Publications by authors named "Hamed Hamishehkar"

196 Publications

Natural Phytochemicals Derived from Gymnosperms in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 21;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

The incidence of various types of cancer is increasing globally. To reduce the critical side effects of cancer chemotherapy, naturally derived compounds have been considered for cancer treatment. Gymnosperms are a group of plants found worldwide that have traditionally been used for therapeutic applications. Paclitaxel is a commercially available anticancer drug derived from gymnosperms. Other natural compounds with anticancer activities, such as pinostrobin and pinocembrin, are extracted from pine heartwood, and pycnogenol and enzogenol from pine bark. Gymnosperms have great potential for further study for the discovery of new anticancer compounds. This review aims to provide a rational understanding and the latest developments in potential anticancer compounds derived from gymnosperms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234227PMC
June 2021

Prevention of UV-induced skin cancer in mice by gamma oryzanol-loaded nanoethosomes.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 22:119759. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Skin cancer is the most widespread cancer worldwide, mainly caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight. Utilizing topical preventive agents in routinely daily used cosmetics may prevent UV-related skin damages and skin cancers. γ-Oryzanol (GO) is a natural component derived from rice bran oil, with potential antioxidant and skin anti-aging properties.

Main Methods: We biologically thorough studied the antioxidant and anticancer effects of GO in vitro to found the effective signaling pathways, then evaluated the sun protection factor of prepared formulation, and finally investigated the long-term preventive effects of GO-loaded nanoethosomes (GO-NEs) against UVB-induced skin cancer in mice.

Key Findings: GO-NEs could effectively prevent UVB-induced skin cancer.

Significance: Our results suggest that GO-NEs could be utilized as an innovative ingredient in cosmetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119759DOI Listing
June 2021

Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep 12;164:105911. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum München- German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Max-Lebsche-Platz 31, Munich 81377, Germany. Electronic address:

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. The upper airway geometry, which includes the extrathoracic region, trachea, and bronchial airways up to the fourth generation in some branches, was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) images of an adult healthy female. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed using the k-ω model with low-Reynolds number (LRN) corrections to accomplish the objectives. The deposition results of the present study were verified with the in vitro deposition data of our previous investigation on pulmonary drug delivery using a hollow replica of the same airway geometry as used for CFD modeling. It was found that the flow structure inside the pMDI and extrathoracic region strongly depends on inhalation flow rate and geometry of the inhaler. In addition, regional aerosol deposition patterns were investigated at four inhalation flow rates between 30 and 120 L/min and for 60 L/min yielding highest deposition fractions of 24.4% and 3.1% for the extrathoracic region (EX) and the trachea, respectively. It was also revealed that particle deposition was larger in the right branches of the bronchial airways (right lung) than the left branches (left lung) for all of the considered cases. Also, optimization of spray characteristics showed that the optimum values for initial spray velocity, spray cone angle and spray duration were 100 m/s, 10° and 0.1 sec, respectively. Moreover, spray cone angle, more than any other of the investigated pMDI parameters can change the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the airway model. In conclusion, the present investigation provides a validated CFD model for particle deposition and new insights into the relevance of flow structure for deposition of pMDI-emitted pharmaceutical aerosols in the upper respiratory tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105911DOI Listing
September 2021

Utilization of chickpea protein isolate and Persian gum for microencapsulation of licorice root extract towards its incorporation into functional foods.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 11;362:130040. Epub 2021 May 11.

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Electronic address:

This study aimed at the fabrication of licorice extract (LE)-loaded microparticles by complex coacervation, using chickpea protein isolate (CPI) and soluble fraction of Persian gum (SFPG). The LE-loaded microparticles with the highest encapsulation efficiency (97.87%) and loading capacity (11.35%) were obtained at pH 3 and CPI: SFPG ratio, core: coating ratio, and polymer concentration of 2, 1.5, and 2, respectively. The LE-loaded microparticles (2-15 μm) possessed heterogeneous microstructure, and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data confirmed the pronounced effect of electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The thermostability, amorphous structure, and color of the LE-loaded microparticles were significantly enhanced, compared to free LE. The sensory evaluation of the model beverages containing LE-loaded microparticles revealed that the microencapsulation was able to mask the bitter aftertaste and color of the extract. Thus, the results of this research confirm the potential of CPI-SFPG complex coacervates for the efficient delivery of glycyrrhizin via incorporation into functional food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130040DOI Listing
November 2021

Novel decorated nanostructured lipid carrier for simultaneous active targeting of three anti-cancer agents.

Life Sci 2021 Aug 6;279:119576. Epub 2021 May 6.

Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Cancer-targeted co-delivery of therapeutic agents has been recognized as an effective strategy for increasing efficacy and reducing side effects of therapeutic agents. In this study, we used methotrexate (MTX) alone as a targeting moiety and chemotherapeutic agent and in combination with docetaxel (DTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) as chemotherapeutic agents to stop cancer cell proliferation with the aid of newly designed nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The physicochemical properties of our designed nanocomplexes were evaluated by DLS, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM. Moreover, the targeting efficiency of the designed and synthesized nanoplatforms was evaluated on the folate receptor (FR) positive human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and FR negative human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549). The NLCs/DTX/DOX/CS and NLCs/DTX/DOX/CS-MTX complexes significantly increased the cell cytotoxicity and the cell apoptosis rate. However, the complexes significantly reduced the capability of colony formation and cell migration. Our results revealed that NLCs/DTX/DOX/CS-MTX had synergistic cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen spaces, autophagy, and the apoptosis induction ability with an enhanced cellular internalization rate in FR-positive cancer cells, thorough MTX recognition capability. We conclude that the NLCs/DTX/DOX/CS-MTX complex is a new promising paradigm for breast cancer-targeted co-delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119576DOI Listing
August 2021

Main Approaches to Enhance Radiosensitization in Cancer Cells by Nanoparticles: A Systematic Review.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Feb 13;11(2):212-223. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

In recent years, high atomic number nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as promising radio-enhancer agents for cancer radiation therapy due to their unique properties. Multi-disciplinary studies have demonstrated the potential of NPs-based radio-sensitizers to improve cancer therapy and tumor control at cellular and molecular levels. However, studies have shown that the dose enhancement effect of the NPs depends on the beam energy, NPs type, NPs size, NPs concentration, cell lines, and NPs delivery system. It has been believed that radiation dose enhancement of NPs is due to the three main mechanisms, but the results of some simulation studies failed to comply well with the experimental findings. Thus, this study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological factors of the NPs. An organized search of PubMed/Medline, Embase, ProQuest, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar was performed. In total, 77 articles were thoroughly reviewed and analyzed. The studies investigated 44 different cell lines through 70 and 4 studies. A total of 32 different types of single or core-shell NPs in different sizes and concentrations have been used in the studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2021.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046397PMC
February 2021

A quantitative approach to predicting lung deposition profiles of pharmaceutical powder aerosols.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jun 2;602:120568. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are widely used systems for pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. The inhalation performance of DPIs is influenced by formulation features, inhaler device and inhalation pattern. The current review presents the affecting factors with great focus on powder characteristics which include particle size, shape, surface, density, hygroscopicity and crystallinity. The properties of a formulation are greatly influenced by a number of physicochemical factors of drug and added excipients. Since available particle engineering techniques result in particles with a set of modifications, it is difficult to distinguish the effect of an individual feature on powder deposition behavior. This necessitates developing a predictive model capable of describing all influential factors on dry powder inhaler delivery. Therefore, in the current study, a model was constructed to correlate the inhaler device properties, inhalation flow rate, particle characteristics and drug/excipient physicochemical properties with the resultant fine particle fraction. The r value of established correlation was 0.74 indicating 86% variability in FPF values is explained by the model with the mean absolute errors of 0.22 for the predicted values. The authors believe that this model is capable of predicting the lung deposition pattern of a formulation with an acceptable precision when the type of inhaler device, inhalation flow rate, physicochemical behavior of active and inactive ingredients and the particle characteristics of DPI formulations are considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120568DOI Listing
June 2021

The effectiveness of Rutin for prevention of surgical induced endometriosis development in a rat model.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 30;11(1):7180. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Apoptosis and antioxidant mechanisms are pathways for the treatment of endometriosis (Endo). Rutin (Rtn) is an antioxidant flavonol that induces apoptosis. This study, for first time, was conducted to evaluate the effects of rutin on Endo through apoptosis and antioxidant mechanisms. The experimental Endo was induced in 24 rats and then the animals were subdivided into Endo-sole, 3000 and 6000 µg/kg rutin (Rtn-3000 and Rtn-6000) and vitamin C groups. After 4 weeks, the expression of Bcl2, Bax, anti Pro Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-9, pro PARP, pro Cleaved PARP, Pro PARP, pro mTOR and mTOR were assessed by western blotting technique. The protein concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity, and super oxide dismutase and gutathione peroxidase were also evaluated. TUNEL staining was also used for the detection of apoptosis. Caspase-9 and concentration of antioxidants were higher in the treated groups compared to Endo-sole group (P < 0.05). The results also showed that rutin decreased the expression of Bcl2 and MDA concentration (P < 0.05). The results for TUNEL staining showed that the animals treated with Rtn-6000 and vitamin C showed higher apoptosis. Rutin induces apoptosis by the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase and also antioxidant activity by increasing antioxidants concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86586-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010059PMC
March 2021

Immobilization of β-galactosidase by halloysite-adsorption and entrapment in a cellulose nanocrystals matrix.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Jun 24;1865(6):129896. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Engineering, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Immobilization allows easy recovery and reuse of enzymes in industrial processes. In addition, it may enhance enzyme stability, allowing prolonged use. A simple and novel method of immobilizing β-galactosidase is reported. Effects of immobilization on the enzyme characteristics are explained. β-Galactosidase is well established in dairy processing and has emerging applications in novel syntheses.

