Publications by authors named "Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei"

179 Publications

Toxoplasma gondii profilin and tachyzoites RH strain may manipulate autophagy via downregulating Atg5 and Atg12 and upregulating Atg7.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Autophagy process is an important defense mechanism against intracellular infection. This process plays a critical role in limiting the development of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to investigate the effects of T. gondii profilin and tachyzoites on the expression of autophagy genes.

Methods And Results: PMA-activated THP-1 cell line was incubated with T. gondii profilin and tachyzoites for 6 h. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the expression of Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, and LC3b was evaluated using real-time PCR. The results revealed statistically significant downregulation of Atg5 for 1.43 (P-value = 0.0062) and 4.15 (P-value = 0.0178) folds after treatment with T. gondii profilin and tachyzoites, respectively. Similar to Atg 5, Atg 12 revealed a statistically significant downregulation for profilin (1.41 fold; P-value = 0.0047) and T. gondii tachyzoites (3.25 fold; P-value = 0.011). The expression of Atg7 elevated in both T. gondii profilin (2.083 fold; P-value = 0.0087) and tachyzoites (1.64 fold; P-value = 0.206). T. gondii profilin and tachyzoites downregulated (1.04 fold; P-value = 0.0028) and upregulated (twofold; P-value = 0.091) the expression of LC3b, respectively.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that T. gondii and profilin may manipulate autophagy via preventing from the formation of Atg5-12-16L complex to facilitate replication of T. gondii and development of toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06667-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Can hypoxia-inducible factor-1α overexpression discriminate human colorectal cancers with different microsatellite instability?

Genes Genet Syst 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

Clinicopathological features of high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H) colorectal cancers (CRCs) are different from low-frequency MSI (MSI-L) and microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs. The clinical features of MSI-L cases are unknown, and although the tumors usually show instability for dinucleotide markers, evaluation based on dinucleotides alone could lead to the misclassification of MSI-L or MSS as MSI-H. In this research, we investigated the usefulness of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression to discriminate MSI-L from MSS and MSI-H in human CRC. Tumor tissue from 94 CRC patients was used to determine the expression level of HIF-1α mRNA and HIF-1α protein using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses, respectively. The results indicated that HIF-1α mRNA and HIF-1α protein levels were upregulated in CRC patients compared with controls (P < 0.0001). Average HIF-1α expression in tissues with advanced stages and grades was also higher than that in earlier stages and grades. Expression of HIF-1α mRNA varied between CRC patients with different types of microsatellite instability (MSS, MSI-L and MSI-H). Taken together, our findings provide preliminary evidence that HIF-1α expression level in CRC tumors correlates with different MSI categories. HIF-1α expression may therefore represent a novel marker to separate the MSI-L group from the MSS and MSI-H groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1266/ggs.21-00026DOI Listing
August 2021

Blastocystis and Clostridioides difficile: Evidence for a Synergistic Role in Colonization Among IBD Patients with Emphasis on Ulcerative Colitis.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;32(6):500-507

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Regarding the controversial role of Blastocystis in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients, it seems that this protozoan may lead to an overgrowth of some non-beneficial bacteria. The current study aimed to investigate the co-existence of Blastocystis and Clostridioides difficile in IBD patients.

Methods: Stool samples of 102 IBD patients were collected and cultivated for C. difficile and Blastocystis. DNA extraction was performed on positive samples and C. difficile and Blastocystis were toxinotyped and subtyped, respectively. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were employed to calculate the correlation between the existence of Blastocystis and its subtypes (ST) with C. difficile and its type of toxins. Also, the co-existence of Blastocystis and C. difficile with the frequency of defecations was evaluated.

Results: Blastocystis and C. difficile were observed in 17 (16.7%) and 26 (25.5%) of stool samples, respectively. From 26 C. difficilepositive isolates, 24 (92.3%) and 2 (7.7%) were tcdA+/B+ and tcdA+/B-, respectively. Also, 10 (58.8%) and 7 (41.2%) were Blastocystis ST1 and ST3, respectively. Statistically significant correlations between co-existence of Blastocystis and C. difficile and co-existence of these microorganisms and frequency of defecation (P < .035) were seen. There was no statistically significant correlation between subtypes of Blastocystis and colonization of C. difficile or its toxinotypes.

