Publications by authors named "Hamed A Ghramh"

42 Publications

Characterization of the native honey bee () in the south western region of Saudi Arabia using morphometric and genetic (mtDNA COI) characteristics.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2278-2284. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

incorporates a few perceived subspecies that vary in their natural properties and farming qualities. Mitochondrial COI gene sequence (mtCOI) has not been used before for bee identification in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this work was to study the morphometry and analyzing the mtCOI of all collected bees. The nucleotide sequence of the mtCOI gene was analyzed. Similarity searches and distances between each obtained DNA and sequences available in GenBank were made. Morphometric analysis revealed close similarities among the studied bees, but these similarities are different from those previously indicated in earlier studies of the same region. Molecular studies revealed that the collected bees are similar to each other and some other sequences found in GenBank, but these bees are a new hybrid or subspecies that are different from those previously reported in the same region, indicating the emergence of a new hybrid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071817PMC
April 2021

Development of in-house ELISAs for the detection of anti-SARS‑CoV‑2 RBD and N IgG and IgM antibodies in biological samples.

J King Saud Univ Sci 2021 Jun 15;33(4):101439. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

By the end of year 2019, the new virus SARS-CoV-2 appeared, causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and spread very fast globally. A continuing need for diagnostic tools is a must to contain its spread. Till now, the gold standard method, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), is the precise procedure to detect the virus. However, SARS-CoV-2 may escape RT-PCR detection for several reasons. The development of well-designed, specific and sensitive serological test like enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is needed. This EIA can stand alone or work side by side with RT-PCR. In this study, we developed several EIAs including plates that are coated with either specially designed SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid or surface recombinant proteins. Each protein type can separately detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM or IgG antibodies. For each EIAs, the cut-off value, specificity and sensitivity were determined utilizing RT-PCR confirmed Covid-19 and pre-pandemic healthy and other viruses-infected sera. Also, the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to define the specificities and sensitivities of the optimized assay. The in-house EIAs were validated by comparing against commercial EIA kits. All in-house EIAs showed high specificity (98-99%) and sensitivity (97.8-98.9%) for the detection of IgG/IgM against RBD and N proteins of SARS-CoV-2. From these results, the developed Anti-RBD and anti-N IgG and IgM antibodies EIAs can be used as a specific and sensitive tool to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection, calculate the burden of disease and case fatality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2021.101439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049187PMC
June 2021

Queen cells acceptance rate and royal jelly production in worker honey bees of two Apis mellifera races.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0248593. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Unit of Bee Research and Honey Production, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Royal jelly (RJ) is an acidic yellowish-white secretion of worker honey bee glands, used as food material of worker bee larvae for the first three days and queen bee larvae for the entire life. It is commercially used in cosmetics and medicinal industry in various parts of the world. This study determined the queen cell acceptance rate and RJ production difference among Italian and Carniolan bee races. Furthermore, the effect of plastic cup cell priming media, diets and seasons were tested on the larval cell acceptance rate and RJ yield of both races. The results indicated that average queen cell acceptance rate was significantly (p<0.001) higher in Italian race (75.53 ± 1.41%) than Carniolan race (58.20 ± 1.30%). Similarly, mean RJ yield per colony significantly (p<0.001) differed between both bee races, which were 13.10 ± 0.42 g and 9.66 ± 0.43 g, in Italian and Carniolan races, respectively. Moreover, priming media, diets and seasons significantly (p<0.001) affected queen cell acceptance rate and RJ production of both bee races. This study would help breeders to select the bees with higher-level of queen cell acceptance rate and RJ production in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043409PMC
April 2021

Effect of constant and fluctuating temperature on the circadian foraging rhythm of the red imported fire ant, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 27;28(1):64-72. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of High Technology for Plant Protection, Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 7 Jinying Rd., Tianhe District 510640, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Understanding circadian foraging rhythms activity of the red imported fire ant, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foragers at different temperatures is an important step towards developing control measures in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. In this study, the circadian foraging rhythm activities of foragersat different temperature were investigated under laboratory and field conditions. Results indicated that the foraging activity increased after sunrise, and maximum foraging occurred at 14:00 (foraging rate was 69.22 ± 0.57 and 72.58 ± 1.15 foragers/min in the first and second year, respectively) in the tea fields of Guangzhou during autumn. Furthermore, foragers demonstrated circadian rhythms and exhibited a unimodal after 24 h. A significant correlation was found between foraging activity and temperature. colonies were active at moderate soil temperatures (approximately 26.65 °C to 29.24 °C). The preferred temperature of the colonies was 26 °C, followed by 22 °C and 18 °C in the laboratory. The individual activity was maximum at 17:00 (18.67 ± 1.66 times /10 min) and minimum at 5:00 (8.33 ± 2.51 times/10 min) at 26 °C. The fluctuating temperature had a significant impact on individual locomotor activity ( = 0.8979,  < 0.01) but did not alter the rhythm activity. Our results demonstrated that temperature might play an important role in circadian foraging rhythms activity of . These results may have implications for the development of more effective fire ant management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783663PMC
January 2021