Methods: β-Galactosidase was immobilized by physical adsorption on halloysite, an aluminosilicate nanomaterial. Optimal conditions for adsorption were identified. The optimally prepared halloysite-adsorbed enzyme was then entrapped in a porous matrix of nanocrystals of sulfated bacterial cellulose, to further enhance stability.

Results: Under optimal conditions, 89.5% of the available protein was adsorbed per mg of halloysite. The most active and stable final immobilized biocatalyst had 1 part by mass of the enzyme-supporting halloysite particles mixed with 2 parts of cellulose nanocrystals. Immobilization raised the optimal pH of the catalyst to 7.5 (from 6.0 for the native enzyme) and temperature to 55 °C (40 °C for the native enzyme). During storage at 25 °C, the immobilized enzyme retained 75.8% of initial activity after 60 days compared to 29.2% retained by the free enzyme.

Conclusion: The immobilization method developed in this work enhanced enzyme stability during catalysis and storage. Up to 12 cycles of repeated use of the catalyst became feasible.

General Significance: The simple and rapid immobilization strategy of this work is broadly applicable to enzymes used in diverse bioconversions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2021.129896DOI Listing
June 2021

Antimicrobial bio-nanocomposite films based on gelatin, tragacanth, and zinc oxide nanoparticles - Microstructural, mechanical, thermo-physical, and barrier properties.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 8;354:129492. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran; Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Gelatin and tragacanth were employed to fabricate antimicrobial nanocomposites with 1, 3, and 5% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). FT-IR and XRD proved new chemical interactions among GEL/TGC/ZnO-NPs and higher crystallinity of nanocomposites, respectively. DSC showed a significant increase in melting point temperature (T) from ~ 90 to ~ 93-101 °C after adding 1-5% ZnO-NPs. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was remarkably increased to 31.21, 34.57, and 35.06 MPa, as well as Young's Modulus to 287.44, 335.47, and 367.04 MPa after incorporating 1, 3, and 5% ZnO-NPs. The ZnO-NPs dose-dependently reduced the water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films. FE-SEM analysis from surface and cross-section illustrated the compact and homogenous structure of the nanocomposites even up to 5% ZnO-NPs. The ZnO-NPs-containing nanocomposites had a good antimicrobial activity (~10-20 mm) against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Generally, the results indicated that the prepared nanocomposite films are promising antimicrobial bio-materials for food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129492DOI Listing
August 2021

Will stem cells from fat and growth factors from blood bring new hope to female patients with reproductive disorders?

Reprod Biol 2021 Jun 24;21(2):100472. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Stem Cell Research Center, Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; ARTAN1100 Startup Accelerator, Tabriz, Iran; Zist Andam Yakhteh Azerbaijan (ZAYA) Company (PHT), Medical Instrument Technology Incubator, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; HealthNBICS Group, Convergence of Knowledge and Technology to the benefit of Society Network (CKTSN), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Female reproductive system disorders (FRSD) with or without infertility are prevalent women's health problems with a variety of treatment approaches including surgery and hormone therapy. It currently considering to sub-branch of regenerative medicine including stem cells or growth factors injection-based delivery treatment might be improved female reproductive health life. The most common products used for these patients treatment are autologous cell or platelet-based products from patients, including platelet-rich plasma, plasma rich in growth factor, platelet-rich fibrin, and stromal vascular fraction. In this review, we discuss each of the above products used in treatment of FRSD and critically evaluate the clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2020.100472DOI Listing
June 2021

Modulation of LXR signaling altered the dynamic activity of human colon adenocarcinoma cancer stem cells in vitro.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Feb 10;21(1):100. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: The expansion and metastasis of colorectal cancers are closely associated with the dynamic growth of cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to explore the possible effect of LXR (a regulator of glycolysis and lipid hemostasis) in the tumorgenicity of human colorectal CD133 cells.

Methods: Human HT-29 CD133 cells were enriched by MACS and incubated with LXR agonist (T0901317) and antagonist (SR9243) for 72 h. Cell survival was evaluated using MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V. The proliferation rate was measured by monitoring Ki-67 positive cells using IF imaging. The modulation of LXR was studied by monitoring the activity of all factors related to ABC transporters using real-time PCR assay and western blotting. Protein levels of metabolic enzymes such as PFKFB3, GSK3β, FASN, and SCD were also investigated upon treatment of CSCs with LXR modulators. The migration of CSCs was monitored after being exposed to LXR agonist using scratch and Transwell insert assays. The efflux capacity was measured using hypo-osmotic conditions. The intracellular content of reactive oxygen species was studied by DCFH-DA staining.