Conclusion: The co-existence of Blastocystis and C. difficile in IBD patients was observed in the current study. Moreover, it can be proposed that these microorganisms may have synergistic effects on their colonization in the gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tjg.2021.19644DOI Listing
June 2021

Fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in patients with concurrent ulcerative colitis.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

3Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) has emerged as an important management dilemma particularly in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used as a safe and highly effective treatment option for rCDI refractory to standard antibiotic therapies. The aim of this study was to report the efficacy of FMT in Iranian rCDI patients with concurrent IBD. A total of seven consecutive patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had experienced 3 episodes of rCDI were enrolled in this study. All patients received at least a single FMT administered during colonoscopy by direct infusion of minimally processed donor stool. Patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months for assessment of treatment efficacy and adverse events (AEs) attributable to FMT. All 7 UC patients (100%) experienced a durable clinical response to a single FMT following 2 months after the procedure. One patient received a second FMT in which a successful resolution of rCDI was ultimately achieved. No serious AEs from FMT were noted. FMT through colonoscopy was a safe, simple and effective alternative treatment approach for rCDI in patients with underlying IBD. However, its use and efficacy should be pursued in long-term prospective controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/030.2021.01498DOI Listing
August 2021

Microbiological survey and occurrence of bacterial foodborne pathogens in raw and ready-to-eat green leafy vegetables marketed in Tehran, Iran.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Aug 5;237:113824. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Fresh leafy (FL) and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables are recognized as an important source of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide. Currently, there are no data available for the prevalnce of bacterial foodborne pathogens (FBPs) in raw vegetables consumed in Iran. Here, we evalated the presence of common bacterial FBPs among 366 samples of raw vegetables including 274 FL and 92 RTE collected from 21 districts of Tehran. The presence of FBPs were screened using conventional microbiological culture methods and real-time PCR assays. Overall, a higher rate of bacterial contamination was detected in FL compared to RTE samples using both detection methods. The results obtained by microbiological methods showed that Staphylococcus aureus (134/366, 36.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (85/366, 23.2%) and Clostridium perfringens (66/366, 18%) were detetcted as the most prevalent pathogens in this study. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in any of the samples either by microbiological methods or by the real-time PCR assays. There was a noticeable reduction in the proportion of Campylobacter positive samples using conventional microbiological methods (3.5%) compared to the real-time PCR assay (20.7%). The proportion of FL and RTE positive samples obtained by conventional microbiological methods was significantly different (P < 0.05) for C. perfringens, Campylobacter spp. and S. aureus. The proportion of positive samples in FL and RTE vegetables obtained by the real-time PCR assays was significantly different (P < 0.05) for C. perfringens, S. aureus, Helicobacter pylori and STEC/EHEC, the last one was found more frequently in RTE than in FL samples. Our findings indicated a contamination of FL and RTE vegetables in Iran with a range of well-known and emerging FBPs. Positivity and the distribution of bacterial species from the current data indicated different contamination sources, and overall a lack of effective decontamination steps during the production chain. Moreover, further information about the quality of the water, the hygiene measures implemented during the processing, storage and marketing are required to better identify the critical points and define the proper measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113824DOI Listing
August 2021

Probiotic-Induced Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells: A Novel Therapy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 31;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19839-63113, Iran.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are immune-mediated, chronic relapsing diseases with a rising prevalence worldwide in both adult and pediatric populations. Treatment options for immune-mediated diseases, including IBDs, are traditional steroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, none of which are capable of inducing long-lasting remission in all patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in inducing tolerance and regulating T cells and their tolerogenic functions. Hence, modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity by DCs could provide a novel, additional tool for the treatment of IBD. Recent evidence indicates that probiotic bacteria might impact immunomodulation both in vitro and in vivo by regulating DCs' maturation and producing tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) which, in turn, might dampen inflammation. In this review, we will discuss this evidence and the mechanisms of action of probiotics and their metabolites in inducing tolDCs in IBDs and some conditions associated with them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348973PMC
July 2021

Identification of plasma lncRNA-ATB levels in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients.

Virus Res 2021 Oct 28;303:198503. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi str., Yaman Ave., Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.

Long non-coding RNA-ATB (LncRNA-ATB) which is activated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), is a key regulator of TGF-β signaling pathway. TGF-β plays an important role in various pathogenic processes, from inflammation and fibrosis to cirrhosis and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and investigated the clinical values. Plasma samples were collected from 44 HBV-related cirrhosis patients, 45 non-cirrhotic CHB and 75 healthy controls. Briefly, after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect plasma lncRNA-ATB levels. Results show the plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB in HBV-related cirrhosis patients were significantly higher in comparison to healthy controls (Fold change=2.60, p value=0.04). Also, we determined plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB as a specific biomarker of HBV-related cirrhosis (AUC=0.65, p value=0.03, Sensitivity 61.36%; Specificity 70.00%). In addition to, we investigated the plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB in non-cirrhotic CHB patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (Fold change= 0.33, p value=0.01). We also indicated plasma lncRNA-ATB levels were as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of non-cirrhotic CHB patients compared with healthy (AUC=0.66, p value=0.00, Sensitivity 71.11%; Specificity 57.78%). According to our results, circulating lncRNA-ATB has good specificity for diagnosing hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and good sensitivity for diagnosis of non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198503DOI Listing
October 2021

An Investigation on the Results of Cytopathologic Tests of Pancreatobiliary System Performed in the Pathology Department in Iran.

Iran J Pathol 2021 5;16(3):256-265. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Toronto, Department of Biology, Toronto, Canada.