and management of (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler in cotton using organic's.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 19;28(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Root-knot nematodes (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler, fungus, are very dangerous root damaging pathogens. Present study was planned to establish a chemical control of these root deteriorating pathogens under lab conditions as well as in field. Maximum death rate of nematode juveniles and minimum numbers of nematode eggs hatched were recorded in plates treated with Cadusafos (Rugby® 100G) @12 g/100 ml and Cartap® (4% G) @9g/100 ml. Chemical treatment of with Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole (Nativo®) @0.2 g/100 ml and Mancozeb + Matalaxyl (Axiom) @0.25 g/100 ml significantly controlled the mycelial growth in plates. The best treatments tested in laboratory were applied in field as protective and curative treatments. Results proved that chemical control of root-knot nematode and root rot fungi by tested chemicals at recommended time and dose is a significant management technique under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785457PMC
January 2021

The impact of adjacent habitats on population dynamics of red cotton bugs and lint quality.

PLoS One 2020 31;15(12):e0242787. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Biology, Deanship of Educational Services, Qassim University, Buraidah, Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia.

Red cotton bugs [Dysdercus spp. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae] are among the most destructive pests of cotton and many other crops. Red cotton bugs (RCBs hereafter) damage cotton plants by sucking sap and deteriorate lint by staining. The incidence of RCBs causes boll injury along the field margins neighboring with various peripheral areas. The adjacent habitat/crops strongly mediate the population dynamics of RCBs. However, limited is known about the impact of adjacent habitat on population dynamics of RCBs and lint quality. This two-year field study evaluated the impact of adjacent habitat (okra, unpaved road, water channel and Eucalyptus trees) on population dynamics of RCBs and lint quality of cotton. The RCBs were sampled weekly from margins to 4 meter inside the cotton field. The RCBs' populations were monitored and plucked cotton bolls were examined for internal damage. The highest incidence of RCBs was recorded for cotton field adjacent to okra and water channel. Similarly, the highest number of damaged bolls were observed for the field side neighboring with okra and water channel. Furthermore, the highest number of unopened bolls were recorded for okra and water channel sides with higher percentage of yellowish lint. Field sides bordering with Eucalyptus trees and unpaved road had lower RCBs incidence and lint staining. Nonetheless, RCBs incidence was higher at field margins compared to field center indicating that population was strongly affected by adjacent habitat. It is concluded that sowing okra and weedy water channels adjacent to cotton would support RCBs population and subsequent lint staining. Therefore, water channels must be kept weed-free and okra should not be sown adjacent to cotton. Nonetheless, detailed studies are needed to compute monetary damages caused by cotton pests to the crop. Furthermore, effective management strategies must be developed to manage RCBs in cotton to avoid lint-staining problem.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242787PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775045PMC
January 2021

Impact of artificial light intensity on nocturnal insect diversity in urban and rural areas of the Asir province, Saudi Arabia.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0242315. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Continuous urban developments have resulted in increased demand for street furniture, one of which is street light columns. Artificial light at night (ALAN) pose significant impacts on insect diversity in urban and rural areas. The ALAN is a significant driver of decline in insect diversity. This study evaluated the impact of light intensity and sky quality at night on insect diversity in rural and urban areas of the Asir province, Saudi Arabia. Insect traps were installed in both areas during night. Light intensity of nearby road lamps was measured using light meter, while sky quality was measured using sky quality meter. Rural areas exhibited low light intensity (10.33 flux/f.candle) and good sky quality (18.80 magnitude/arcsec2). Urban areas exhibited intense light (89.33 flux/f.candle) and poor sky quality (15.49 magnitude/arcsec2). Higher insect diversity was recorded for rural areas where insects belonging to seven orders (i.e., Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Neuroptera, and Dermaptera) were collected. However, insects of four orders (i.e., Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, and Neuroptera) were found in urban areas indicating low diversity. Lepidopteran insects were frequently recorded from rural areas indicating they are attracted to artificial light. It is concluded that excessive ALAN and poor sky quality at night disrupt insect biodiversity. Therefore, ALAN and sky quality must be considered responsible for decline in insect biodiversity along with other known factors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242315PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707546PMC
January 2021

Acacia honey from different altitudes: total phenols and flavonoids, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra, and anticancer activity.

J Int Med Res 2020 Aug;48(8):300060520943451

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To investigate Acacia honey from different altitudes regarding total phenols and flavonoids, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra and anticancer activity against human cancer cell lines.