Results: Data showed incubation of CSCs with T0901317 and SR9243 reduced the viability of CD133 cells in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control group. The activation of LXR up-regulated the expression and protein levels of ABC transporters (ABCA1, ABCG5, and ABCG8) compared to the non-treated cells (p < 0.05). Despite these effects, LXR activation suppressed the proliferation, clonogenicity, and migration of CD133 cells, and increased hypo-osmotic fragility (p < 0.05). We also showed that SR9243 inhibited the proliferation and clonogenicity of CD133 cells through down-regulating metabolic enzymes PFKFB3, GSK3β, FASN, and SCD as compared with the control cells (p < 0.05). Intracellular ROS levels were increased after the inhibition of LXR by SR9243 (p < 0.05). Calling attention, both T0901317 and SR9243 compounds induced apoptotic changes in cancer stem cells (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The regulation of LXR activity can be considered as a selective targeting of survival, metabolism, and migration in CSCs to control the tumorigenesis and metastasis in patients with advanced colorectal cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01803-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877018PMC
February 2021

Comparative selectivity of nano and commercial formulations of pirimicarb on a target pest, Brevicoryne brassicae, and its predator Chrysoperla carnea.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Mar 10;30(2):361-372. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Entomology, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, MG, 37200-000, Brazil.

Nanotechnology is a new field in the pesticide industry. Nanopesticides represent an emerging technological tool that offers a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and reduction in the amounts of used active ingredients. However, due to the lack of studies on the toxicity and the sublethal effects on pests and natural enemies, the extent of action and fate of these nanopesticdes is still not fully understood limitting thus their wide use. In this study, we encapsulated the pirimicarb insecticide using nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and investigated the toxicity and sublethal effects (LC) of the resulting nanocapsules against the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its natural enemy the green lacewings Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Nanoencapsulation of pirimicarb enhanced 12.6-fold its toxicity to cabbage aphids compared to its commercial formulation. Furthermore, analysis of the age-stage, two-sex life table showed that negative effects on the B. brassicae aphid population growth were observed on F0 and F1 generations when aphids of parental (F0) generation were exposed to subelethal dose (LC) of both formulations of pirimicarb. However, negative effects from sublethal exposure to the commercial and nanoformulated pirimicarb resulted in significant reduction on the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and finite rate of increase of the green lacewings C. carnea. Our findings indicate that the approaches and assumptions used to assess the risks of conventional insecticides may not apply for nanopesticides. Further research is still needed to better understand the environmental impact of these compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02349-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Carbohydrate-based films containing pH-sensitive red barberry anthocyanins: Application as biodegradable smart food packaging materials.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Mar 7;255:117488. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA. Electronic address:

A novel pH-sensitive colorimetric film was prepared based on immobilizing red barberry anthocyanins (RBAs) within composite chitin nanofiber (CNF) and methylcellulose (MC) matrices. The incorporation of CNFs and RBAs improved their mechanical properties, moisture resistance, and UV-vis screening properties. Moreover, the RBAs could be used as colorimetric indicators to detect food spoilage because they are sensitive to changes in pH and ammonia gas production. The RBA-halochromic indicator changed from reddish/crimson → pink → yellow with increasing pH, and from pink → yellow with increasing ammonia vapor concentration. Furthermore, the smart films possessed good antioxidant and antimicrobial activity owing to the presence of the RBAs and CNFs. Finally, the validity of the indicator to monitor the freshness/spoilage of a model food (fish) was demonstrated. Overall, this study shows that active/smart films can be assembled from food grade ingredients that can protect and monitor the freshness of products, like meat and fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117488DOI Listing
March 2021

Antimicrobial Activity of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded Seed Oil against .

Pharm Nanotechnol 2020 ;8(6):485-494

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), due to their impressive benefits, have recently been considered in different areas. Besides, NLC loaded with essential oils is attractive for finding more effective antimicrobial products, especially against common bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis).

Objective: This study aims to prepare and characterize NLCs encapsulated with Punica granatum (P. granatum) seed oil (PGS oil-loaded NLCs) and examine the antimicrobial effect of this combination against S. epidermidis.

Methods: PGS oil-loaded NLCs were prepared using a hot melt homogenization method. Later, they were characterized by determining particle size distribution (particle size analyzer), morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), and zeta potential (surface charge of NLCs). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of PGS oil-loaded NLCs were assessed and compared with seed oil emulsion of P. granatum against S. epidermidis.

Results: PGS oil-loaded NLCs were spherical shaped nanoparticles, with a mean size of 102.10 nm and narrow size distribution (PDI = 0.26). The antibacterial assay showed PGS oil-loaded NLCs to have a higher in vitro antimicrobial activity than seed oil emulsion of P. granatum.

Conclusion: To conclude, NLCs may be a favorable carrier to develop new antimicrobial agents. Lay Summary: The lipid nanoparticles such as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) appeared as products first on the cosmetic market. Their advantages help them to be used in different healthcare and cosmetic products. With regard to previous studies, Punica granatum (P. granatum) extract shows antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that could be a valuable natural source against the wide ranges of bacteria. Then, P. granatum seed oil (PGS oil-loaded NLCs) prepared in this study can be used in dental and skin-related materials as a new natural antimicrobial product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2211738508999201105142945DOI Listing
January 2020

Does alpha-lipoic acid-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers improve post-thawed sperm quality and ameliorate apoptosis-related genes of rooster sperm?