Background & Objective: Pancreatobiliary system disorders commonly include inflammatory diseases and tumors. Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is challenging and is mostly achieved when the disease has extensively progressed, and metastasis has occurred. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate cytopathology in the diagnosis of Pancreatobiliary malignancies, which can improve diagnostic adequacy and accuracy.

Methods: A total of 116 cytopathologic results of the Pancreatobiliary system, performed in the Pathology Department of Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2017-2018 were selected and examined in this observational study. The frequency of different results was determined and compared with other variables.

Results: The most common location of the lesions was the pancreas (47%). The lesions were categorized as malignant, benign, negative, suspicious for malignancy (SFM), and atypical in 28%, 10%, 24%, 14%, and 9% of the cases, respectively. In other cases, lesions were considered non-diagnostic. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) was conducted in 25% of patients. Compatibility of the initial and final diagnoses was 100%, 50%, and 60% in cases with "malignant", "benign", and "negative" diagnoses, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of cytopathology in the diagnosis of Pancreatobiliary lesions were 75.8%, 92.3%, 95.9%, and 61.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated that half of the lesions of the Pancreatobiliary system were positive, SFM, and atypical. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) were effective modalities in diagnosing Pancreatobiliary malignancies. The most important point in our experience is the increase in diagnostic sensitivity in the presence of ROSE. Therefore, the simultaneous use of ROSE and EUS-FNA can reduce the need for re-sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.2021.131467.2462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298047PMC
May 2021

Characterization of the gut microbiota in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis compared to inflammatory bowel disease and healthy controls.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jul 25;48(7):5519-5529. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease. Its etiology remains largely unknown, although frequent concomitant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) hints towards common factors underlying intestinal and bile duct inflammation. Herein, we aimed to explore the relative abundance of fecal microbiota in PSC-IBD patients compared to IBD-only subjects and controls.

Methods And Results: We included 14 PSC-IBD patients, 12 IBD-only patients, and 8 healthy controls (HCs). A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was used to determine a selection of bacterial phyla, families, and genera. Relative abundance of taxa showed that Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum among the patients with PSC-IBD (29.46%) and also HCs (39.34%), whereas the bacterial species belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were the most frequent group in IBD-only subjects (37.61%). The relative abundance of the Enterobacteriaceae family in fecal samples of PSC-IBD patients was similar to those with IBD-only, which was significantly higher than HCs (p value = 0.031), and thus, could be used as a PSC-IBD or IBD-only associated microbial signature.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that intestinal microbiota composition in PSC-IBD patients was completely different from that of IBD-only patients. Further studies using large-scale cohorts should be performed to better describe the contribution of the gut microbiota to PSC pathogenesis with underlying IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06567-8DOI Listing
July 2021

The potential of endoscopic ultrasound sonography (EUS)-elastography in determining the stage of pancreatic tumor.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(3):215-220

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The current study was designed to evaluate the role of semi-quantitative EUS- elastography (strain ratio) in staging malignant pancreatic lesions.

Background: Pancreatic cancer is considered one of the most lethal malignancies with a survival rate of only 5% worldwide. Pancreatic lesions include a wide range of diagnoses from benign to malignant forms. Biopsy and pathological study are the gold standard for the differentiation of malignant lesions and staging of tumors. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound sonography (EUS) elastography has been noticed as a non-invasive diagnosis modality. Nevertheless, no evidence of its potential to determine different stages of malignant tumors is available.

Methods: This prospective study included 81 adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of malignant pancreatic lesion in different clarified stages. All diagnoses were confirmed after endoscopic ultrasound sonography via pathological investigation of surgical specimens or needle biopsies. The results of EUS-elastography based on tumor size (T staging), involved lymph nodes (N staging), and metastasis (M staging) were compared with the gold standard.

Results: The mean age of patients was 60.11±13.57 years. The mean SR elastography value was 52.78±48.97. Elastography could not significantly discriminate T stage, N stage, or M stage of tumors (=0.57, =0.92, =0.11, respectively). Moreover, the Spearman rank correlation coefficients for the correlation between T staging, N staging, M staging and SR elastography were not significant (=0.40, =0.94, =0.39, respectively).

Conclusion: The non-invasive modality EUS-elastography cannot replace the gold standard in staging tumors; however, EUS-elastography seemed to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245834PMC
January 2021

Prognostic Factors Associated with Survival in Patients Infected with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study on 214 Patients from Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2021 04 1;24(4):333-338. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Decision-making on allocating scarce medical resources is crucial in the context of a strong health system reaction to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Therefore, understanding the risk factors related to a high mortality rate can enable the physicians for a better decision-making process.

Methods: Information was collected regarding clinical, demographic, and epidemiological features of the definite COVID-19 cases. Through Cox regression and statistical analysis, the risk factors related to mortality were determined. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival function and measure the mean length of living time in the patients.

