Publications by authors named "Hamada AbdElgawad"

111 Publications

CuO loaded ZnS nanoflower entrapped on PVA-chitosan matrix for boosted visible light photocatalysis for tetracycline degradation and anti-bacterial application.

J Environ Manage 2022 Jan 11;306:114396. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Novel photocatalyst CuO loaded ZnS nanoflower supported on carbon frame work PVA/Chitosan was synthesized by co-precipitation and ultrasonic assisted method. The co-existence of ZnS and CuO and its crystallinity in nanohybrid was verified by XRD, SAED and HR-TEM analysis. The availability of defects in ZnS was identified by EPR. FTIR and TGA verified the presence of PVA and Chitosan. Defects mediated ZnS-CuO/PVA/chitosan heterojunction promote synergistic charge separation with type II interface. Zn-vacancy facilitates two-photon excitation that improves visible-light harvesting. The photocatalytic activity of ZnS-CuO/PVA/Chitosan was 94.7% which is higher when compared to ZnS (40%) and CuO (60%). The photocatalytic mechanism was elucidated using scavenger test and both ·O and ·OH were found to play key role in tetracycline degradation. In addition, ZnS-CuO/PVA/Chitosan demonstrated efficient anti-microbial effect against the both gram strains on comparing with individual ZnS and CuO. Thus, the multifunctional ZnS-CuO/PVA/Chitosan is promising for the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline and as an antimicrobial agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114396DOI Listing
January 2022

HPLC-DAD Based Polyphenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Pharmacological Attributes of Wall.

Molecules 2021 Dec 23;27(1). Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

The current study was intended to explore the phytochemical profiling and therapeutic activities of Wall. Crude extracts of different plant parts were subjected to the determination of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, and protein kinase inhibitory potential by using solvents of varying polarity ranges. Maximum phenolic content was notified in distilled water extracts of the stem (DW-S) and leaf (DW-L) while the highest flavonoid content was obtained in ethyl acetate leaf (EA-L) extract. HPLC-DAD analysis confirmed the presence of various polyphenols, quantified in the range of 0.02 ± 0.36 to 2.05 ± 0.18 μg/mg extract. Maximum DPPH scavenging activity was expressed by methanolic extract of the stem (MeOH-S). The highest antioxidant capacity and reducing power was shown by MeOH-S and leaf methanolic extract (MeOH-L), respectively. Proficient antibacterial activity was shown by EA-L extract against and . Remarkable α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition potential was expressed by ethyl acetate fruit (EA-F) and n-Hexane leaf (nH-L) extracts, respectively. In case of brine shrimp lethality assay, 41.67% of the extracts (LC < 50 µg/mL) were considered as extremely cytotoxic. The test extracts also showed mild antifungal and protein kinase inhibition activities. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of . and calls for subsequent studies to isolate new bioactive leads through bioactivity-guided isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746485PMC
December 2021

Impact of Sprouting under Potassium Nitrate Priming on Nitrogen Assimilation and Bioactivity of Three Species.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 27;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium.

Edible sprouts are rich in flavonoids and other polyphenols, as well as proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Increasing sprout consumption necessitates improving their quality, palatability, and bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to test how KNO priming affects the sprouting process species on three species (, , and ) and their nutritional values. Targeted species of were primed with KNO, and the levels of different primary and secondary metabolites were determined. KNO induced biomass accumulation in the sprouts of the three species, accompanied by an increased content of total mineral nutrients, pigments, vitamins, and essential amino acids. Besides, our results showed that KNO enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes, which are involved in the nitrogen metabolism and GOGAT cycle, which, in turn, increase the nitrogen and protein production. KNO treatment improved the bioactive compound activities of sprouts by increasing total phenolic and flavonoid contents and enhancing the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. Furthermore, species-specific responses toward KNO priming were noticeable, where showed the highest antioxidant and antidiabetic activities, followed by . Overall, this study sheds the light on the physiological and biochemical bases of growth, metabolism, and tissue quality improvement impact of KNO on sprouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11010071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8747570PMC
December 2021

Synthesis and application of CdS nanoparticles-decorated core-shell [email protected] nanohybrids for visible-light spectrophotometric assay of sulfide in aqueous sample.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Dec 22;270:120793. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Novel [email protected] nanosphere decorated with CdS NPs ([email protected] NCs) was synthesized by one step chemical synthesis method. The fabricated NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transfer infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), zeta sizer and particle size analyzer. TEM and XRD confirmed the Ag in core and Ni in shell for the effective formation of [email protected] core shell nanosphere. EDAX and XPS spectra of NCs confirms the formation of [email protected] NCs. Zeta potential and particle size of the NCs was found to be 29.5 ± 1.5 mV and 24 ± 1 nm respectively. The complete loss in the peak intensity of [email protected] NCs (localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)) at ∼410 nm in presence of S ions was observed which indicates its selective detection towards S ions. The sulfide ion sensing by [email protected] NCs was due to the successive oxidation of Ag results in the formulation of Ag ions in the system, which causes the diminishing of LSPR band of NCs. The limit of detection (LOD) of S ions by [email protected] NCs was calculated to be of 2.66 nM. The combination of CdS NPs with core-shell [email protected] nanosphere guides a promising strategy for S ions detection from environmental polluted samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120793DOI Listing
December 2021

