Publications by authors named "Hamed Seddighi"

16 Publications

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A Survey of implementation status of child nutrition surveillance systems, registry systems and information systems: a scoping literature review protocol.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2021 17;5(1):e001164. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Health Information Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Child malnutrition in all forms is known globally as the leading cause of poor health. Planning and solving this challenge require sources that collect data accurately. Nutrition surveillance systems (NSS), nutrition registry systems (NRS) and nutrition information systems (NIS) collect and analyse data on nutrition status. Unfortunately, these systems only exist in a few countries. The methods that these systems use significantly differ and their effectiveness is also scarcely researched. This scoping literature review aimed to conduct a survey on NSS, NRS and NIS that collect data on children's nutrition at national and international levels, along with their attributes.

Methods And Analysis: The methods and analyses of this scoping review follow the Arksey and O'Malley's methodology. This scoping literature review will be conducted in five stages based on this method. (1) The main research question and subquestions are identified. (2) Relevant studies are extracted. In this step, we will search electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus and ISI Web of Science. A manual search will also be performed in Google Scholar, grey literature, and the websites of organisations such as WHO, UNICEF, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Service, International Food Policy Research Institute, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance, United Nations World Food Programme, and United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition. (3) Extracted studies are separately reviewed by two reviewers based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and eligible studies are then selected. A third reviewer resolves disagreements. (4) A checklist is developed to extract the features. Data of included systems are separately extracted and entered into a checklist by two reviewers. A third reviewer then resolves any disagreement. (5) Data are summarised and analysed and are presented in tables and figures.

Discussion: This scoping literature review provides strong evidence of the status of systems that collect data on the status of child nutrition. This evidence can help select best practices which can be applied to develop future systems. It can also be a positive step towards achieving an integrated system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372877PMC
August 2021

Disaster Risk Reduction in Iranian Primary and Secondary School Textbooks: A Content Analysis.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 21:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: School textbooks have a significant role in transferring knowledge to the students and changing their behavior. This work aims to analyze school textbooks to find the representation of natural hazards in Iran, which is vital for supporting children in disaster situations.

Methods: In this study, a qualitative content analysis was used. Data were analyzed qualitatively by using MAXQDA 2018 software. For the 2019-2020 school year, 300 Iranian school textbooks in Persian language were collected.

Results: Findings of this work show that students receive information about disaster risk reduction (DRR) education through the primary and secondary grade levels in all 12 grades. The educational content covers various types of natural hazards, including geophysical, hydrological, climatological, meteorological, and biological disasters. In addition, the textbooks contain discussions about local hazards, causes and effects of disasters, and the disaster management cycle.

Conclusions: The coverage of DRR and the relevant contents in school textbooks reveals that the discourse of natural hazards is important for Iranian authorities, especially in the education system. This study helps decision-makers and practitioners design more effective interventions to prepare children for disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.161DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficiency of COVID-19 Testing Centers in Iran: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 13:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Social Welfare Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the Iranian Red Crescent Society (IRCS) in managing their nonmonetary resources involved in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response.

Methods: For this purpose, the data envelopment analysis approach was used to measure the efficiency, considering the number of personnel and vehicles and screened passengers as the input and output parameters, respectively. It was examined the efficiency of 10 IRCS's branches given 17 d of screening operation. For the analysis, the DEA SolverPro software 15a version was used.

Results: The results show that only 1 branch had been fully efficient in using the resources, while 5 branches showed less than 50% efficiency. This study reveals that it is unnecessary to use a fixed number of volunteers at different stations with different passenger numbers.

Conclusions: Using resources without efficient planning can lead to direct costs such as food, transportation, and maintenance, as well as indirect costs such as burnout, fatigue, and stress when responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis should support IRCS's managers to move their valuable resources from inefficient to efficient centers to increase the screening rate and reduce the fatigue of aid workers for the next pandemic rounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387682PMC
July 2021

Rapid Assessment of COVID-19 Screening Program for Travelers in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jul 12:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS), Iran.

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening stations set up by Iranian Red Crescent Society have been available for 17 d with the aim of identifying and treating people with coronavirus, reducing road trips, and sensitizing people to the problem. This study aims to investigate the challenges of the procedure.

Methods: A qualitative study was used to find the challenges of the COVID-19 screening centers. Volunteers, branch managers, and headquarter managers of the Iranian Red Crescent Society participated in this study applying snowball sampling. Data were collected by means of in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews in April 2020 after completion of the fever screening plan. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, always with prior permission of interviewees.