Results: Among about 3000 patients admitted in the Taleghani hospital as outpatients with suspicious signs and symptoms of COVID-19 in 2 months, 214 people were confirmed positive for this virus using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Median time to death was 30 days. In this population, 24.29% of the patients died and 24.76% of them were admitted to the ICU (intensive care unit) during hospitalization. The results of Multivariate Cox regression Analysis showed that factors including age (HR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.001-1.062; value=0.04), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (HR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.000-1.015; value=0.04) could independently predict mortality. Furthermore, the results showed that age above 59 years directly increased mortality rate and decreased survival among our study population.

Conclusion: Predictor factors play an important role in decisions on public health policy-making. Our findings suggested that advanced age and CRP were independent mortality rate predictors in the admitted patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.47DOI Listing
April 2021

Soluble total antigen derived from Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites increased the expression levels of NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, and the release of mature form of IL1β, but downregulated the expression of IL1β and IL18 genes in THP-1cell line.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 27;158:105072. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular parasitic protozoan infecting homoeothermic animals and about a third of the world's population. Inflammasomes are intracellular multi-protein complex, which are activated by many factors. Inflammasomes are activated during toxoplasmosis; however, there are a lot of obscure aspects. THP-1 monocyte cells were converted to M0 macrophages by PMA and treated by 100 μg/mL soluble total Ag (STAg) derived from T. gondii strain RH for two time points 3 h and 24 h. After total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the expression pattern of NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, IL1β, and IL18 was evaluated by relative real-time PCR. In addition, the cytokine release of IL1β and TNFα was evaluated in the supernatant of each well. The results showed statistically significant time-dependent overexpression of inflammasomes. NLRP1 and NLRP3 showed the higher and lower expression, respectively, during 3 h and 24 h after exposure. Both IL1β and IL18 downregulated 3 h after exposure. IL18 presented statistically significant upregulation after 24 h, but IL1β showed statistically significant downregulation after 24 h. The release of IL1β increased after 3 h, but it slightly decreased during 24 h after exposure. The concentration of TNFα showed an insignificant decrease compared to control, while it increased during 24 h after exposure. Taken together, this study suggested that T. gondii STAg induces NLRP1 more than NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2. Our findings also proposed that T. gondii STAg downregulates the gene expression of IL1β, but increases the release of this cytokine. It seems that Toxoplasma STAg probably increase the release of IL1β via activating NLRPs and AIM2 to cleave pro-caspase 1 to caspase 1 that leads to conversion of pro IL1β to mature IL1β.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105072DOI Listing
September 2021

A report of nonexistence of the non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species in Iranian patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, relapsing-remitting gastrointestinal disorder which has become a serious global concern, and it imposes a great degree of health and economic burdens on communities worldwide. Although the presence of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) microorganisms has been reported in various gastrointestinal disorders, their putative role in the pathogenesis of IBD has been a matter of controversy. The present study aimed to investigate the existence of gastric and enterohepatic NHPHs and their probable coinfection with H. pylori in IBD. Totally, 168 clinical specimens including 70 colonic biopsies and 98 fecal specimens were obtained from IBD patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from all samples, and its quality and concentration were assessed by β-globin PCR and spectrophotometry. The Helicobacter genus-specific PCR was performed using 16S rRNA gene. All samples were also tested for H. pylori infection by PCR of ureC gene fragment (glmM). The presence of NHPH was examined by using species-specific PCR assays. Based on PCR results, H. pylori was detected in 12.9% and 3.1% of colonic biopsies and fecal specimens, respectively. However, no statistically significant correlation was observed (P value > 0.05). We failed to find NHPH in both colonic biopsies and fecal specimens from IBD patients. Despite the fact that none of the IBD patients harbored the NHPH in the current work, further cohorts with larger sample size are required to determine the possible relationship between NHPH infection and IBD pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-021-00883-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Novel cell-based therapies in inflammatory bowel diseases: the established concept, promising results.

Hum Cell 2021 Sep 31;34(5):1289-1300. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Regenerative Medicine, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic and relapsing disorders that affect the quality of life in many individuals around the world. Over the past few years, the prevalence of IBDs is substantially rising which might pose a considerable social and economic burden on health systems. Progresses in the management of chronic inflammatory diseases lead to prolonged remission phase and decreased hospitalization rate. However, during treatment, many patients become refractory to conventional therapies. Recently, advanced approaches using somatic cell therapy medicinal products (SCTMPs) including immune and stem cell-based therapies have drawn many researchers' attentions. Promising results from recent trials, alongside with the emerging market indicated that these therapeutic approaches could be an alternative and promising treatment to conventional therapies. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in cell-based therapies, which have been developed for treatment of IBDs. In addition, the global emerging market and the novel products in this field are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-021-00560-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165675PMC
September 2021

Effects of microwave technology on the subcutaneous abdominal fat and anthropometric indices of overweight adults: A clinical trial.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background And Objective: Non-invasive body contouring devices have fewer side effects and are the new techniques for the treatment of obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of microwave technology on the abdominal obesity and anthropometric indices of overweight adults.