Evaluation of the phycoremediation potential of microalgae for captan removal: Comprehensive analysis on toxicity, detoxification and antioxidants modulation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Dec 30;427:128177. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Captan is one of the most widely used organochlorine fungicides, its frequent application contaminates both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and negatively affects their key ecological processes. This study demonstrated the toxicity and efficient removal of captan by two different taxonomic species; the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus and cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. After a week of exposure to mild (15 mg/L) and severe (30 mg/L) captan doses, the intracellular captan uptake, degradation and metabolic regulation of captan detoxification were studied. Compared to N. muscorum, S. obliquus accumulated more captan, but efficiently degraded it into two safe eco-friendly by-products; phthalic acid and 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro phthalimide. S. obliquus showed less decrease in cell growth, photosynthesis activity and related parameters including Chla content and activity of PEPC and RuBisCo enzymes. Captan at the severe dose induced oxidative damage particularly in N. muscorum, as expressed by the high levels of HO, MDA, NADPH oxidase and protein peroxidation. Both species invested glutathione-s-transferase enzyme in captan detoxification however, induction of antioxidant defence system e.g. ascorbate and glutathione cycle was more pronounced in S. obliquus which could explain its tolerance ability. This study provided a better understanding of the environmental risks of captan and introduced S. obliquus as a promising captan phycoremediator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.128177DOI Listing
December 2021

Potential use of a novel actinobacterial species to ameliorate tungsten nanoparticles induced oxidative damage in cereal crops.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt. Electronic address:

Tungsten nanoparticles (WNPs) could induce hazard impact on plant growth and development; however, no study investigated their phytotoxicity. On the other hand, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can effectively reduce WNPs toxicity. To this end, Nocardiopsis sp. was isolated and employed to mitigate the phytotoxic effect of WNPs on three crops (wheat, barley, and oat). Soil contamination with WPNs induced the W accumulation in all tested crops, inhibited both growth and photosynthesis and induced oxidative damage. On the other hand, pre-inoculation with Nocardiopsis sp. significantly reduced W level in treated plants. Concomitantly, Nocardiopsis sp. strikingly mitigated the inhibitory effect of WNPs by augmenting both growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. To cope with heavy metal stress, all the tested species orchestrated their antioxidant homeostasis through enhancing the production of antioxidant metabolites (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids and tocopherols) and elevated the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes (e.g., APX, POX, CAT, as well as the enzymes involved in AsA/GSH cycle). Moreover, pre-inoculation with Nocardiopsis sp. improved the detoxification metabolism by enhancing the accumulation of phytochelatins (PCs), metallothionein (MTC) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in grasses grown in WNPs-contaminated soils. Overall, restrained ROS homeostasis and improved WNPs detoxification systems were the bases underlie the WNPs stress mitigating impact of Nocardiopsis sp treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.11.042DOI Listing
December 2021

Bacterial Endophytes as a Promising Approach to Enhance the Growth and Accumulation of Bioactive Metabolites of Three Species of Sprouts.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 13;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62521, Egypt.

Sprouts are regarded as an untapped source of bioactive components that display various biological properties. Endophytic bacterium inoculation can enhance plant chemical composition and improve its nutritional quality. Herein, six endophytes (Endo 1 to Endo 6) were isolated from plants and morphologically and biochemically identified. Then, the most active isolate Endo 2 (strain JSA11) was employed to enhance the growth and nutritive value of the sprouts of three species, i.e., , and . Endo 2 (strain JSA11) induced photosynthesis and the mineral uptake, which can explain the high biomass accumulation. Endo 2 (strain JSA11) improved the nutritive values of the treated sprouts through bioactive metabolite (antioxidants, vitamins, unsaturated fatty acid, and essential amino acids) accumulation. These increases were correlated with increased amino acid levels and phenolic metabolism. Consequently, the antioxidant activity of the Endo 2 (strain JSA11)-treated sprouts was enhanced. Moreover, Endo 2 (strain JSA11) increased the antibacterial activity against several pathogenic bacteria and the anti-inflammatory activities as evidenced by the reduced activity of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Overall, the Endo 2 (strain JSA11) treatment is a successful technique to enhance the bioactive contents and biological properties of sprouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10122745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8704246PMC
December 2021

Developmental Stages-Specific Response of Anise Plants to Laser-Induced Growth, Nutrients Accumulation, and Essential Oil Metabolism.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Nov 26;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef 62521, Egypt.

Compared to seeds and mature tissues, sprouts are well known for their higher nutritive and biological values. Fruits of (anise) are extensively consumed as food additives; however, the sprouting-induced changes in their nutritious metabolites are hardly studied. Herein, we investigated the bioactive metabolites, phytochemicals, and antioxidant properties of fruits, sprouts (9-day-old), and mature tissue (5-week-old) of anise under laser irradiation treatment (He-Ne laser, 632 nm). Laser treatment increased biomass accumulation of both anise sprouts and mature plants. Bioactive primary (e.g., proteins and sugars) and secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolic compounds), as well as mineral levels, were significantly enhanced by sprouting and/or laser light treatment. Meanwhile, laser light has improved the levels of essential oils and their related precursors (e.g., phenylalanine), as well as enzyme activities [e.g., O-methyltransferase and 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS)] in mature tissues. Moreover, laser light induced higher levels of antioxidant and anti-lipidemic activities in sprouts as compared to fruits and mature tissues. Particularly at the sprouting stage, anise was more responsive to laser light treatment than mature plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10122591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708645PMC
November 2021

Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Daturaolone from Mill.: In Silico, In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Nov 30;14(12). Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