Methods: Anticancer activity was investigated using sulforhodamine B cytotoxicity assays in the following human cancer cell lines: HCT116 (colon); MCF7 (breast), and HepG2 (liver). Total phenols and flavonoids were measured using spectrophotometric methods and LIF was used to differentiate between low and high-altitude honey.

Results: The LIF spectra differed between low and high-altitude Acacia honey. High altitude Acacia honey was characterized by significantly lower total phenol content (81.47 ± 1.25 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/100 g) and increased total flavonoids (10.63 ± 0.53 mg quercetin equivalent [QE]/100 g) versus low altitude Acacia honey (91.33 ± 0.96 mg GAE/100 g and 8.78 ± 0.23 mg QE/100 g, respectively). Low altitude Acacia honey displayed increased IC values against HCT116 and MCF7 cells (264.17 ± 10.5 and 482.65 ± 20.3 µg/ml, respectively) versus high altitude Acacia honey (117.99 ± 12.7 and 189.82 ± 15.8 µg/ml, respectively).

Conclusions: High altitude Acacia honey had significantly more effective anticancer activity against HCT116 and MCF7 cells compared with low altitude honey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520943451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707861PMC
August 2020

Silver Nanoparticle Production by and Testing Its Safety, Bioactivity, Immune Modulation, Anticancer, and Insecticidal Potentials.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2020 24;2020:5626382. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Bisha, Bisha, 511, Saudi Arabia.

a plant belonging to the family Rutaceae, is traditionally used as a medicinal plant and a flavoring agent in food. This work aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the ethanol extract from leaves and test different biological activities as well as insecticidal potentials in the extract and extract prepared AgNPs. Dried and powdered leaves were subjected to extraction using ethanol, and this extract was used to synthesize AgNPs. AgNP synthesis was monitored by the change in color, UV spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy (scanning). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the functional groups in the extracts. Immunological, physiological, anticancer, antibacterial, and insecticidal potentials of the extract and its prepared AgNPs were tested. Results showed the ability of the leaf extract to synthesize. SEM examination revealed a spherical shape of AgNPs with a size of 40-45 nm. The extract contained many functional groups as indicated by FT-IR. The extract alone inhibited the growth of normal rat splenic cells, while the extract containing AgNPs stimulated its growth. Extract alone stimulated HeLa cell proliferation and inhibited HepG2 growth, while both cell line growth was inhibited by the extract containing AgNPs. Both the extract and extract with AgNPs were safe on RBCs and did not cause any severe elevation in liver enzymes. The extract alone and with AgNPs showed insecticidal activity against . Our findings suggest that the leaf extract, alone or with AgNPs, is biologically safe on animal cells and has antibacterial, insecticidal, and immunomodulation potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5626382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396051PMC
July 2020

Quality evaluation of Saudi honey harvested from the Asir province by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Aug 13;27(8):2097-2105. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, Moradabad 244001, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Sugar profile and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) of Saudi honey were examined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with refractive index and diode array detectors. The work was designed to assess the quality of various types of blossom honey i.e. Sider (), Dhuhyana (), Sumra (), Qatada (), Dhurum (), multiflora with majra (), multiflora with herbs, Keena ( spp.) produced in the southwestern areas of the kingdom. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal cluster analysis (PCA), and similarity and difference indices (SDI) were also applied to examine the possible grouping based on the studied quality parameters. Four main sugars (two monosaccharides i.e. fructose and glucose, two disaccharides i.e. sucrose and maltose) and HMF were investigated . The average values of fructose and glucose were in the range 33.10%-44.77% and 26.68%-37.91%, respectively. The maltose was present in all types of honey and its mean values were in the range of 0.37%-2.97%, while sucrose was absent in six types of honey, 0.25% in one unifloral honey, and 3.25% in one multi-floral honey. HMF was not detected in seven types of honey but was below the limit of quantification (0.13 mg/kg) in one type of honey. PCA displayed the accumulative variance of 79.96% for the initial two PCs suggesting that honey samples were not well distinguished by their sugar profile. Based on the sucrose and HMF contents, it was concluded that all types of blossom honey from the Asir province were of the best quality in the kingdom and met the international quality parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376132PMC
August 2020