Materials And Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 53 overweight adults aged 18-65 years who referred to Behbood Clinic in Tehran, Iran. The participants were exposed to microwave technology (radiofrequency: 2.5 GHz) based on a standard treatment protocol at three intervals (0, 20, and 40 days). Abdominal obesity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass, and fat thickness were measured at the beginning and 20, 40, and 60 days after the study. In addition, three-day dietary records were collected at intervals.

Results: In total, 77.6% of the subjects were female and 22.4% were male. The mean calorie intake of the participants was 2245.14 ± 1981.16 kcal/day. Microwave shock significantly reduced fat thickness in four abdominal areas (p < 0.001). Moreover, waist circumference (p < 0.001) and total fat thickness of the abdomen decreased (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusion: According to the results, microwave technology and radiofrequency could effectively reduce anthropometric indices. In general, the reduction of these indicators and weight may be more significant in men compared to women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14245DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of expression in gastric carcinoma and the significance of its clinicopathologic features in an Iranian patient.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(2):108-114

Research Center for Cancer Screening and Epidemiology, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of and the relationship between its expression with clinical characteristics in an Iranian gastric cancer patient.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and development of gastric cancer. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 () is a highly conserved lncRNA and plays key roles in various types of human cancer. However, our understanding of the role of lncRNAs in the occurrence and development of gastric cancer is not fully clear.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 41 gastric tumor tissue samples with matched normal adjacent tumor tissues. The RNA level of lncRNA gene was assessed using quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction. was used as an internal control. The 2 method was adopted to determine expression fold changes.

Results: A significant association was observed between the levels of in gastric tumor tissues compared with normal adjacent tissues (mean= 1.558, = 0.014). In addition, clinicopathologic data on RNA expression levels in gastric cancer tissues was evaluated. No significant association was observed between the relative expression of and the stage, grade, infection, and tumor size groups among gastric cancer patients (= 0.82, = 0.904, = 0.407, and = 0.701, respectively).

Conclusion: The current results showed that has a significant association in gastric cancer. The expression of may be used as a diagnostic biomarker for monitoring gastric cancer patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101524PMC
January 2021

The emerging epidemic of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia and Iran by 2035: A modeling study.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 6;21(1):204. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The projection studies are imperative to satisfy demands for health care systems and proper response to the public health problems such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods: To accomplish this, we established an illness-death model based on available data to project the future prevalence of IBD in Asia, Iran in particular, separately from 2017 to 2035. We applied two deterministic and stochastic approaches.

Results: In 2035, as compared to 2020, we expected a 2.5-fold rise in prevalence for Iran with 69 thousand cases, a 2.3-fold increment for North Africa and the Middle East with 220 thousand cases, quadrupling of the prevalence for India with 2.2 million cases, a 1.5-fold increase for East Asia region with 4.5 million cases, and a 1.6-fold elevation in prevalence for high-income Asia-Pacific and Southeast Asia regions with 183 and 199 thousand cases respectively.

Conclusions: Our results showed an emerging epidemic for the prevalence of IBD in Asia regions and/or countries. Hence, we suggest the need for immediate action to control this increasing trend in Asia and Iran. However, we were virtually unable to use information about age groups, gender, and other factors influencing the evolution of IBD in our model due to lack of access to reliable data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01745-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101120PMC
May 2021

The first detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the wastewater of Tehran, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 18;28(29):38629-38636. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi str., Yaman Ave., Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.

Following the official announcement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide pandemic spread by WHO on March 11, 2020, more than 300,000 COVID-19 cases reported in Iran resulting in approximately 17,000 deaths as of August 2, 2020. In the present survey, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw and treated wastewater samples in Tehran, Iran. Untreated and treated wastewater samples were gathered from four wastewater treatment plants over a month period from June to July 2020. Firstly, an adsorption-elution concentration method was tested using an avian coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus, IBV). Then, the method was effectively employed to survey the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genome in influent and effluent wastewater samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 8 out of 10 treated wastewater samples utilizing a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test to detect ORF1ab and N genes. Moreover, the rate of positivity in wastewater samples increased in last sample collection that shows circulation of SARS-CoV-2 was increased among the population. In addition, the high values detected in effluent wastewater from local wastewater treatment plants have several implications in health and ecology that should be further assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13393-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972808PMC
August 2021

Increased Expression of is Predictive of Lymph Node Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer: Results from a 20-Gene Expression Signature.