Poult Sci 2021 Jan 10;100(1):357-365. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Oxidative stress could be prevented by antioxidant-loaded nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 (A10), 20 (A20), 30 (A30), 40 (A40), and 50 (A50) μM alpha-lipoic acid and alpha-lipoic acid nanostructured lipid carriers (ALN) at 10 (ALN10), 20 (ALN20), 30 (ALN30), 40 (ALN40), and 50 (ALN50) μM on post-thawed sperm quality, fertility, and apoptosis-related genes of rooster sperm. The extender supplemented with ALN30 led to higher total and progressive motility, straight-line velocity, and linearity in comparison to the control group. The ALN30 resulted in higher percentage of mitochondria activity and glutathione peroxidase level compared with control (P < 0.05). The extender supplemented with ALN30 led to lower percentage of apoptotic sperm, when compared with the control. CASPASE 3 expression in ALN30 was lower (P < 0.05) than the other groups. The results showed that BCL-2 mRNA expression of sperm was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in ALN30 compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Higher percentages of fertility and hatchability rates were observed in ALN30 group. The results indicate that ALN30 could be regarded as a novel potential cryoprotectant for the cryopreservation of rooster semen. Therefore, nanostructured lipid carriers improve not only the active compound (such as alpha-lipoic acid) of biomedical applicability but also the potential for industrial application in sperm cryopreservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772701PMC
January 2021

Preparation of nanobiocomposite film based on lemon waste containing cellulose nanofiber and savory essential oil: A new biodegradable active packaging system.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 24;169:352-361. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

Lemon waste after industrial juice extraction encompasses of valuable bio-components that stimulated the development of novel and biodegradable films. Lemon waste powder (LWP) based nanobiocomposite films were prepared by incorporating different concentrations of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) (3 and 6% w/w) and savory essential oil (SEO) (1.5 and 3% w/w) in order to modify physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of the films. The fabricated film samples were characterized in terms of FTIR, XRD, FE-SEM and DSC analyses as well as mechanical, water vapor permeability and antimicrobial properties. FTIR and FE-SEM results indicated a good compatibility between LWP matrix and incorporated CNF and SEO. Physical and thermal analysis showed a significant effect of incorporating SEO and CNF on enhancing glass transition temperature, tensile strength and water barrier properties of the film samples. SEM analysis revealed non-uniform dispersion of CNF at higher concentration, while SEO incorporation improved the structure of the films. In addition, the LWP based films significantly showed antimicrobial properties against five food borne pathogens and this effect improved considerably by elevating the SEO loading concentration. In conclusion, LWP based nanobiocomposite films containing 3% CNF and 3% SEO could be introduced as a good candidate for development of active food packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.114DOI Listing
February 2021

Development of a graphene oxide-poly lactide nanocomposite as a Smart Drug Delivery System.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 16;169:521-531. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa. Electronic address:

In this study, a nanoscale graphene oxide polymer composite drug delivery system was synthesized and investigated for possible oral delivery of doxorubicin. A doxorubicin-loaded nanocomposite composed of graphene oxide/poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-g-poly(lactide)-b-polyethyleneglycol-b-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-g-poly(lactide) GO/(PHEMA-g-PLA)-b-PEG-b-(PHEMA-g-PLA) was synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain (RAFT) and ring open polymerization (ROP). The GO/(PHEMA-g-PLA)-b-PEG-b- (PHEMA-g-PLA) nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Doxorubicin was successfully loaded into the nanocomposite with a small particle size of 51 nm and an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 82% ±1.12%. The results showed that DOX was attached to the graphene surface via hydrophobic interactions and π-π stacking. DOX release took place under neutral and acidic conditions, reaching 24.7% and 41.2% respectively after 72 h. Cytotoxicity experiments on 4T1 murine breast cancer cells demonstrated the antitumor activity of the [email protected] nanocomposite. Biocompatibility, cell uptake, DAPI staining, Annexin V/PI double staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and scratch healing assay were measured. The [email protected] nanocomposite system could be promising for breast cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.084DOI Listing
February 2021

Synthesis of novel superdisintegrants for pharmaceutical tableting based on functionalized nanocellulose hydrogels.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 26;167:667-675. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Superdisintegrants have an important function in Fast dissolving tablets (FDT). It's believed that an increase in surface to the mass (size reduction) can enhance their performance. Due to the obligation of pharmaceutical excipients being in GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list, we've devoted our research to modify one of the routinely used and important natural polymer, cellulose, as superdisintegrant. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was extracted from microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) via the sulfuric acid hydrolysis process. NCC derivatives have been synthesized by Itaconic acid/Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (IA/HEMA) via maleic anhydride (MA) to acquire unique swellability properties in to achieve superabsorbent cellulose-based nano hydrogel with the cross-linking system. The disintegration performance of prepared tablets was compared with tablets composed of sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and MCC as positive and negative controls. The results show that the disintegration time of tablets formulated with synthesized modified NCC (m-NCC) decreased dramatically compared to other disintegrants. The dissolution analysis showed suitable condition for complete drug release in a shorter time. The in vitro cytotoxic experiments proved the biocompatibility of newly synthesized superdisintegrant. The dissolution Analysis findings suggest that our developed novel superdisintegrant paves the way for the formulation of fast dissolving tablets containing rapidly acting medicines such as zolpidem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.173DOI Listing
January 2021

Electrospraying as a novel method of particle engineering for drug delivery vehicles.