Pest susceptibility, yield and fiber traits of transgenic cotton cultivars in Multan, Pakistan.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(7):e0236340. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), being a cash and fiber crop is of high significance in Pakistan. Numerous insect pests and viral diseases in Pakistan and around the world attack cotton crop. Genetically modified cotton (transgenic, resistant to lepidopteran insects), hereafter written as 'Bt-cotton' has been introduced in many regions of the world to combat bollworms. However, cultivars differ in their pest susceptibility, yield response and fiber quality traits. Nonetheless, recent studies have indicated that lepidopteran pests are evolving resistance against 'Bt-cotton'. Several 'Bt-cotton' cultivars have been developed in Pakistan in the past decade; however, limited is known about their pest susceptibility, seed-cotton yield and fiber quality traits. This two-year field study evaluated pest susceptibility, yield and fiber quality traits of thirteen newly developed 'Bt-cotton' cultivars in Pakistan. The cultivars differed in their susceptibility to sucking insects during both years of study. The cultivars 'FH-647', 'SLH-8', 'FH-Lalazar' and 'IUB-013' were more susceptible to jassid, whereas 'BS-52' exhibited higher susceptibility to whitefly during both years of study. Similarly, cultivars 'AGC-999' and 'MNH-992' proved highly susceptible to thrips during each study year. Although 'Bt-cotton' is resistant to bollworms, cultivars 'SLAH-8', 'VH-305' and 'BH-184' were susceptible to spotted bollworm, while 'SLAH-8', 'RH-647' and 'VH-305' were infested by American bollworm. The most susceptible cultivars to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) attack were 'RH-647', 'IR-NIBGE-7' and 'VH-305'. The highest seed-cotton yield was recorded for 'FH-Lalazar' during both years of study. Similarly, the highest ginning out turn was recorded for cultivars 'BS-52', 'VH-305', 'RH-647', 'IUB' and 'AA-919'. The cultivar 'FH-Lalazar' exhibited low pest susceptibility and CLCuV infestation compared to the rest of cultivars. The highest and the lowest gross and net incomes and benefit:cost ratio were noted for 'FH-Lalazar' and 'RH-647, respectively. Keeping in view the low pest susceptibility and high seed-cotton yield, 'FH-Lalazar' could be recommended for higher yield and economic returns in Multan, Pakistan. Nonetheless, regional trials should be conducted for site-specific or region-specific recommendations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236340PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373299PMC
September 2020

The Protective Role of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Monophosphoryl Lipid A Against Vaccinated Murine Schistosomiasis.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Sep 2;65(3):652-660. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, PO Box 9004, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Schistosomiasis is a disease that afflicts over 220 million people worldwide. To date, there is no vaccine against schistosomiasis and chemotherapy relies basically on a single drug, praziquantel. The current study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as an adjuvant in soluble egg antigen (SEA)-vaccinated and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice.

Methods: Mice were divided into two groups of uninfected and Schistosoma mansoni infected. The two groups were treated differently with MPLA, SEA and praziquantel. Study parameters included parasitological, immunological and biochemical parameters.

Results: Parasitological parameters revealed that intraperitoneal injection of MPLA into SEA-vaccinated and S. mansoni-infected mice was effective in reducing the worm and egg burden, granuloma count and diameter as well as the total area of infection in their livers versus SEA-untreated but infected ones. In addition, MPLA showed ameliorative action on the elevated liver oxidative stress marker, including malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the level of the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) which may have a role in the liver damage and fibrosis due to S. mansoni infection.

Conclusion: Treatment with MPLA has multi-functions in attenuating the deleterious impacts of S. mansoni infection in mice livers. Its effects are mediated through a reduction of ova count, worm burden, granuloma diameter and amelioration of antioxidant defense systems, and liver function biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-020-00204-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Majra Honey Abrogated the Normal and Cancer Cells Proliferation Inhibition by Juniperus procera Extract and Extract/Honey Generated AgNPs.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2020 ;20(8):970-981

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Juniperus procera and Majra honey are well-known as a folk medicine in many countries.

Objectives: This work aimed to study the immunomodulatory effects after mixing Majra honey, J. procera water leaves extract and silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) on immune or cancer cells.

Methods: Juniperus procera water leaves extract and 20% Majra honey were prepared. Both the extract and honey were used separately to synthesize AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using UV/Vis spectrophotometry and electron microscopy. Bioactive molecules in honey and the extract were explored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Protein profile of honey was explored using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and honey sugar content was determined using High- Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Biological activities of honey and the extract were tested.

Results: The results demonstrated the ability of the extract/honey to produce AgNPs in a spherical shape. The extract/honey contained many functional groups. SDS-PAGE of Majra honey showed many protein bands. HPLC revealed honey is of good quality and no external additives are added to it. The extract and extract+ AgNPs inhibited the growth of normal rat splenic cells while honey stimulated it. The extract+honey turned stimulatory to the splenic cells' growth and significantly diminished the inhibitory potential of the extract containing AgNPs. Both the extract and honey have antimicrobial activities, this potential increased in the presence of AgNPs. Honey and Honey+AgNPs inhibited HepG2 cancer cell proliferation while Hela cell growth inhibited only with honey+AgNPs.