Exploration of leads with therapeutic potential in inflammatory disorders is worth pursuing. In line with this, the isolated natural compound daturaolone from Mill. was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory potential using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. Daturaolone follows Lipinski's drug-likeliness rule with a score of 0.33. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction show strong plasma protein binding; gastrointestinal absorption (Caco-2 cells permeability = 34.6 nm/s); no blood-brain barrier penetration; CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 metabolism; a major metabolic reaction, being aliphatic hydroxylation; no hERG inhibition; and non-carcinogenicity. Predicted molecular targets were mainly inflammatory mediators. Molecular docking depicted H-bonding interaction with nuclear factor kappa beta subunit (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase, phospholipase A2, serotonin transporter, dopamine receptor D1 and 5-hydroxy tryptamine. Its cytotoxicity (IC) value in normal lymphocytes was >20 µg/mL as compared to cancer cells (Huh7.5; 17.32 ± 1.43 µg/mL). Daturaolone significantly inhibited NF-κB and nitric oxide production with IC values of 1.2 ± 0.8 and 4.51 ± 0.92 µg/mL, respectively. It significantly reduced inflammatory paw edema (81.73 ± 3.16%), heat-induced pain (89.47 ± 9.01% antinociception) and stress-induced depression (68 ± 9.22 s immobility time in tail suspension test). This work suggests a possible anti-inflammatory role of daturaolone; however, detailed mechanistic studies are still necessary to corroborate and extrapolate the findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14121248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708807PMC
November 2021

Harnessing Endophytic Fungi for Enhancing Growth, Tolerance and Quality of Rose-Scented Geranium ( (L'Hér) Thunb.) Plants under Cadmium Stress: A Biochemical Study.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Dec 3;7(12). Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Heavy metal contamination in soil is increasing rapidly due to increasing anthropogenic activities. Despite the importance of rose-scented geranium as a medicinal plant, little attention was paid to enhancing its productivity in heavy metal-polluted soil. In this regard, endophytes improve plant resistance to heavy metal toxicity and enhance its tissue quality. Here, the impact of the three endophytic fungi (E6651), s (E6658), and (E6657) on geranium growth, tolerance, and tissue quality under cadmium (Cd) stress was investigated. In contrast to . , . and . enhanced geranium growth and the stimulatory effect was more pronounced under Cd-stress. The three endophytes significantly alleviated Cd accumulation and increased mineral content in geranium leaves. In addition, endophytic fungi successfully alleviated Cd-induced membrane damage and reinforced the antioxidant defenses in geranium leaves. Inoculation with endophytes stimulated all the antioxidant enzymes under Cd-stress, and the response was more obvious in the case of . and . . To reduce the toxicity of tissue-Cd levels, . and . upregulated the detoxification mechanisms; glutathione-S-transferase, phytochelatin, and metallothionein levels. Moreover, endophytic fungi improved the medicinal value and quality of geranium by increasing total antioxidant capacity (TAC), phenolic compound biosynthesis (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase), and vitamin content as well as the quantity and quality of essential oil, particularly under Cd-stress conditions. The variation in the mechanisms modulated by the different endophytic fungi was supported by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Overall, this study provided fundamental insights into endophytes' impact as a feasible strategy to mitigate the phytotoxicity hazards of Cd-stress in geranium and enhance its quality, based on the growth and biochemical investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7121039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8705862PMC
December 2021

Withaferin A: From Ancient Remedy to Potential Drug Candidate.

Molecules 2021 Dec 20;26(24). Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

Withaferin A (WA) is a pivotal withanolide that has conquered a conspicuous place in research, owning to its multidimensional biological properties. It is an abundant constituent in Dunal. (Ashwagandha, WS) that is one of the prehistoric pivotal remedies in Ayurveda. This article reviews the literature about the pharmacological profile of WA with special emphasis on its anticancer aspect. We reviewed research publications concerning WA through four databases and provided a descriptive analysis of literature without statistical or qualitative analysis. WA has been found as an effective remedy with multifaceted mechanisms and a broad spectrum of pharmacological profiles. It has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiherpetic, antifibrotic, antiplatelet, profibrinolytic, immunosuppressive, antipigmentation, antileishmanial, and healing potentials. Evidence for wide pharmacological actions of WA has been established by both in vivo and in vitro studies. Further, the scientific literature accentuates the role of WA harboring a variable therapeutic spectrum for integrative cancer chemoprevention and cure. WA is a modern drug from traditional medicine that is necessary to be advanced to clinical trials for advocating its utility as a commercial drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8705790PMC
December 2021

N.E.Br Manifests Extraction Medium Reliant Disparity in Phytochemical and Pharmacological Analysis.

Molecules 2021 Dec 13;26(24). Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerpen, Belgium.