J Pers Med 2021 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Yaman Street, Chamran Expressway, P.O. Box 19857-17411, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed at building a prognostic signature based on a candidate gene panel whose expression may be associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), thus potentially able to predict colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and patient survival. The mRNA expression levels of 20 candidate genes were evaluated by RT-qPCR in cancer and normal mucosa formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of CRC patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the prognosis performance of our model by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) values corresponding to stage and metastasis. A total of 100 FFPE primary tumor tissues from stage I-IV CRC patients were collected and analyzed. Among the 20 candidate genes we studied, only the expression levels of significantly varied between patients with and without LNMs ( = 0.02). Additionally, the AUC value of the 20-gene panel was found to have the highest predictive performance (i.e., AUC = 79.84%) for LNMs compared with that of two subpanels including 5 and 10 genes. According to our results, gene expression levels are able to estimate LNMs in different stages of CRC. After a proper validation in a wider case series, the evaluation of gene expression and that of the 20-gene panel signature could help in the future in the prediction of CRC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm11020126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918343PMC
February 2021

The Primary Outcomes and Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Iran.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:199-210

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Aim: We aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Iranian patients with COVID-19.

Methods: In this single-center and retrospective study, patients with confirmed COVID-19 infections were enrolled. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with outcomes.

Results: Of 179 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, 12 remained hospitalized at the end of the study and 167 were included in the final analysis. Of these, 153 (91.6%) were discharged and 14 (8.38%) died in hospital. Approximately half (50.9%) of patients suffered from a comorbidity, with diabetes or coronary heart disease being the most common in 20 patients. The most common symptoms on admission were fever, dyspnea, and cough. The mean durations from first symptoms to hospital admission was 8.64 ± 4.14 days, whereas the mean hospitalization time to discharge or death was 5.19 ± 2.42 and 4.35 ± 2.70 days, respectively. There was a significantly higher age in non-survivor patients compared with survivor patients. Multivariate regression showed increasing odds ratio (OR) of in-hospital death associated with respiratory rates >20 breaths/min (OR: 5.14, 95% CI: 1.19-22.15, p = 0.028) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) >19 mg/dL (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 1.30-15.85, p = 0.017) on admission. In addition, higher respiratory rate was associated with continuous fever (OR: 4.08, 95% CI: 1.18-14.08, p = 0.026) and other clinical symptoms (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.05-11.87, p = 0.04).

Conclusion: The potential risk factors including high respiratory rate and BUN levels could help to identify COVID-19 patients with poor prognosis at an early stage in the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_17DOI Listing
March 2021

A new endoscopic submucosal resection -ligation technique for gastric tumors.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2020 ;13(Suppl1):S149-S153

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although most subepithelial lesions are benign, the malignant forms could present as serious life-threating cancers. Their accurate diagnosis depends on complete surgical resection. Different endoscopic methods have been recommended for the resection. Recently, the EMR has been considered as a safe and effective technique, while various revised EMR techniques have been introduced. In this study, a new version of EMR has been evaluated in two patients. Two middle-aged cases with gastric subepithelial tumors were admitted to Taleghani gastrointestinal department. The polyps were resected via our new Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR) technique. In this technique, the needle knife was used for un-roofing the mucosal surface. Then, the polyps were resected with hot snares. The hemoclips were applied for ligation too. We found no early or delayed complications. Furthermore, the microscopic margins of the lesions were free. Our study represented a safe and cost-beneficial technique for subepithelial lesions and no complications was found and the margins were free. However, further investigations are required for confirming the validity of this new EMR technique.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881396PMC
January 2020

An uncommon presentation of hepatic hydatid cyst leading to biliary cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2020 ;13(Suppl1):S145-S148

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hydatid disease is an ongoing issue in endemic areas. Hydatid cysts can be seen in any organ but, liver is one of the most common involved organs. Cystobiliary communication as an overwhelming complication of hepatic hydatid cysts can contribute to the obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, sepsis and even biliary cirrhosis if left untreated. The patient we are trying to present is a 61-year-old farmer who presented with obstructive jaundice, multiple common bile duct stones and biliary cirrhosis attributed to a long-lasting untreated hepatic hydatid cyst. Portal hypertension is introduced to be an uncommon presentation of hydatid cyst. Extrinsic compression of the porta hepatis and obstruction of inferior vena cava are amongst major causes of hydatidosis leading up to portal hypertension as reported in the literature. Portal hypertension in the presented case is proposed to emerge from long-lasting cystobiliary communication ending in biliary cirrhosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881412PMC
January 2020

An algorithmic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antithrombotic agents.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2020 ;13(Suppl1):S8-S17

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Gastrointestinal bleeding is an overwhelming complication of patients taking antithrombotic agents. These drugs pose a challenge to physicians in the management of bleeding to establish hemostasis without putting these patients at a higher risk for thromboembolism. This study aims to propose an algorithmic approach to four major groups of patients receiving antithrombotic agents (single antiplatelet agents, dual antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants and direct oral anticoagulants) to decide when and how these drugs should be held or restarted to offset between the risk of re-bleeding and thromboembolism. Four case-based algorithms are proposed in this article based on some relevant articles. Having designed four case-based algorithms, we are hoping to guide physicians who face a dilemma on the management of patients receiving antithrombotics when gastrointestinal bleeding occurs. Patients using antithrombotics referred for gastrointestinal bleeding were stratified into four groups based on the medication which is used as an antithrombotic agent and four algorithms were designed which are presented here. We have made an attempt to have a stepwise approach to four cases relevant to the study and have an evaluation on the management of their antithrombotic agents during an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is widely accepted that antithrombotic agents should be restarted as soon as possible after the establishment of hemostasis in a patient taking antithrombotics referring for gastrointestinal bleeding. The time for resuming these drugs is different based on the severity of bleeding, the probability of thromboembolic events, and the nature of the antithrombotic medication which is used by the patient.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881411PMC
January 2020

Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Celiac Disease.