Results: The interviews with 20 participants in the plan indicated 6 relevant challenges, including logistics, lack of planning, lack of coordination, legal challenges, mental health, and ethical challenges.

Conclusions: The results indicated that, although establishing fever detection centers in Iran was a rapid response to COVID-19, it had significant flaws in the structure and adversely affected volunteers' and staff's health and financial resources. Therefore, well-structured protocols are required for similar responses in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438510PMC
July 2021

School-Based Education Programs for Preparing Children for Natural Hazards: A Systematic Review.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Apr 5:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran.

Schools have a significant role in disaster education to children. This study investigates the research works about school-based education programs in order to discover challenges and best practices. We conducted a systematic review of English language papers published in peer-review journals.The search identified 2577 publications and 61 articles meeting selection criteria and included in the review. Reviewed studies indicated that disaster education in schools is effective but yet insufficient in many countries. Lack of equipment, financial resources, policy gaps, and teachers' knowledge are common problems in programs. Main outcomes of this systematic review are showing methods used for health emergency preparedness of children of different ages and gender differences in school-based disaster preparedness, as well as the difference in their lifesaving skills in disasters.This study shows that some disaster education programs reported in the papers reviewed were not high-quality enough, which may lead to insufficient preparedness of children in disasters and consequently may put their health at risk, considering the increasing number of natural hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.479DOI Listing
April 2021

Students' preparedness for disasters in schools: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2020 4;4(1):e000913. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Child & Family Welfare, Graduate School of Behavioral Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Introduction: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups in disasters. Improving students' knowledge and skills to prepare for disasters can play a major role in children's health. School as a place to teach children can make a significant contribution to provide the necessary skills. This study aims to identify the effects, strengths and weaknesses of interventions in schools to prepare children for disasters.

Methods And Analysis: We use Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to develop a protocol for this systematic review. The included studies will report on the results of interventions targeting 'schoolchildren' defined as individuals between 4 and under 18 years old studying in schools. Different electronic databases will be used for a comprehensive literature search, including MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE to identify the records that match the mentioned inclusion criteria published till December 2020. The main search terms are 'disaster', 'preparedness', 'children' and 'school'. Four types of data will be extracted from the qualified studies including study characteristics (study design, year of publication and geographical region where the study was conducted), participant characteristics (sample size, age and gender), intervention characteristics (aim of intervention, intervention facilitators and barriers) and intervention outcomes. The quality appraisal of the selected papers will be conducted using Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias for quantitative studies and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist for qualitative studies. We use a narrative synthesis for this systematic review. The narrative synthesis refers to an approach to systematic reviews which focuses mostly on applying words and texts to summarise and explain findings.

Ethics And Dissemination: This paper is a part of a Ph.D. thesis of Hamed Seddighi at University of Social welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences with ethics code IR.USWR.REC.1399.008 approved by the Ethics Committee of the above-mentioned university.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020146536.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722369PMC
December 2020

How much the Iranian government spent on disasters in the last 100 years? A critical policy analysis.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2020 19;18:46. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Background: During the past 20 years, Iran has been experiencing a significant increase in the occurrence of disasters mainly due to the emergence of anthropogenic climate change. This paper aims at analyzing the trend of national budget allocation in Iran over the last 100 years to evaluate the focus of the Iranian state on the four phases of Preparedness, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery and propose modifications.

Methods: It is used a critical policy analysis with what's the problem represented approach. In this approach is focused on problematization and policy gaps. The most important policy statement in any government is the budget. During the first screening, 1028 regulations and laws were found from 1910 to 2020. After full text screening, 494 regulations and laws related to budget allocation to disasters were analyzed.

Results: The Iranian government has spent around 29 billion USD on disasters during the last 100 years. Droughts, earthquake and flood have costs the government more than other disasters, accounting for more than 14, 6.9, and 6.1 billion USD, respectively, in the allocated budget. Most of the Iranian government expenditure during the last 100 years on various disasters such as drought, flood, earthquake, and COVID-19 has been spent on involuntary costs including Response and Recovery. Mitigation and Preparedness are the two critical disaster management phases with very small shares of national budgeting.