J Control Release 2021 02 31;330:851-865. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa. Electronic address:

Encapsulation technologies can be used to preserve therapeutic and bioactive compounds from harsh conditions (e.g., light, moisture, and oxygen) and biological destruction (enzymes, metabolism, and phagocytosis). Encapsulation involves the incorporation of the active moieties into a shell structure (e.g., protein, polysaccharide or lipid-based material). These techniques can improve the physicochemical properties of the encapsulated compounds, provide sustained release to specific organs, "cover up" undesirable properties, and improve their solubility, dispersion, and bioavailability. Different techniques have been applied to encapsulate drug compounds, including emulsification, inclusion complexation, nanoparticulate systems (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers), liposome entrapment, nanoprecipitation, freeze drying, spray drying, etc. However, high temperatures or toxic solvents are used in some of these techniques such as spray drying, and liposome entrapment can degrade the bioactive compounds or reduce their functionality. Electrohydrodynamic spraying (electrospraying) is a versatile tool for liquid atomization by means of electrical forces. This technique is simple and easily controllable without any harsh conditions and could be a promising alternative method to encapsulate sensitive compounds. By optimizing the process variables e.g., properties of polymer solutions (type, viscosity, conductivity), solvent type, process parameters (applied voltage between the needle tip and the collector surface, applied flow rate, distance between the needle tip and the collector, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) this technique can be effectively used for micro- and nanoencapsulation of drug compounds. This article reviews the effects of electrospraying parameters in production of monodisperse particles with well-controlled shapes and high encapsulation efficiency. It also, summarizes the latest reports of encapsulation of therapeutic compounds, and critically discusses the limitations and future perspectives of this technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.059DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of Tablet Shape on Drug Dissolution Rate Through Immediate Released Tablets.

Adv Pharm Bull 2020 Sep 9;10(4):656-661. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the geometric shape on the dissolution rate of the domperidone, a drug model for immediate release dosage form. In this regard, a lack of sufficient information about the effective dissolution rate of the drugs regarding their shapes has made this issue an interesting subject for researchers. For this purpose, three tablet shapes, namely flat and biconvex both in a round and oblong shapes, with different four sizes were modelled for the preparation of domperidone tablet. dissolution test was accomplished using a USP dissolution apparatus II. The drug dissolution rate was assessed by calculating various dissolution parameters; e.g., dissolution efficiency (DE), mean dissolution rate (MDR), mean dissolution time (MDT), and difference and similarity factors (f and f ). Regarding the disintegration time, the larger tablets showed a faster disintegration time. When the size of the tablets was smaller, the amount of released drug was significantly decreased. In addition, #9 tablets with a flat or biconvex geometry had obvious effects on the DE values. Generally, biconvex tablets had higher DE percentage than the flat tablets. Noticeable differences in dissolution parameters by considering the different geometric shapes play an important role in the drug release kinetics which makes a significant effect on quick onset of action in oral administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2020.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539314PMC
September 2020

Does resveratrol affect prepared sperm parameters and chromatin quality in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic patients before and after freezing? A lab trial study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2020 Sep 20;18(9):755-764. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Reproductive Biology, Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Previous studies have examined the effect of resveratrol as a potent antioxidant for free radicals in semen. While, the prepared spermatozoa are more affected by ROS factors due to centrifugation and incubation.

Objective: To evaluate the RSV's effects on the prepared sperm parameters and chromatin quality in both normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic cases before and after freezing.

Materials And Methods: The sample of 10 normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men was prepared through the swim-up method. The groups were then divided into two samples of control and experimental (exposure to 30 µmol/l of RSV) to evaluate and compare the sperm parameters and chromatin quality before and after freezing.

Results: The motility and viability of spermatozoa were seen to be significantly different before and after freezing separately in the control and treatment samples of the groups (p 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). However, the stated difference between the control and treatment samples of normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic patients were not significant (p 0.05). In addition, the sperm morphology and chromatin quality were not significantly different between the two samples of each group; nonetheless, chromatin quality of the treated sample was better than that of the control before and after freezing.

Conclusion: Despite the protective effects of RSV on the semen samples, RSV cannot affect significantly the prepared sperms parameters and chromatin quality in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v13i9.7670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521164PMC
September 2020

Co-electrospraying technology as a novel approach for dry powder inhalation formulation of montelukast and budesonide for pulmonary co-delivery.