Middle East J Dig Dis 2020 Oct;12(4):229-237

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Celiac disease (CeD) is a widespread autoimmune enteropathy caused by dietary gluten peptides in genetically susceptible individuals, which includes a range of intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Currently, there is no effective treatment for CeD other than strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). However, persistent or frequent symptoms and also partial villus atrophy were observed in some patients with CeD due to intentional or inadvertent gluten exposure during the use of GFD. It means that GFD alone is not enough to control CeD symptoms and long-term complications. Accordingly, new therapeutic approaches for CeD treatment such as gluten proteolysis, removing gluten from the digestive tract, promoting tight junction assembly, inhibiting intestinal tissue transglutaminase 2, using probiotics, and developing immunotherapeutic methods have been proposed through different strategies. This review focused on discussing the novel therapeutic strategies for CeD management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/mejdd.2020.187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859609PMC
October 2020

The characteristics of cancerous patients infected with COVID-19 in hospital setting.

Acta Biomed 2020 11 10;91(4):e2020145. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran..

Introduction: Recently, Covid 19 as a fatal virus has been known as the cause of the pandemic. Different number of the mortality rate in various societies have been reported. However, it seems the underlying comorbidities increase the risk of mortality and the severity of presentation. In this study we evaluated the pattern of presentation of COVID-19 among cancerous patients in terms of severity.

Method: between 20th February to 22nd April of 2020, among 214 hospitalized patients because of COVID-19. 41 patients revealed the cancer as a synchronous comorbidity. These patients based on the severity of COVID-19 infection presentation were divided to mild and severe groups. Then, the demographic characteristics, manifestation and laboratory data between these groups were compared.

Result: about 19 (46.34%) of 41 cases were categorized as severe forms of COVID-19 with malignancy. The mean age of severe groups was significantly higher (P=0.00). Dyspnea (48.78%), cough (46.34%) and myalgia (24.39%) were the most common clinical features among cancerous patients with COVID-19.  diarrhea and nearly cough caused significant effects on severe form of presentation of COVID-19 infection (P=0.05, P=0.06, respectively). Hematological cancers were the most frequent types of cancer among these patients (46.34%). White Blood Cell counts were significantly lower in severe groups (P=0.03, P=.0.06, respectively). C-reactive protein is another item that nearly significantly was higher in severe groups of cancerous patients (P=0.06).

Conclusion: The elderly age, the positive chemotherapy history, diarrhea, cough, declined WBC, PLT and elevated CRP correlated with a severe form of this infection in malignant cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i4.10175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927459PMC
November 2020

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the air of public places and transportation.

Atmos Pollut Res 2021 Mar 2;12(3):302-306. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in air of public places such as shopping centers, a post office, banks, governmental offices, and public transportation facilities including an airport, subways, and buses in Tehran, Iran. A total of 28 air samples were collected from the eight groups of public and transportation locations. The airborne particle samples were collected on PTFE or glass fiber filters using two types of samplers with flow rates of 40 and 3.5 L/min, respectively. The viral samples were leached and concentrated, and RNA was extracted from each. The presence of viral RNA was evaluated using novel coronavirus nucleic acid diagnostic real time PCR kits. In 64% of the samples, SARS-CoV-2 RNA (62% and 67% from the public places and transportation, respectively) was detected. Positive samples were detected in banks (33%), shopping centers (100%), governmental offices (50%), the airport (80%), subway stations (50%), subway trains (100%), and buses (50%). Logistic regression showed that number of people present during the sampling and the sampled air volume were positively associated with presence of SARS-CoV-2; while the percentage of people with masks, air temperature, and sampling site's volume were negatively related to SARS-CoV-2's presence. However, none of these associations were statistically significant. This study showed that most public places and transportation vehicles were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. Thus, strategies to control the spread of COVID-19 should include reducing the number of people in indoor spaces, more intense disinfection of transport vehicles, and requiring people to wear masks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.12.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833664PMC
March 2021

Prevalence of celiac disease in low and high risk population in Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 01 27;11(1):2383. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