Conclusions: From policy audit and policy gaps it is concluded that Iranian governments during last 100 years, problematized the issue of "disasters strike" and not "disasters' risks". In time of disasters, governments tried to solve the issues or impacts of disasters with budgeting to response and recovery. Nevertheless, disasters' prevention or mitigation or preparedness was not a problem for Iranian governments from 1920 to 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12962-020-00242-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570412PMC
October 2020

Preparing children for climate-related disasters.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2020 9;4(1):e000833. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Climate-related disasters affect different dimensions of children's health and well-being both directly and indirectly. Reducing children's vulnerability and exposure to climate-related disasters is crucial to protect them against risks. Children as climate-change agents and future leaders at local, national and international level can obviously contribute to reduce vulnerabilities in families and communities and transfer knowledge to them. Moreover, children can advocate for climate change mitigation. In the long term, participation of children in the climate change mitigation programmes may lead to fewer disasters and, consequently, less risk to their health. As government policies have failed to fully address and respond to the drivers of climate-related disasters, disasters preparedness and education for children should be considered an essential activity to protect children from disaster's risks. Main factors in shaping children's behaviour and response to disaster are increasing the risk perception and knowledge of the children. When a child perceived likelihood, susceptibility and severity of a disaster (such as earthquake), then they would be able and willing to learn how to prepare for that. So far, disaster education programmes for children have mostly relied on offline school-based training. Different innovative approaches can be applied to continue education within online and digital formats including virtual reality, digital games and online platforms. However, an advocacy support by influential entities such as companies engaged in entertainment industry is required to raise the awareness of public and particularly the children about disaster preparedness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549485PMC
October 2020

Psychosocial Safety Climate of Employees During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran: A Policy Analysis.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 Oct 12:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Health in Disaster and Emergency, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Objective: Iran is among the top 15 countries in the world in terms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection rates. The numbers of infections and deaths are still increasing in September 2020. This study aims to investigate the impact of the policies on terminating the quarantine period on the perception of psychosocial safety by employees and workers in Iran.

Methods: In this study, policy announcements and regulations, media reports, and the results were collected from 2 previously published population surveys that collected employees' views of the government approach to quarantine. The information thus collected was then analyzed using the "What is the Problem Represented (WPR)" approach for data analysis introduced by Carol Bacchi, and focuses on the question, "What effects are produced by the representation of the problem?"

Results: The Iranian Government decided to quarantine people and close most sectors during the New Year holidays in Iran in March 2020. The duration of quarantine was only 2 weeks, and the government then ordered government organizations and industrial companies to reopen. The advantage of a short quarantine period is assumed to be the reinstatement of productivity while the disadvantage is the likely risk of further transmission of the virus.

Conclusion: The government approach to and communication about the quarantine period has neglected to consider the psychosocial safety climate of employees, who have to go to their workplaces using buses, subways, or other vehicles, and who are under pressure mentally because of fear of infection, dismissal for non-attendance, and the consequent economic problems. The government approach necessarily impacts on the perceived psychosocial safety climate of employees, and hence influences the causes of work stress. If the psychosocial safety climate is not considered and improved, it may reduce the quality of services and products, and increase accidents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684022PMC
October 2020

COVID-19 as a Natural Disaster: Focusing on Exposure and Vulnerability for Response.

Authors:
Hamed Seddighi

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 08 27;14(4):e42-e43. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Health and Social Welfare, Student Research Committee, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492580PMC
August 2020

Health systems efficiency in Eastern Mediterranean Region: a data envelopment analysis.

Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2020 13;18:22. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Social Welfare Management Department, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: One of the most important issues in public policy and welfare state is health care. Poor management leads to the waste of resources, including money, human resources, facilities, and equipment.

Aims: This paper seeks to answer the question of which eastern Mediterranean countries are more effective in allocating their health resources, and does Iran, in relation to those countries, have an effective health system.

Methods: This study examined technical efficiency among eastern Mediterranean countries in 2018. Data were extracted from Global Health Observatory data World Health Organization. We applied input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models to estimate efficiency scores. Inputs are Physicians density per 10,000 populations, Total hospital beds per 10,000 populations, Current expenditure on health, % of gross domestic product and outputs are infant survival rate and Life expectancy.

Results: The most efficient health systems in the eastern Mediterranean were Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates. The inefficient countries are Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine and Saudi Arabia.

