 9987 participants aged 15-80 years were recruited into the study. HTN was confirmed through examination or using antihypertensive drug(s). Pre-HTN and HTN were defined as 120-139/80-89 and ≥140/90 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. The prevalence of pre-HTN was 28.5%. The prevalence of HTN was 19.2% (13.9% diagnosed and 5.3% undiagnosed). HTN increased with age (from 4% in 15-24 to 67.8% in 75-80 years). Men had higher pre-HTN (35.6% vs. 23.4%) and undiagnosed HTN (7.5% vs. 3.8%) than women. Of those diagnosed, 46.5% had uncontrolled BP, in which, women had better conditions than men (45.6% vs. 47.4%). Obesity, positive family history of HTN, anxiety, and low physical activity were the most significant predictors of HTN. The prevalence of pre-HTN decreased but there was no change in the prevalence of HTN during the last 5 years. The 5-year incidence rate/100 person-years of pre-HTN and HTN was 6.6 and 3.7, respectively. Although there are some promising signs of reducing pre-HTN and slowing HTN rise, currently, almost one-fifth of the adult population suffers from HTN. Given the poor BP control in patients with diagnosed HTN, especially in men, alarms that more effective interventions and strategies are needed to reduce deleterious consequences of HTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-020-00392-5DOI Listing
May 2022

A review on plants and herbal components with antiarrhythmic activities and their interaction with current cardiac drugs.

J Tradit Complement Med 2020 May 6;10(3):275-287. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Afzalipour Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

This paper aimed to compile information on plants or their compounds which have experimentally shown antiarrhythmic effect and to scrutinize the efficacy and potency of them and their potential interaction with conventional cardiac drugs. Literature searches were accomplished by using numerous electronic databases, and the available knowledge on different parts of herbs and their ingredients with antiarrhythmic effects up to 2019 were identified and collected. The results indicate that 36 herbs or their derivatives can be effective in the treatment of arrhythmias, especially in animal and cellular models. They affect various ionic channels in different action potential phases. The alterations in ionic currents lead to changing in the amplitude and duration of the action potential, effective refractory period, maximum velocity, resting membrane potential, channel trafficking, or intracellular calcium concentration. The agents that prolong action potential duration and effective refractory period such as dauricine and sophocarpine seem to be more beneficial if more comprehensive studies confirm their efficacy and safety. It is noteworthy that the consumption of some herbal agents for cardiovascular (e.g. Hawthorn and Ginseng) or other (e.g. Ginseng and Licorice) therapeutic purposes may boost the pro-arrhythmogenic effect of current cardiovascular drugs such as cardiac glycosides. This study accentuates known plants or their derivatives with anti-arrhythmic effects, potential interaction with other cardiac drugs, and the possible mechanisms involved. It can assist clinicians and scientists in research and therapeutic approaches to the management of cardiac arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340875PMC
May 2020

Perillyle alcohol and Quercetin ameliorate monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery hypertension in rats through PARP1-mediated miR-204 down-regulation and its downstream pathway.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jul 13;20(1):218. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Researcher, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a vascular disease in the lung characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Many miRNAs play a role in the pathophysiology of PAH. Perillyle alcohol (PA) and Quercetin (QS) are plant derivatives with antioxidant and anti-proliferative properties. We investigated the effect of PA and QS on PAP, expression of PARP1, miR-204, and their targets, HIF1α and NFATc2, in experimental PAH.

Methods: Thirty rats were divided into control, MCT, MCT + Veh, MCT + PA and MCT + QS groups. MCT (60 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to induce PAH. PA (50 mg/kg daily) and QS (30 mg/kg daily) were administered for 3 weeks after inducing PAH. PAP, lung pathology, expression of miRNA and mRNA, and target proteins were evaluated through right ventricle cannulation, H&E staining, real-time qPCR, and western blotting, respectively.

Results: Inflammation and lung arteriole thickness in the MCT group increased compared to control group. PA and QS ameliorated inflammation and reduced arteriole thickness significantly. miR-204 expression decreased in PAH rats (p < 0.001). PA (p < 0.001) and QS (p < 0.01) significantly increased miR-204 expression. Expression of PARP1, HIF1α, NFATc2, and α-SMA mRNA increased significantly in MCT + veh rats (all p < 0.001), and these were reduced after treatment with PA and QS (both p < 0.01). PA and QS also decreased the expression of PARP1, HIF1α, and NFATc2 proteins that had increased in MCT + Veh group.

Conclusion: PA and QS improved PAH possibly by affecting the expression of PARP1 and miR-204 and their downstream targets, HIF1a and NFATc2. PA and QS may be therapeutic goals in the treatment of PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03015-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359282PMC
July 2020

Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Effects of Myrtenol in the Rats with Allergic Asthma.

Iran J Pharm Res 2019 ;18(3):1488-1498

Physiology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Myrtenol, the active ingredient of Myrtle on the oxidant and anti-oxidant indices and cytokines in the allergic asthma. Allergic asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and inhalation in four groups of rats; Control, Asthma, Asthma + Dexamethasone and Asthma + Myrtenol. Myrtenol (50mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (2.5mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days after OVA inhalation. At the end, histopathological parameters, and interleukins (Interleukin-10 (IL10), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) , interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α)), and oxidative stress biomarkers, Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the lung and serum were measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining and ELISA method, respectively. Myrtenol reduced the pathological changes in the lungs and airway endothelium ( < 0.01), ( < 0.5). The level of IL-1β ( < 0.05) and MDA in the serum and lung tissue ( < 0.01), ( < 0.05), and also the level of TNF-α ( < 0.05) in the lung tissue decreased in the Myrtenol group compared to the asthma group. Myrtenol increased the level of IL-10 ( < 0.05) and the activity of GPX in the lung tissue and serum ( < 0.001). Myrtenol may improve asthma by increasing the ratio of antioxidants to oxidants and reducing the ratio of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory interleukins in the lung. Myrtenol is presented as a potent herbal medicine ingredient for the treatment of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2019.1100749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934952PMC
January 2019

Effects of Baneh () Gum on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7) and Its Interaction with Anticancer Drug Doxorubicin.

Iran J Pharm Res 2019 ;18(4):1959-1966

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

is one of the species of that grows in the wild in different regions of Iran. Traditionally, family has antibacterial, fungicidal, and cytotoxic properties. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties of Baneh gum. Cytotoxicity of the plant gum was determined using MTT assay on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The cellular makers of apoptosis (caspase3 and P53) and cell proliferation (Cyclin-D1) were evaluated by western blotting. Doxorubicin was used as anticancer control drug in combination treatment. The result showed that Baneh gum (100 µg/mL) significantly induced cell damage, activated caspase3, and increased P53 protein level. In addition, Cyclin-D1 was significantly decreased in gum-incubated cells. Furthermore, combination treatment of cells with Baneh gum (25 µg/mL) and doxorubicin (200 nM) produced a significant cytotoxic effect as compared to each drug alone. In conclusion, Baneh gum (100 µg/mL) has a potential pro-apoptotic/anti-proliferative property against human breast cancer cells and its combination with doxorubicin in low doses may induce cell death effectively and be a potent modality to treat this type of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2019.1100853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059076PMC
January 2019
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