Int J Pharm 2020 Dec 12;591:119970. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

In the current study electrospraying methodology was used for particle engineering of montelukast and budesonide to prepare a combined inhalable dry powder formulation applicable as a smart regimen in asthma treatment. For this, electrospraying was carried out using different solvents and drug concentrations. No carrier was added for the formulation of montelukast-budesonide combination as montelukast played the role of both active ingredient and carrier. Scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, gas chromatography, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry were used to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the produced drug particles. In vitro drug deposition pattern was assessed using next generation impactor, and the dissolution profile of the selected formulations was characterized via modified diffusion franz cell method. The FPF value for the co-electrosprayed carrier free formulation of montelukast-budesonide was 38% with a significantly enhanced dissolution rate for budesonide compared to the budesonide alone formulations. The pharmacological effects of hypothesized combined formulation was assessed by measuring its power to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species in human normal lung cells. The results showed that the combination of montelukast and budesonide can exert a synergistic effect. The findings in the current study emphasize that using montelukast as a carrier for budesonide not only has greatly improved the aerosolization behavior and dissolution rate of budesonide but also has resulted in synergistic pharmacological effects, indicating the suitability of this combination as an anti-asthmatic therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119970DOI Listing
December 2020

Therapeutic Application of Betalains: A Review.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Sep 17;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Anthocyanins, betalains, riboflavin, carotenoids, chlorophylls and caramel are the basic natural food colorants used in modern food manufacture. Betalains, which are composed of red-violet betacyanin and yellow betaxanthins, are water-soluble pigments that color flowers and fruits. Betalains are pigments primarily produced by plants of the order Caryophyllales. Because of their anti-inflammatory, cognitive impairment, anticancer and anti-hepatitis properties, betalains are useful as pharmaceutical agents and dietary supplements. Betalains also exhibit antimicrobial and antimalarial effects, and as an example, betalain-rich displays prominent antimalarial activity. Studies also confirmed the antidiabetic effect of betalains, which reduced glycemia by 40% without causing weight loss or liver impairment. These findings show that betalain colorants may be a promising alternative to the synthetic dyes currently used as food additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569795PMC
September 2020

Trace analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices and vegetables by an electrochemically fabricated solid-phase microextraction fiber coated with a layer-by-layer graphenized graphite/graphene oxide/polyaniline nanocomposite.

Anal Methods 2020 07;12(25):3268-3276

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.

Herein, a solid-phase microextraction pencil lead fiber coated with a layer-by-layer graphenized graphite/graphene oxide/polyaniline nanocomposite (GG/GO/PANI) was fabricated by an in situ electrochemical technique for the trace analysis of organophosphorus pesticide residues in packed grape and apple juice and also fresh tomato samples. The effects of various parameters, including the type of desorption solvent, adsorption time, desorption time, pH, salt addition, and stirring rate, on the extraction efficiency of the studied pesticides were investigated and accordingly, these parameters were optimized. The proposed fiber demonstrated desirable linear ranges (0.01-300 μg L-1) with good correlation coefficients (R2 ≥ 0.996) as well as low limits of detection (0.003-0.03 μg L-1) for the studied pesticides. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) for the extraction of 50 μg L-1 of each analyte were less than 7 and 11.5% for inter and intra-day precisions, respectively. This fast, facile, and repeatable electrochemical fabrication method produced a porous and homogeneous coating. The proposed fiber demonstrated good extraction efficiency, high stability, and long life-time despite being low cost. The successful application of the proposed fiber for the trace determination of pesticides in complex food matrices was proven by the satisfactory relative recoveries of 80.7-116.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay00626bDOI Listing
July 2020

Polycaprolactone nanofiber coated with chitosan and Gamma oryzanol functionalized as a novel wound dressing for healing infected wounds.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 10;164:2358-2369. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

This study was conducted to design and evaluate a wound dressing based on a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber coated with gamma oryzanol (GO) and chitosan (CS) in mice model. All the dressings were prepared by electrospinning method, and their morphology and physical properties were investigated. The mice were divided into five groups and treated with I) PCL-sole (PCL), III) PCL-mupirocin (PCL-M), IV) PCL-GO, IV) PCL-CS, and V) PCL-CS-GO. Wound area, total bacterial count, histopathological parameters, and expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, MMP-9, EGF, and VEGF were assessed. The fibers were randomly distributed in PCL group, but loading CS and GO increased the complexity and placing on the dressings. PCLs loaded with GO and CS showed lower viscosity, surface tension, and fiber diameter and higher conductivity and water contact angle compared to unloaded PCLs (P < 0.05). The treatment with PCLs loaded with mupirocin, CS, and GO significantly reduced wound area and total bacterial count (P < 0.05). Loading PCLs with mupirocin, CS, and GO decreased the expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-9, but increased the expressions of IL-10 and VEGF compared to the unloaded PCL group (P < 0.05). The most optimal responses to wound healing and physical parameters belonged to the PCL-CS-GO group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.079DOI Listing
December 2020

Preparation and characterization of carnauba wax/adipic acid oleogel: A new reinforced oleogel for application in cake and beef burger.