Solubility of phytoconstituents depends on the polarity of the extraction medium used, which might result in the different pharmacological responses of extracts. In line with this, ethnomedicinally important food plant (i.e., extracts) have been made in fourteen distinct solvent systems that were then analyzed phytochemically via total phenolic amount estimation, total flavonoid amount estimation, and HPLC detection and quantification of the selected polyphenols. Test extracts were then subjected to a battery of in vitro assays i.e., antioxidants (DDPH scavenging, antioxidant capacity, and reducing power estimation), antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antileishmanial), cytotoxic (brine shrimps, THP-1 human leukemia cell lines and normal lymphocytes), and protein kinase inhibition assays. Maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were computed in distilled water-acetone and acetone extracts (i.e., 16 ± 1 μg/mg extract and 8 ± 0.4/mg extract, respectively). HPLC-DAD quantified rutin (0.58 µg/mg extract) and gallic acid (0.4 µg/mg extract) in methanol-ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Water-acetone extract exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging of 36 ± 1%. Total reducing potential of 76.0 ± 1 μg/mg extract was shown by ethanol chloroform while maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted by the acetone extract (92.21 ± 0.70 μg/mg extract). Maximal antifungal effect against , antileishmanial, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, THP-1 cell line cytotoxicity, and protein kinase inhibitory activities were shown by ethyl acetate-methanol (MIC: 50 µg/disc), n-hexane (IC: 120.8 ± 3.7 µg/mL), ethyl acetate (LD: 29.94 ± 1.6 µg/mL), distilled water-acetone (IC: 118 ± 3.4 µg/mL) and methanol-chloroform (ZOI: 19 ± 1 mm) extracts, respectively. Our findings show the dependency of phytochemicals and bioactivities on the polarity of the extraction solvent and our preliminary screening suggests the extract formulations to be tested and used in different ailments, however, detailed studies remain necessary for corroboration with our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8703747PMC
December 2021

Profiling of Antifungal Activities and In Silico Studies of Natural Polyphenols from Some Plants.

Molecules 2021 Nov 26;26(23). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

A worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections, emergence of new fungal strains, and antifungal resistance to commercially available antibiotics indicate the need to investigate new treatment options for fungal diseases. Therefore, the interest in exploring the antifungal activity of medicinal plants has now been increased to discover phyto-therapeutics in replacement to conventional antifungal drugs. The study was conducted to explore and identify the mechanism of action of antifungal agents of edible plants, including and . The antifungal potential was assessed via the disc diffusion method and, subsequently, the extracts were assessed for phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity. Potent polyphenols were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antifungal mechanism of action was evaluated in silico. exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains while all plant extracts showed antifungal activity against . Rutin, kaempferol, and quercetin were identified as common polyphenols. In silico studies showed that rutin displayed the greatest affinity with binding pocket of fungal 14-alpha demethylase and nucleoside diphosphokinase with the binding affinity (K, -9.4 and -8.9, respectively), as compared to terbinafine. Results indicated that and exert their antifungal effect possibly due to kaempferol and rutin, respectively, or possibly by inhibition of nucleoside diphosphokinase (NDK) and 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51), while and might exhibit antifungal potential due to quercetin. Overall, the study demonstrates that plant-derived products have a high potential to control fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8659076PMC
November 2021

Influence of seawater acidification on biochemical composition and oxidative status of green algae Ulva compressa.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Feb 21;806(Pt 1):150445. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Antwerp, Department of Biology, Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research Group, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514, Egypt.

The sequestration of elevated atmospheric CO levels in seawater results in increasing acidification of oceans and it is unclear what the consequences of this will be on seaweed ecophysiology and ecological services they provide in the coastal ecosystem. In the present study, we examined the physiological and biochemical response of intertidal green seaweed Ulva compressa to elevated pCO induced acidification. The green seaweed was exposed to control (pH 8.1) and acidified (pH 7.7) conditions for 2 weeks following which net primary productivity, pigment content, oxidative status and antioxidant enzymes, primary and secondary metabolites, and mineral content were assessed. We observed an increase in primary productivity of the acidified samples, which was associated with increased levels of photosynthetic pigments. Consequently, primary metabolites levels were increased in the thalli grown under lowered pH conditions. There was also richness in various minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids, indicating that the low pH elevated the nutritional quality of U. compressa. We found that low pH reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content, suggesting reduced oxidative stress. Consistently we found reduced total antioxidant capacity and a general reduction in the majority of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the thalli grown under acidified conditions. Our results indicate that U. compressa will benefit from seawater acidification by improving productivity. Biochemical changes will affect its nutritional qualities, which may impact the food chain/food web under future acidified ocean conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150445DOI Listing
February 2022

Effect of Elevated CO on Biomolecules' Accumulation in Caraway ( L.) Plants at Different Developmental Stages.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Nov 11;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Desert Research Centre, Cairo 11753, Egypt.

Caraway plants have been known as a rich source of phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, monoterpenoid glucosides and alkaloids. In this regard, the application of elevated CO (eCO) as a bio-enhancer for increasing plant growth and phytochemical content has been the focus of many studies; however, the interaction between eCO and plants at different developmental stages has not been extensively explored. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the changes in growth, photosynthesis and phytochemicals of caraway plants at two developmental stages (sprouts and mature tissues) under control and increased CO conditions (ambient CO (a CO, 400 ± 27 μmol CO mol air) and eCO, 620 ± 42 μmol CO mol air ppm). Moreover, we evaluated the impact of eCO-induced changes in plant metabolites on the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of caraway sprouts and mature plants. CO enrichment increased photosynthesis and biomass accumulation of both caraway stages. Regarding their phytochemical contents, caraway plants interacted differently with eCO, depending on their developmental stages. High levels of CO enhanced the production of total nutrients, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, fats and crude fibers, as well as organic and amino acids, in an equal pattern in both caraway sprouts and mature plants. Interestingly, the eCO-induced effect on minerals, vitamins and phenolics was more pronounced in caraway sprouts than the mature tissues. Furthermore, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of caraway plants were enhanced under eCO treatment, particularly at the mature stage. Overall, eCO provoked changes in the phytochemical contents of caraway plants, particularly at the sprouting stage and, hence, improved their nutritive and health-promoting properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10112434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619137PMC
November 2021

Potential Importance of Molybdenum Priming to Metabolism and Nutritive Value of spp. Sprouts.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Nov 5;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerpen, Belgium.