Conclusion: Both honey and the extract have antibacterial and immunomodulatory potentials as well as the power to produce AgNPs. Majra honey alone showed anticancer activity against HepGe2 cells, but not against Hela cells, and when contained AgNPs had anticancer activity on both cell lines. Mixing of Majra honey with J. procera extract showed characterized immunomodulatory potentials that can be described as immunostimulant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520620666200213104224DOI Listing
January 2020

Study of anticancer, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and silver nanoparticles production by Sidr honey from three different sources.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jan 9;8(1):445-455. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS) King Khalid University Abha Saudi Arabia.

Sidr honey is used as food and medicine in many countries. Study of immunomodulatory and anticancer activity of Sidr honey did not tested before. The aim of this work was to study the anticancer activity and immunomodulatory as well as antimicrobial potential of Sidr honey and its synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Sidr honey from three sources (two from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and one from Pakistan) was diluted to 20% and tested for its biological activities and to synthesize AgNPs. The results demonstrated that honeys could produce AgNPs (spherical shape), modulated the growth of normal splenic cells, and have antimicrobial activities. Sidr honey has anticancer activity against HepG2 but not Hela cells. Sidr honey can be used as antimicrobial agent, but can be used as anticancer agent with care as it stimulated cell growth of some lines (e.g., Hala) and inhibited another (e.g., HepG2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977415PMC
January 2020

Efficacy assessment of soft and hard acaricides against mite infesting honey bee () colonies, through sugar roll method.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 3;27(1):53-59. Epub 2019 May 3.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

The parasitic mite is amongst the most serious problems of honey bees, (Hymenoptera: Apidae) around the world including Pakistan. The present study estimates the mite density through powdered sugar roll method and evaluates the effectiveness of five miticides (fluvalinate, flumethrin, amitraz, formic acid, and oxalic acid) on colonies in German modified beehives. The results indicated that by treating the bees with one strip and two strips of fluvalinate per colony; the mite population remained below the economic threshold level (ETL) for 14 days and 25 days, respectively. Treatment of flumthrin @1 strip and @ 2 strips per colony resulted in mite population suppressed for 14 days and 39 days, respectively below ETL. Application of Amitraz @ 2 mL per 1.5 L water after every three days interval on sealed brood effectively controlled mites below ETL for 21 days. Formic acid @10 mL per colony applied through plastic applicator proved effective (below 3 mites per bee sample) for 24 days and oxalic acid applied through shop towel method resulted in mite population control for fifteen days. Use of powdered sugar roll method for easy sampling of mites and application of acaricides on precise economic threshold level during different seasons of the year for integrated management of mite is hereby advocated by current studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933247PMC
January 2020

Effects of temperature on baseline susceptibility and stability of insecticide resistance against (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in the absence of selection pressure.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 15;27(1):1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is an important pest causing significant losses to vegetables worldwide. Insecticides resistance in is a serious issue for scientists since last 30 years. However, deltamethrin and are commonly used insecticides against but studies involving development of resistance in against these two insecticides at different temperatures are lacking. The current study was aimed to find out the toxicity of deltamethrin and , and resistance development in . Results showed that the positive correlation between the temperature and toxicities of deltamethrin and . The results indicated -0.051, -0.049, -0.047, and -0.046 folds of deltamethrin resistance at 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C temperatures, respectively from 1 to 12 generations. The toxicity of after 24 h was 2.2 and 4.8 folds on 1 generation at 20 °C and 25 °C temperatures, respectively compared to the toxicity recorded at 15 °C (non-overlapping of 95% confidence limits). Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the temperature has a positive correlation with the toxicity of deltamethrin and against the larvae of This study suggests that deltamethrin and can be included in the management program of on many vegetable crops The baseline susceptibility data might be helpful to understand the resistance mechanisms in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933245PMC
January 2020

Three new species of the genus Rohwer, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Miracinae) from India and Saudi Arabia.

Zookeys 2019 14;889:37-47. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, UP India.

Ahmad & Pandey, , Ahmad & Pandey, , and Ghramh & Ahmad, are described as new to science. The genus Rohwer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Miracinae) is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia. Two species were reared from Meyrick and (Meyrick) in India, while was collected by Malaise trap in Saudi Arabia. Characters of these new species and their affinities with related taxa are discussed. Data on habitat, host records, and host plant species for all the parasitoid species are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.889.34942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872583PMC
November 2019

Two new species of braconid wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from India.

Zookeys 2019 14;889:23-35. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, UP., India.