Food Chem 2020 Dec 3;333:127446. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

In this study, the reinforced carnauba wax (CW)-based oleogel with adipic acid (AA) was prepared and its potential for application in the cake and the beef burger was evaluated. As a result, the addition of AA in CW-based oleogels caused to form new intramolecular or intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and improve the thermal behavior and crystallinity of oleogels. Additionally, the increase of AA concentration higher than 3% of oleogel formulation significantly increased the strength of oleogels. The formulated food models (cake and beef burger) with partial substitution CW2%/AA4% oleogel as the optimized sample showed an acceptable texture profile, color, and organoleptic characteristics. Consequently, reinforced oleogel with carnauba wax/adipic acid in bakery and meat products can provide considerable promise to develop food products with lower saturated and trans-fatty acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127446DOI Listing
December 2020

Dry powder inhaler aerosol deposition in a model of tracheobronchial airways: Validating CFD predictions with in vitro data.

Int J Pharm 2020 Sep 11;587:119599. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Biotechnology Research Center, Student Research Committee, and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Effective drug delivery into the lungs plays an important role in management of pulmonary diseases that affect millions all around the world. The main objective of this investigation is to study airflow structure, as well as transport and deposition of micron-size particles at different inhalation flow rates in a realistic model of human tracheobronchial airways. The airway model was developed based on computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy 48-years-old female, which includes extrathoracic, trachea, and bronchial airways up to fourth generations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed to predict transport and deposition of inhaled particles and the results were compared to our previous in vitro experiments. Airflow structure was studied through velocity contours and streamlines in the extrathoracic region, where the onset of turbulence, reverse flow and subsequently vortex formation, and laryngeal jet are found to be critical phenomenons in the formation of airflow and deposition patterns. The deposition data was presented by deposition efficiency (DE) and deposition fraction (DF) against impaction parameter and Stokes number. At all of the inhalation flow rates, highest values of deposition fractions were devoted to the mouth-throat (MT), tracheobronchial tree (TB), and trachea (Tra), respectively (At 60 L/min: MT = 6.7%, TB = 5.3%, Tra = 1.9%). The numerical deposition data showed a good agreement with the experimental deposition data in most of the airway regions (e.g. less than 10% difference between the deposition fractions in the tracheobronchial region). Enhancing inhalation flow rate in all of the airway regions led to an uptrend in deposition rate due to the increase of particles inertia and turbulence level. In addition, the increase of particle deposition with enhancing inhalation flow rate in all of the sections including extrathoracic, trachea, and tracheobronchial tree suggesting that inertial impaction is the dominant deposition mechanism due to the increase of inertial force. In conclusion, the validated CFD model provided an opportunity to cover the limitations of our previous experimental investigation on aerosol deposition of commercial inhalers and became an efficient method for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119599DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative of Evaluation between Erlotinib Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Liposomes against A549 Lung Cancer Cell Line.

Iran J Pharm Res 2019 ;18(3):1168-1179

Immounology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Erlotinib (ELT) as a small molecule with poor solubility, poor bioavailability, and instability in gastrointestinal environment, has been considered as a therapeutic agent for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) therapy through oral administration. In the present study, ELT-liposome and ELT-NLCs were successfully prepared and characterized by assessment of the particle size, zeta potential (ZP), polydispersity index (PDI), encapsulation efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL). DAPI staining and Flow cytometry techniques were employed to probe anticancer activities of the optimal formulations. The obtained results indicated that the average size of optimized ELT-NLCs was 109 ± 2 nm, while the optimal formulation of ELT-liposome was 130 ± 4 nm. In addition, the values of EE, DL, and cellular uptake were higher in ELT-NLCs than ELT-liposome. Moreover, the stability of ELT-NLCs and ELT-liposome were not significantly changed ( > 0.05) within storage time. The results of anti-cancer assessment indicated that ELT-NLCs caused more cell viability reduction than ELT-liposome and free ELT. According to the Flow cytometry and DAPI staining results, the exposed A549 cells with ELT-NLCs had more rates of apoptosis than ELT-liposome. The obtained data from this study clearly showed that ELT-NLCs had better anti-cancer activity than ELT-liposome, which may be related to the effective nano particle size, PDI, EE, and DL of ELT-NLCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2019.1100775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934956PMC
January 2019

Nanovehicles for co-delivery of anticancer agents.

Drug Discov Today 2020 08 2;25(8):1416-1430. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa. Electronic address:

Effective cancer treatment remains a significant challenge in human healthcare. Although many different types of cancer therapy have been tested, scientists have now concluded that combinations of drugs, or drugs plus gene therapy, can target multiple pathways to fight cancer. Nanovehicles can increase drug uptake inside tumor cells, improve biodistribution and accumulation at tumor sites. The ability to deliver two or more anticancer drugs, genes, among others, at the same time and place will increase therapeutic effects while decreasing side effects and reducing the risk of multidrug resistance. This review discusses the advantages of nano-based co-delivery methods in cancer therapy, summarizes the common types of nanovehicles and their preparation methods, and covers some recent co-delivery studies in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.06.027DOI Listing
August 2020
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