Molybdenum ions (Mo) can improve plants' nutritional value primarily by enhancing nitrogenous metabolism. In this study, the comparative effects of seed priming using Mo were evaluated among sproutings of species/cultivars, including (CA1), (CA2), and (CA3). Mo impacts on growth, metabolism (e.g., nitrogen and phenolic metabolism, pigment and total nutrient profiles), and biological activities were assayed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate Mo-mediated impacts. The results showed that Mo induced photosynthetic pigments that resulted in an improvement in growth and increased biomass. The N content was increased 0.3-fold in CA3 and 0.2-fold in CA1 and CA2. Enhanced nitrogen metabolism by Mo provided the precursors for amino acids, protein, and lipid biosynthesis. At the secondary metabolic level, phenolic metabolism-related precursors and enzyme activities were also differentially increased in species/cultivars. The observed increase in metabolism resulted in the enhancement of the antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and antidiabetic potential (Glycemic index (GI) and inhibition activity of α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) of species. The antioxidant activity increased 20% in CA3, 14% in CA1, and 8% in CA2. Furthermore, PCA showed significant variations not only between Mo-treated and untreated samples but also among species. Overall, this study indicated that the sprouts of species have tremendous potential for commercial usage due to their high nutritive value, which can be enhanced further with Mo treatment to accomplish the demand for nutritious feed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10112387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625590PMC
November 2021

Differences in Cadmium Accumulation, Detoxification and Antioxidant Defenses between Contrasting Maize Cultivars Implicate a Role of Superoxide Dismutase in Cd Tolerance.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Nov 15;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Cadmium (Cd), a readily absorbed and translocated toxic heavy metal, inhibits plant growth, interrupts metabolic homeostasis and induces oxidative damage. Responses towards Cd-stress differ among plant cultivars, and the complex integrated relationships between Cd accumulation, detoxification mechanisms and antioxidant defenses still need to be unraveled. To this end, 12 Egyptian maize cultivars were grown under Cd-stress to test their Cd-stress tolerance. Out of these cultivars, tolerant (TWC360 and TWC321), moderately sensitive (TWC324) and sensitive (SC128) cultivars were selected, and we determined their response to Cd in terms of biomass, Cd accumulation and antioxidant defense system. The reduction in biomass was highly obvious in sensitive cultivars, while TWC360 and TWC321 showed high Cd-tolerance. The cultivar TWC321 showed lower Cd uptake concurrently with an enhanced antioxidant defense system. Interestingly, TWC360 accumulated more Cd in the shoot, accompanied with increased Cd detoxification and sequestration. A principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between the sensitive and tolerant cultivars with significance of the antioxidant defenses, including superoxide dismutase (SOD). To confirm the involvement of SOD in Cd-tolerance, we studied the effect of Cd-stress on a transgenic maize line (TG) constitutively overexpressing gene in comparison to its wild type (WT). Compared to their WT, the TG plants showed less Cd accumulation and improved growth, physiology, antioxidant and detoxification systems. These results demonstrate the role of SOD in determining Cd-tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8614887PMC
November 2021

Improved Mineral Acquisition, Sugars Metabolism and Redox Status after Mycorrhizal Inoculation Are the Basis for Tolerance to Vanadium Stress in C3 and C4 Grasses.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Oct 27;7(11). Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Vanadium (V) can be beneficial or toxic to plant growth and the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and V stress was rarely investigated at physiological and biochemical levels of plant groups (C3 and C4) and organs (roots and shoots). We tested the potential of AMF to alleviate the negative effects of V (350 mg V/Kg soil) on shoots and roots of rye and sorghum. Relative to sorghum (C4), rye (C3) showed higher levels of V and lower levels of key elements under V stress conditions. V inhibited growth, photosynthesis, and induced photorespiration (increased HDR & GO activities) and oxidative damage in both plants. AMF colonization reduced V stress by differently mitigating the oxidative stress in rye and sorghum. This mitigation was accompanied with increases in acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in plant roots and increased organic acids and polyphenols exudation into the soil, thus reduced V accumulation (29% and 58% in rye and sorghum shoot, respectively) and improved absorption of mineral nutrients including Ca, Mg and P. AMF colonization improved photosynthesis and increased the sugar accumulation and metabolism. Sugars also acted as a supplier of C skeletons for producing of antioxidants metabolite such as ascorbate. At the antioxidant level, rye was more responsive to the mitigating impact of AMF. Higher antioxidants and detoxification defence system (MTC, GST, phenolics, tocopherols and activities of CAT, SOD and POX) was recorded for rye, while sorghum (C4) improved its GR activity. The C3/C4-specificity was supported by principal component analysis. Together, this study provided both fundamental and applied insights into practical strategies to mitigate the phytotoxicity hazards of V in C3 and C4 grasses. Moreover, our results emphasize the importance of AMF as an environment-friendly factor to alleviate stress effects on plants and to improve growth and yield of unstressed plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7110915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625288PMC
October 2021

The differential tolerance of C3 and C4 cereals to aluminum toxicity is faded under future CO climate.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Dec 13;169:249-258. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt. Electronic address:

Industrial activities have led to a gradual and global increase in soil aluminum (Al) and atmospheric CO concentrations. Al bioavailability strongly depends on the soil pH, which in turn is affected by atmospheric CO levels. In spite of the concurrent impact which Al and elevated CO (eCO) could have on plants, their interaction and how it might affect the growth of economically important crop species has not been investigated. Here, we have investigated the combined impact of soil Al and eCO exposure on key C3 (wheat, oat) and C4 (maize, sorghum) crops, at the physiological and biochemical level. Compared to C3 plants, C4 plants accumulated less Al by stimulating soil Al retention through exudation of root organic acids. Consequently, Al-exposed C4 plants maintained photosynthetic performance and anti-oxidative capacity. Exposure to eCO reduced the stress responses of C3 and C4 crops to Al exposure. Elevated CO decreased Al accumulation and oxidative damage in all cereals, and ameliorated C3 plant growth. This was reflected on the biochemical level, where eCO inhibited ROS production and restored RuBisCo activity in C3 crops only. Overall, our data suggest that, compared to C3 crops, C4 cereals are more tolerant to soil Al exposure under current ambient CO (aCO) levels whereas future eCO levels might stimulate Al tolerance in C3 crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.11.018DOI Listing
December 2021

Chitosan capped Ag/NiS nanocomposites: A novel colorimetric probe for detection of L-cysteine at nanomolar level and its anti-microbial activity.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Dec 10;193(Pt B):2054-2061. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

L-Cysteine (L-cys) plays very crucial role in biological systems. The study reports the colorimetric detection of L-cys at nanomolar level using chitosan capped Ag decorated NiS nanocomposite (chit-Ag/NiS NCs).The chemical reduction and co-precipitation methods were adopted to prepare chit-Ag/NiS NCs. The fabricated NCs was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), FT-Raman, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chit-Ag/NiS NCs particularly detect L-cys even in other amino acids presence. The chit-Ag/NiS NCs showed the surface charge of -26 ± 39.9 mV. The detection of L-cys was indicated by disappearance of yellowish-brown color of Chit-Ag/NiS NCs to colorless. A good linear correlation was found between absorbance vs logarithmic concentration of L-cys (1 μM to 1 nM) with R value of 0.99. The chit-Ag/NiS NCs impregnated cotton swabs was prepared for real time detection of L-cys and the prepared probe was found to be highly selective and specific. The effect of pH, temperature and salinity influencing the L-cys detection was studied. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Chit-Ag/NiS NCs was investigated against gram negative (E. coli) and gram positive (B. subtilis) bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.037DOI Listing
December 2021

Effect of Elevated CO on Seed Yield, Essential Oil Metabolism, Nutritive Value, and Biological Activity of L. Accessions at Different Seed Maturity Stages.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

Besides the lack of studies regarding applying elevated CO (eCO) as a strategy to improve the chemical composition of anise ( L.) seeds, studies on its interaction with seed developmental stages and origin are very limited. The seed yield, chemical composition, and biological activity of 6 aniseed accessions (Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, and Morocco) were investigated during three developmental stages (immature, premature, and mature) under control and elevated CO conditions. Mature seeds from all aniseed accessions had significantly higher ( < 0.05) dry weight (DW) percentages than premature and immature seeds. The highest DW percentages were recorded in Egypt and Morocco accessions. Seed maturation increased nutrients and antioxidant metabolites in most eCO-treated accessions. In contrast, essential oils were decreased by seed maturation, while eCO reversed this effect. Essential oil-related precursors (e.g., phenylalanine) and enzyme activities (3-Deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS) and O-methyltransferase) decreased with seed maturity. However, high CO reduced this impact and further induced the other essential oil-related precursors (shikimic and cinnamic acids). Consequently, eCO provoked changes in the antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activities of aniseeds, particularly at mature stages. Overall, eCO application, as an efficient way to improve aniseed growth, essential oil metabolism, and chemical composition, was affected by seed maturation and origin. Future studies of eCO-treated aniseeds as a nutraceutical and pharmaceutical product are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10100979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8533523PMC
September 2021

Sprouts Grown under Elevated CO Hyperaccumulate Glucosinolates and Antioxidants and Exhibit Enhanced Biological and Reduced Antinutritional Properties.

Biomolecules 2021 08 9;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

The nutritional and health-promoting properties of plants are largely determined by their tissue chemistry. Tuning growth conditions could affect the accumulation of phytochemicals and, therefore, enhance the biological activities. Herein, the impact of elevated CO (eCO; 620 µmol CO mol air) on growth and chemical composition of sprouts of three cultivars (Haraz, Khider and Rajab) was investigated. Changes in the sprout actions against some human chronic diseases were evaluated. eCO induced biomass accumulation (1.46-, 1.47- and 2-fold in Haraz, Khider and Rajab, respectively) and pigment accumulation and reduced the level of antinutrients in cultivars. Compared to the control, eCO induced total glucosinolate accumulation (0.40-, 0.90- and 1.29-fold in Khider, Haraz and Rajab, respectively), possibly through increased amino acid production, and their hydrolysis by myrosinase. In line with increased polyphenol production, improved phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, antibacterial and anticancer activities of the produced sprouts were significantly improved by sprouting and eCO exposure. PCA indicated that the cultivars showed interspecific responses. Thus, the present study confirms the synergistic effect of sprouting with eCO exposure as a promising approach to produce more bioactive sprouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11081174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392048PMC
August 2021

Future climate CO can harness ROS homeostasis and improve cell wall fortification to alleviate the hazardous effect of Phelipanche infection in pea seedlings.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 21;166:1131-1141. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt. Electronic address:

Parasitic weeds such as Phelipanche aegyptiaca pose one of the most significant environmental constraints to cropping systems worldwide. The influence of P. aegyptiaca upon host plants is well studied, nevertheless, how future climate CO (eCO) can affect P. aegyptiaca parasite-host interactions is not yet investigated. Considering the protective effect of eCO, we studied its ability to mitigate the severity of P. aegyptiaca infection in pea plants (Pisum sativum). Our results revealed that Phelipanche infection strikingly reduced pea growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, infection with Phelipanche greatly burst the oxidative damage in pea plants by elevating photorespiration and NADPH oxidase activity. Contradictory, eCO extremely quenched the severity of P. aegyptiaca infection by diminishing the number and biomass of P. aegyptiaca tubercles. Additionally, eCO considerably mitigated the physiological and biochemical alterations exerted by Phelipanche upon pea seedlings. Within the physiological range, eCO augmented photosynthesis, that consequentially affected carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, eCO highly mitigated the infection menace via quenching ROS overaccumulation which, sequentially reduced oxidative damage in infected pea plants. More interestingly, eCO improved cell wall fortification by enhancing lignin accumulation that considers the first line of defense against parasite penetration. Overall, this study concluded that pea plants grown in an atmosphere enriched with CO can efficiently cope with P. aegyptiaca infection via reducing Phelipanche tubercles, modulating ROS homeostasis, and enhancing cell wall fortification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.07.020DOI Listing
September 2021

Soil enrichment with actinomycete mitigates the toxicity of arsenic oxide nanoparticles on wheat and maize growth and metabolism.

Physiol Plant 2021 Nov 22;173(3):978-992. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Faculty of Science, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to enhance plant growth and protection against heavy metal toxicity has been extensively studied. However, its potentiality to reduce arsenate toxicity, a threat to plant growth and metabolism, has been hardly investigated. Moreover, the toxic effect of arsenic oxide nanoparticles (As-NPs) on plants and possible mechanisms for its alleviation has not yet been explored. In this study, the impact of the bioactive actinomycete Streptomyces spp. on the growth, physiology and stress-related metabolites, such as sugars and proline, on As-NPs-stressed wheat and maize plants was investigated. Soil amendment with arsenic oxide nanoparticles (As-NPs) induced the uptake and accumulation of As in the plants of both species, resulting in reduced growth and photosynthesis, but less marked in maize than in wheat plants. Under As-NPs-free conditions, Streptomyces spp. treatment markedly improved growth and photosynthesis in wheat only. The application of Streptomyces spp. reduced As accumulation, recovered the As-NPs-induced growth, photosynthesis inhibition, and oxidative damage in plants of both species. Wheat plants specifically accumulated soluble sugars, while both species accumulated proline. Under As-NPs stress, the ornithine pathway of proline biosynthesis was more important in maize than in wheat plants, while the glutamine pathway was dominant in wheat ones. The addition of Streptomyces spp. further induced the accumulation of proline and starch in both plant species. Overall, despite a different response to Streptomyces spp. under nontoxic conditions, the amendment of as-contaminated soil with Streptomyces spp. induced similar metabolic responses in the two tested species, which trigger stress recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13496DOI Listing
November 2021

An actinomycete strain of Nocardiopsis lucentensis reduces arsenic toxicity in barley and maize.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 8;417:126055. Epub 2021 May 8.

Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Accumulation of arsenic in plant tissues poses a substantial threat to global crop yields. The use of plant growth-promoting bacterial strains to mitigate heavy metal toxicity has been illustrated before. However, its potential to reduce plant arsenic uptake and toxicity has not been investigated to date. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a Nocardiopsis lucentensis strain isolated from heavy metal contaminated soil. Inoculation with this bioactive actinomycete strain decreased arsenic root and shoot bioaccumulation in both C3 and C4 crop species namely barley and maize. Upon arsenate treatment, N. lucentensis S5 stimulated root citric acid production and the plant's innate detoxification capacity in a species-specific manner. In addition, this specific strain promoted biomass gain, despite substantial tissue arsenic levels. Detoxification (metallothionein, phytochelatin, glutathione-S-transferase levels) was upregulated in arsenate-exposed shoot and roots, and this response was further enhanced upon S5 supplementation, particularly in barley and maize roots. Compared to barley, maize plants were more tolerant to arsenate-induced oxidative stress (less HO and lipid peroxidation levels). However, barley plants invested more in antioxidative capacity induction (ascorbate-glutathione turnover) to mitigate arsenic oxidative stress, which was strongly enhanced by S5. We quantify and mechanistically discuss the physiological and biochemical basis of N. lucentensis-mediated plant biomass recovery on arsenate polluted soils. Our findings substantiate the potential applicability of a bactoremediation strategy to mitigate arsenic-induced yield loss in crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126055DOI Listing
September 2021

Establishment of actinobacteria-Satureja hortensis interactions under future climate CO-enhanced crop productivity in drought environments of Saudi Arabia.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 3;28(44):62853-62867. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62521, Egypt.