Two new species viz., Pambolus (Phaenodus) shujai, and , of braconid wasps are described as new to science. , is reared from larvae of the leaf miner sp. (Coleoptera, Buprestidae) on sp. (Wild Jute Plant). A new species of Haliday along with two known species is also recorded. A key to the Indian species of is also provided. Diagnoses with morphological characters and illustrations are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.889.36436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872585PMC
November 2019

Comparative insecticidal activity of different plant materials from six common plant species against (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 27;26(7):1804-1808. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

(Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is one of the major insect pests of stored grains. Due to export legislation and zero-tolerance for live insect in trade commodities, extensive use of synthetic insecticides is in practice in order to eliminate pest infestations from the lots. Currently, the one and only acceptable chemical to be used in stored grain is phosphine but due to its excessive usage the stored grain pests are becoming resistant against it. Hence discovery of alternative compounds is much needed. In this study we have compared insecticidal efficacy of different plant materials from six commonly grown plants of Pakistan, (Alliaceae), (Zingiberaceae), (Poaceae), (Myrtaceae), (Solanaceae), and (Meliaceae) against infesting stored wheat, rice, corn and gram pulse. Various plant parts were dried, powdered, and used as admixtures to the stored commodities in the experiments. The results have suggested that (garlic) and (ginger) were more effective resulting into 15 times higher adult mortality and 4 to 5 times reduction in grain weight losses when mixed with rice grains. Similarly, when admixture with wheat checked the population growth in the resources resulting into 3.5 times less adult production compared to controls. A subsequent experiment was conducted to study the dose response of neem seed powder against the beetle pest infesting milled products. Surprisingly, better control was observed either at lowest (1% w/w) or the highest doses (5% w/w). This finding is of great interest to understand the underlying phenomenon which we assume is the ability of to feed selectively in flour mediums, however, further research on this aspect is required to be investigated. The results of this study support the use of botanicals for stored product pest management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864196PMC
November 2019

Yearlong association of insect pollinator, with flowering plants: Planted forest vs. agricultural landscape.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 27;26(7):1799-1803. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Bee Research Chair, Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, P.O. Box 2460, Saudi Arabia.

The yearlong association of a native bee, (Halictidae: Hymenoptera) was studied with 72 plant species in a sub-tropical planted forest and some adjacent agricultural landscapes at Multan, Pakistan. The study resulted in 66 interactions of with only 24 plant species in 15 families while other 48 plant species were not visited by this bee. The maximum abundance of (7-9 individuals) was recorded on and followed by , and (5-6 individuals). Majority (19) of plant species were visited by only 1-4 individuals. The bee activity was started in the month of March which attained its peak in May followed by a gradual decline until September. No bees were observed during the months of January and February. There was a significant positive relationship between bee abundance and number of flowering plant species. Bee abundance had a strong positive relationship with temperature while it had a strong negative relationship with relative humidity (%). Floral abundance increased with the number of flowering plant species while it was not influenced by floral span of plant species. Besides giving the floral host plants of , the current study also gives a better understanding of its seasonality along with its relationships with different biotic and abiotic factors under local conditions. These findings can help in maintaining and managing population particularly and other native bees in general at local scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.02.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864182PMC
November 2019

Toxic effects of some insecticides, herbicides, and plant essential oils against Jacquelin du val (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 7;26(7):1767-1771. Epub 2018 May 7.

Research Farm Crops, Baldmas District Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

Cereals are staple food for many countries and are grown on millions of hectares of land, but much of the harvest is wasted due to losses by pests. To minimize these losses, many pesticides are used which are damaging to the environment and human health. There are debates to get rid of these chemicals but they are still in use at large scale. An alternative control strategy for insect pests in storage houses is the use of botanicals. In this study, four plant essential oils, two plant extracts, two herbicides, and two insecticides were used against and the comparison of toxicity was made by calculating LC and LT values. LC values were higher for abamectin (2.09-10.23 mg/L) and cypermethrin (3.41-11.78 mg/L) insecticides followed by neem essential oil (7.39-19.24 mg/L) and citrus extract (10.14-24.50 mg/L). However, LC values were maximum in case of jaman plant extract (22.38-176.42 mg/L) followed by two herbicides, Logran (19.66-39.72 mg/L) and Topik (29.09-47.67 mg/L) However, LC values were higher for topic herbicide (24.098 ppm) and jaman essential oil (16.383 ppm) after four days of treatment. Abamectin and cypermethrin insecticides, neem essential oil and citrus plant extract also killed adults of quicker as compared other essential oils, extracts and herbicides. Results revealed that botanical formulations being environmentally safe could be used instead of highly hazardous pesticides for stored products' pests. This study also elaborates the non-host toxicity of herbicides commonly applied in our agroecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864198PMC
November 2019