This systematic review and meta-analysis study was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of CD in low and high risk groups in this region. Following keywords were searched in the Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane database according to the MeSH terms; celiac disease, prevalence, high risk population and Asian-Pacific region. Prevalence studies published from January 1991 to March 2018 were selected. Prevalence of CD with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using STATA software, version 14. The pooled sero-prevalence of CD among low risk group in Asia-Pacific region was 1.2% (95% CI 0.8-1.7%) in 96,099 individuals based on positive anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-t-TG Ab) and/or anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA). The pooled prevalence of biopsy proven CD in Asia-Pacific among high and low risk groups was 4.3% (95% CI 3.3-5.5%) and 0.61% (95% CI 0.4-0.8%) in 10,719 and 70,344 subjects, respectively. In addition, the pooled sero-prevalence and prevalence of CD in general population was significantly higher in children compared with adults and it was significantly greater in female vs. male (P < 0.05). Our results suggest high risk individuals of CD are key group that should be specifically targeted for prevention and control measures, and screening may prove to have an optimal cost-benefit ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82023-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841177PMC
January 2021

Fecal microbiota transplantation for COVID-19; a potential emerging treatment strategy.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Feb 31;147:110476. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Basic & Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology & Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

At the end of 2019, an emerging outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that first reported from Wuhan, China. The first manifestations of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 was flu-like symptoms, while other type of manifestations, especially gastrointestinal manifestations were discovered recently. As of June 2020, there is no specific drug or treatment strategy for COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, so different combination of antiviral drugs is currently being used. Gut microbiota mostly consists of four phyla, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. The interaction between gut microbiota and immune system through releasing some cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ that play roles in the severity of COVID-19. In this article, a new potential treatment for COVID-19 by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is described. FMT revealed promising results in different diseases, especially recurrent clostridium difficile infection, and it might reduce length of hospital admission and severity of the disease by modification of gut microbiota composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774521PMC
February 2021

Exosome-mediated delivery of functionally active miRNA-375-3p mimic regulate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colon cancer cells.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 13;269:119035. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: EMT is the process by which a polarized epithelial cell undergoes several changes leading to highly invasive and fibroblast-like morphology. It has been described that miR-375 is inversely associated with EMT in cancerous patients and can effectively inhibit invasion and migration of tumor cells. Here, we investigate whether miR-375 mimic delivered by tumor-derived exosomes could reverse EMT process.

Main Methods: The exosomes were isolated from HT-29 and SW480. Subsequently, exosomes were loaded with miR-375-3p mimic applying modified calcium chloride method. Quantitative real-time PCR was used for evaluation of the loading efficiency of miR-375 mimic in the exosomes. The effects of miR-375 loaded tumor exosomes (TEXomiR) on EMT process investigated using flow cytometry, cell morphology, and invasion and migration assay.

Key Findings: The in vitro results showed that the tumor derived exosomes can efficiently deliver miR-375 mimic to reduce the expression of β-catenin, vimentin, ZEB1, and snail. In contrast, TEXomiR significantly increased the expression of E- cadherin in EMT process. Furthermore, the migration and invasion abilities of HT-29 and SW480 cells were inhibited by TEXomiR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 are increased in EMT process. Flow cytometry evaluation demonstrated that treatment with TEXomiR significantly decreased the expression of CD44 and CD133 in SW480 cell line.

Significance: Our results imply that colon cancer cells-derived exosomes could be used as an effective nonvehicle to deliver miR-375-3p mimic. Moreover, TEXomiR may be a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119035DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of a nano biosensor for anti-gliadin detection for Celiac disease based on suspension microarrays.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 09 8;6(5):055015. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Biomaterial Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder represented by the ingestion of the gluten protein usually found in wheat, barley and rye. To date, ELISA has been the most accurate method for determining the presence of anti-gliadin, which is cumbersome, expensive (compared to a suspension microarray technique), and requires extensive sample preparation. In this study, in order to establish a more accurate assay to identify gliadin at lower concentrations, optical nano biosensors using an indirect immunoassay method for gliadin detection was designed and fabricated. For this, polycaprolactone (PCL) nano- to micro-beads were fabricated as a platform for the gliadin antigen which were optimized and nano functionalized with amine groups for such purposes. The gliadin antibody, which is selective to gliadin, was then added to the beads. Static light scattering tests were conducted to determine PCL particle size distribution and sizes were found from 0.1 to 30 μm, which is suitable for flowcytometry detection devices. Anti-gliadin detection was performed using an anti IgG mouse antibody conjugated with FITC in a flow cytometry device to detect the smallest particle. Fluorescence intensity was investigated at different concentrations of anti-gliadin and a standard curve used to determine gluten concentration based on fluorescence intensity. Results showed that the fluorescence intensity increased with greater concentrations of anti-gliadin providing a very effective method of detection due to selectivity at a 5 ppm detection limit. This represents a new highly sensitive and fast method for anti-gliadin detection. Further, the disuse of a cross linker and the use of a dedicated antibody at a very low level (1 μl) made this new method very economical to identify anti-gliadin concentrations at the nano level. In summary, this study provides a new, more accurate and sensitive, as well as less expensive system to detect anti-gliadin for the improved diagnosis of celiac disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/aba7caDOI Listing
September 2020
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