Conclusions: Among the efficient countries, one category of high-entry countries such as Bahrain and Qatar with high input especially in health expenditure had higher output. The second group of countries with lower inputs such as Iran and Morocco has been able to produce similar output with other countries. Also, inefficiency in countries such as Saudi Arabia can be attributed to this with higher input such as health expenditure has lower output such life expectancy and infant survival rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12962-020-00217-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358927PMC
July 2020

Access to Health Care Services for Afghan Refugees in Iran in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 08 14;14(4):e13-e14. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Health in Disaster and Emergency, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426587PMC
August 2020

Public-Private-People Partnerships (4P) for Improving the Response to COVID-19 in Iran.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 02 24;15(1):e44-e49. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

The Public-Private-People partnership (4P) is a significant element in disaster response. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic has been the worst disaster in the last decades in Iran in terms of exposure and magnitude. In order to respond effectively, the Iranian Government needs an extra capacity, which may be provided by the private sector and people. This study aims to collect evidences of 4P pertaining to the COVID-19 response in Iran from February to April 2020. Partnership case studies are classified into 3 categories: (1) Public-private partnerships; (2) public-people partnerships; and (3) private-people partnerships. It was found that the Iranian Government has removed or diminished some of the barriers to cooperation. There was also more cooperation between the people, the private sector, and the public sector than during normal times (vs disasters). People participated in the response procedure through some associations or groups, such as religious and ethnic communities, as well as through non-governmental organizations. It has been shown that 4P is vital in disaster response and, in particular, to epidemics. The government can be more active in partnerships with the private sector and people in emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhancing social capital, institutionalization, and developing required infrastructures by the government will improve public-private partnerships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373498PMC
February 2021

The Performance of the Iranian Red Crescent by Launching Testing Centers for the Coronavirus Disease.

Authors:
Hamed Seddighi

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 Dec 22;14(6):e45-e46. Epub 2020 May 22.

Student Research Committee, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Education and Research, Iranian Red Crescent Society, Yazd Province, Yazd, Iran.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) screening project has been conducted by the Red Crescent Society for 17 days with the aim of identifying and treating people with COVID-19, reducing road trips, and sensitizing people to the problem. Due to the shortage of testing devices, passengers were screened by measuring skin temperature. In 851 screening posts, 95 371 volunteers of Red Crescent monitored 21 640 866 people.Besides screening people, the stations have had other functions, including urging people to stay at home, restricting road trips, especially during the Iranian New Year holidays, reassuring the people that all relevant organizations are doing their best to respond to COVID-19, and the like. However, future research is still needed to analyze the cost-benefit of this plan and other possible options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283106PMC
December 2020

Trust in Humanitarian Aid From the Earthquake in 2017 to COVID-19 in Iran: A Policy Analysis.

Authors:
Hamed Seddighi

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2020 10 27;14(5):e7-e10. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Student Research Committee, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The earthquake of November 2017, the great flood of April 2019, and the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 are 3 major emergencies in Iran during the last 3 years. A common issue in all of these crises seems to be the issue of "trust." Official authorities, including the Iranian President, ministers, and the judiciary system, tried to gain people's trust by either changing policies or developing new ones. In August 2019, the new law on crisis management in Iran went into effect and the issue of public donation has been considered, too. Also, in their response to the COVID-19 outbreak, Iranian officials ordered all sectors to cooperate with the Ministry of Health and provide it with all necessary facilities. Therefore, it seems that new policies are still needed to overcome mistrust in Iran at times of emergency. Developing a policy on donation management was the first step, and there are several factors that could have contributed to the perception of the mistrust and failure in emergency missions. Mistrust can be the result of different causes, including but not limited to lack of knowledge on capabilities and efficiencies of humanitarian organizations, engagement of a wide range of organizations from different categories, extension of mistrust of an organization to other emergency organizations in the area or all of operation, lack of unity in emergency response, and poor public relations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156570PMC
October 2020

Child Abuse in Natural Disasters and Conflicts: A Systematic Review.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 01 13;22(1):176-185. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Social Science Department, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

Violence against children affects a significant portion of youth around the world. Emergencies and natural disasters escalate the risk due to weakened child protection systems and disruption of preventative mechanisms. In this systematic review, 692 related papers were searched in various databases in the initial search. After review, 11 papers were finally selected for full review. These papers were selected based on publication date, relevance to emergencies, their geographical area type of violence, age of subjects, and their gender. Most families affected by natural disasters, especially those in lower socioeconomic status, face greater social and economic pressures. The families that are more vulnerable to loss of food and shelter commit violence against children more frequently. On the other hand, while the rate of violence increases in emergencies, the reported rate of violence is less than the actual rate due to lack of required infrastructure and reporting mechanisms. The emergency housing increased risk of some types of child abuse. The history of exposure to violence, parental substance abuse, poverty, and child labor were predictors of increased violence against children in emergency situations. Sexual violence against girls after conflicts and physical violence against boys after emergencies are common forms of violence. Poverty as another predictor exposes children to more violence due to limited family economic resources and support. Given the identified predictors of violence, humanitarian organizations can come closer to providing appropriate plans to reduce the risk during and postdisaster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838019835973DOI Listing
January 2021
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