TH1/TH2 chemokines/cytokines profile in rats treated with tetanus toxoid and .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 18;26(7):1716-1723. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Natural products, including their purified materials, play a remarkable role in drug development. The Euphorbiaceae family, mainly , is used in some traditional medicine, and has evidence that its latex comprises immunomodulatory properties and cytokine production. This study aimed to measure the production of chemokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12, and RANTES), T1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IL-2) and T2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13) in rats after treatments with ethanol latex extract of . Vaccine treated and untreated rats were divided into seven groups to assess antimicrobial activities of the extracted components. After completion of the treatment schedule, blood was withdrawn and sera were collected. The results showed that the main component of the extract was a euphol compound. The extract showed antimicrobial activity and had the ability to modulate innate and adaptive immunity. Animals treated with extract for only 7 days before vaccination showed higher levels of antibody production. The extract showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extract could stimulate both adaptive and innate immunity. Pre-treatment with the extract increased immune responses in vaccinated animals, indicating the usefulness of the extract before immunization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864399PMC
November 2019

Insect pollinators diversity and abundance in Mill. (Arugula) and L. (Field mustard) crops.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 17;26(7):1704-1709. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Studies on the insect pollinators diversity and their relative abundance in Mill. (Arugula) and L. (field mustard) was carried out during spring season from February to April consecutively during all the three years of 2016-18. Insect pollinators observed belonged to four orders i.e. Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera. A total of 20 major species of insect pollinators were recorded. The highest abundance of pollinator species belonged to Hymenoptera. The most prominent insect pollinator species were followed by other three honey bee species of , , and respectively. Some species of solitary bees were also recorded. From Diptera, four species of syrphid fly and one species from Muscidae family were also recorded. Insect pollinators recorded from order Lepidoptera were , , and . Lady bird beetle was recorded from Coleoptera order as occasional visitor. It was noticed that attracted more insect pollinators than which may be attributed to different amount and chemical properties of nectar, with number of pollen grains, and flower canopy of both crops. Further studies are needed to confirm the reasons for higher pollinator visitation to than through chemical analysis of nectar, amount of pollens, flower physiology and phenology of both crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864147PMC
November 2019

Composition and functional properties of propolis (bee glue): A review.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 17;26(7):1695-1703. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3300, Bangladesh.

Propolis is a natural substance collected by honey bees from various plants such as, poplar, palm, pine, conifer secretions, gums, resins, mucilage and leaf buds. It is collected and brought very painstakingly by honey bees to be used for sealing cracks and crevices occurring in their hives. Originally, it as an antiseptic meant for preventing bee-hive from microbial infections along with preventing decomposition of intruders. Additionally, propolis has been used in folk medicine for centuries. The biological characteristics of propolis depend upon its chemical composition, plant sources, geographical zone and seasons. More than 300 compounds have been identified in propolis such as, phenolic compounds, aromatic acids, essential oils, waxes and amino acids. Many scientific articles are published every year in different international journals, and several groups of researchers have focused their attention on the chemical compounds and biological activity of propolis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864204PMC
November 2019

Cellular proliferation/cytotoxicity and antimicrobial potentials of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 17;26(7):1689-1694. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

spp. are used as medicinal plants in many countries like Bosnia, Lebanon, and Turkey. In folk medicines, these plants have been used for treating skin and respiratory tract diseases, urinary problems, rheumatism and gall bladder stones. The objectives of this work were to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using a coniferous tree, leaf extract and testing the synthesized AgNPs for its antimicrobial potentials, hemolytic activity, toxicity and the proliferative effects against normal and activated rat splenic cells. Leaf extract was prepared using acetone and ethanol as solvents. AgNPs were prepared using the acetone extract. AgNPs were validated using UV-Vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Functional groups in the extract were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. SEM images of AgNPs showed spherical and cubic shapes with a uniform size distribution with an average size of 30-90 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy showed the presence of many functional groups in the plant extract. AgNPs showed promising antimicrobial activity against tested bacteria and fungus. AgNPs also expressed a stimulating activity towards the rat splenic cells in a dose dependent manner. Acetone as solvent was safer on cells than ethanol. Green synthesized AgNPs using might be used as a broad-spectrum therapeutic agent against microorganisms and as an immunostimulant agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864202PMC
November 2019

Development of Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine by genetic joining of the RVF-glycoprotein Gn with the strong adjuvant subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB) and expression in bacterial system.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 22;26(7):1676-1681. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, King Khalid University, Dhahran Al Janoub, Saudi Arabia.

One of the mosquito-borne zoonotic diseases is the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Currently, there is no completely licensed vaccine that can be used to vaccinate animals or humans outside endemic areas. The aim of this work was to use the RVFV glycoprotein (Gn) and the subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB) at gene level and build up fused recombinant vaccine. The gene of CTB was joined to the gene Gn to work as an adjuvant in the resulting fusion protein. The designed merged genes () was tested for restriction sites, open reading frames, expected fusion protein tertiary structure and antigenicity using computer software. The insert sequence was submitted to the BioProject (GenBank). The insert was subcloned into the pQE-31 expression plasmid. The target recombinant protein (rCTB-Gn) was expressed in M15 bacteria, purified and identified by protein gel electrophoresis. The insert got the accession No: PRJNA386723. Analysis of the designed rCTB-Gn protein revealed that it had the right 3D structure, immunogenic and at the correct molecular weight. The presence of the CTB in the proposed vaccine will augment its immunogenicity. Doses and protection levels of the vaccine need to be manipulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864185PMC
November 2019

Fitness parameters of (L.) (Lepidoptera; Plutellidae) at four constant temperatures by using age-stage, two-sex life tables.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 27;26(7):1661-1667. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, 244001, India.

Different temperature zones have significant impact on the population dynamics of . Effective management of requires the knowledge of temperature tolerance by different life stages. In the current study, fitness parameters of diamondback moth were reported by using age-stage, two-sex life table traits at four constant temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 °C). The life cycle of was significantly longer at 15 °C. The 20 °C level of temperature was found optimal for fecundity, gross reproductive rate (51.74 offspring) and net reproductive rate (44.35 offspring per individual). The adult pre-oviposition period was statistically at par at all four level of temperatures. However, the survival was maximum at 20 °C as compared to other three temperature ranges. Based on the current study, it was concluded that temperature has a great role in population build-up of and effective management tactics should be applied to prevent significant damage to cabbage and other cruciferous crops when the temperature in the field is near 20 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864165PMC
November 2019

Pollination biology of (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) with reference to insect floral visitors.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 4;26(7):1548-1552. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Indian siris, (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) has significant importance to human beings for its multipurpose use. Insects play a crucial role in the pollination biology of flowering plants. In the current study, we studied the pollination biology of with special reference to insect floral visitors. The effectiveness of floral visitors was investigated in term of visitation frequency, visitation rate and pollen load during 2012 and 2013. In the second experiment, effect of pollinators on yield of was studied in open and cage pollination experiments. Floral visitor fauna of included eight-bees, two wasps, two flies, and two butterflies species. Among them, , , and had maximum abundance ranging from 349-492, 339-428, 291-342 and 235-255 numbers of individuals, respectively during two flowering seasons. had the highest visitation frequency (6.44 ± 0.49-8.78 ± 0.48 visits/flower/5min) followed by (6.03 ± 0.43-7.99 ± 0.33 visits/flower/5min) and (3.61 ± 0.31-4.44 ± 0.18 visits/flower/5min). , and had the highest visitation rates (18.904 ± 1.53-11.43 ± 1.17 flower visited/min) and pollen load (15333 ± 336.22-19243 ± 648.45 pollen grains). The open pollinated flowers had significantly higher capsule weight (4.97 ± 0.21 g), seed weight (1.04 ± 0.05 g), seed numbers per pod (9.80 ± 0.34) and seed germination percentage (84.0 ± 1.78%) as compared to caged flowers. The results suggested bees especially , and could be effective pollinators of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864188PMC
November 2019

Structural diversity and functional variability of gut microbial communities associated with honey bees.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jan 15;138:103793. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Hangzhou, 310021, PR China.

Microbial consortia accompanied to all eukaryotes can be inherited from ancestors, environment, and/or from various food source. Gut microbiota study is an emerging discipline of biological sciences that expands our understanding of the ecological and functional dynamics of gut environments. Microorganisms associated with honey bees play an important role in food digestion, colony performance, immunity, pollination, antagonistic effect against different pathogens, amelioration of food and many more. Although, many repots about honey bee gut microbiota are well documented, microbiome with other key components of honey bees such as larvae, adults, their food (pollen, beebread, and honey), honey combs, and floral nectar are poorly understood. Mutual interactions and extent of the roles of microbial communities associated with honey bees are still unclear and demand for more research on the nutritional physiology and health benefits of this ecologically and economically important group. Here in this study, we highlighted all the honey bee microbiome that harbored from different life stages and other relevant components. The anatomical parts of honey bee (larvae, adults), food source (pollen, beebread, and honey), honey combs, and floral nectar were highly flourished by numerous microorganisms like bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Actinomycetes, Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Cocci, Clostridia, Coliforms, Firmicutes, Flavobacteriia, Mollicutes) and fungi (Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Mucormycotina, Saccharomycetes, Zygomycetes, Yeasts, Molds). Some distinctive microbial communities of a taxonomically constrained species have coevolved with social bees. This contribution is to enhance the understanding of honey bee gut microbiota, to accelerate bee microbiota and microbiome research in general and to aid design of future experiments in this growing field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103793DOI Listing
January 2020