Drought is a significant global constraint on agricultural production and food security. As a promising approach to improve plant growth and yield under challenging conditions, plant growth-promoting actinobacteria has attracted much interest. Further, elevated levels of atmospheric CO (eCO) may promote the plant-actinobacteria interactions which could be effective to improve the plant growth for food production. Herein, we have investigated the impact of actinobacteria and/or CO on biomass production, photosynthesis, macronutrients, levels of organic acids, amino acids, and essential oils as well as antioxidant activities of Satureja hortensis under water-deficit conditions. Among different actinobacterial isolates evaluated for development of secondary metabolites and biological activities, Ac9 was highly capable of producing flavonoids, and it also showed high antioxidant and microbial activities. It markedly induced the plant growth, photosynthesis, and global metabolic improvement, under water-deficit conditions. Interestingly, treatment with Ac9 in combination with eCO substantially minimized drought stress-induced biomass and photosynthesis reductions in Satureja hortensis. Improved photosynthesis by Ac9 and/or eCO induced the primary and secondary metabolisms in drought-stressed plants. The levels of the majority of the detected organic acids, essential oil, and amino acids were further improved as a result of the synergistic action of Ac9 and eCO, as compared to the individual treatments. Furthermore, Ac9 or eCO significantly improved the antioxidant activities in stressed plants; however, much more positive impact was obtained by their synchronous application. Thus, the current study suggests that actinobacterial treatment induces global metabolic changes in water-stressed Satureja hortensis, the effects that have been much more strengthened under eCO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14777-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Mitigate Aluminum Toxicity and Regulate Proline Metabolism in Plants Grown in Acidic Soil.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jun 30;7(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Laboratory for Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research (IMPRES), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp 2020, Belgium.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can promote plant growth and induce stress tolerance. Proline is reported to accumulate in mycorrhizal plants under stressful conditions, such as aluminum (Al) stress. However, the detailed changes induced in proline metabolism under AMF-plant symbiosis has not been studied. Accordingly, this work aimed to study how Al-stressed grass (barley) and legume (lotus) species respond to AMF inoculation at growth and biochemical levels. The associated changes in Al uptake and accumulation, the rate of photosynthesis, and the key enzymes and metabolites involved in proline biosynthesis and degradation pathways were studied. Soil contamination with Al induced Al accumulation in tissues of both species and, consequently, reduced plant growth and the rate of photosynthesis, while more tolerance was noticed in lotus. Inoculation with AMF significantly reduced Al accumulation and mitigated the negative impacts of Al on growth and photosynthesis in both species; however, these positive effects were more pronounced in barley plants. The mitigating action of AMF was associated with upregulation of proline biosynthesis through glutamate and ornithine pathways, more in lotus than in barley, and repression of its catabolism. The increased proline level in lotus was consistent with improved N metabolism (N level and nitrate reductase). Overall, this study suggests the role of AMF in mitigating Al stress, where regulation of proline metabolism is a worthy mechanism underlying this mitigating action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7070531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304902PMC
June 2021

Drought tolerance in selected aerobic and upland rice varieties is driven by different metabolic and antioxidative responses.

Planta 2021 Jun 25;254(1):13. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Main Conclusions: Sugar-mediated osmotic acclimation and a strong antioxidative response reduce drought-induced biomass loss at the vegetative stage in rice. A clear understanding of the physiological and biochemical adaptations to water limitation in upland and aerobic rice can help to identify the mechanisms underlying their tolerance to low water availability. In this study, three indica rice varieties-IR64 (lowland), Apo (aerobic), and UPL Ri-7 (upland)-, that are characterized by contrasting levels of drought tolerance, were exposed to drought at the vegetative stage. Drought-induced changes in biomass, leaf metabolites and oxidative stress markers/enzyme activities were analyzed in each variety at multiple time points. The two drought-tolerant varieties, Apo and UPL Ri-7 displayed a reduced water use in contrast to the susceptible variety IR64 that displayed high water consumption and consequent strong leaf dehydration upon drought treatment. A sugar-mediated osmotic acclimation in UPL Ri-7 and a strong antioxidative response in Apo were both effective in limiting the drought-induced biomass loss in these two varieties, while biomass loss was high in IR64, also after recovery. A qualitative comparison of these results with the ones of a similar experiment conducted in the field at the reproductive stage showed that only Apo, which also in this stage showed the highest antioxidant power, was able to maintain a stable grain yield under stress. Our results show that different metabolic and antioxidant adaptations confer drought tolerance to aerobic and upland rice varieties in the vegetative stage. The effectiveness of these adaptations differs between developmental stages. Unraveling the genetic control of these mechanisms might be exploited in breeding for new rice varieties adapted to water-limited environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03659-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233253PMC
June 2021

Elevated CO differently suppresses the arsenic oxide nanoparticles-induced stress in C3 (Hordeum vulgare) and C4 (Zea maize) plants via altered homeostasis in metabolites specifically proline and anthocyanin metabolism.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Sep 6;166:235-245. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt; Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Nano-sized arsenic oxide nanoparticles (AsO-NP) limit crop growth and productivity. AsO-NP represent a strong environmental hazard. The predicted rise in future atmospheric CO could boost plant growth both under optimal and heavy metal stress conditions. So far, the phytotoxicity of AsO-NP and their interaction with eCO were not investigated at physiological and metabolic levels in crop species groups such as C3 and C4. We investigated how eCO level (620 ppm) alleviated soil AsO-NP toxicity induced growth and mitigated oxidative damages through analysing photosynthetic parameters, primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins) metabolism in C3 (barley) and C4 (maize) plants. Compared to maize, barley accumulated higher AsO-NP level, which inhibited growth and induced oxidative damage particularly in barley (increased HO and lipid peroxidation). Interestingly, eCO differently mitigated AsO-NP toxicity on photosynthesis, which consequently improved sugar metabolism. Moreover, high carbon availability in eCO treated plants directed to produce osmo-protectant (soluble sugars and proline) and antioxidants (anthocyanins and tocopherols). In the line with increased proline and anthocyanins, their metabolism was also improved. Notable differences occurred between the two plant species. The ornithine pathway was preferred in maize while in barley proline accumulation was mainly through glutamate pathway. Moreover, under AsO-NP stress, barley preferentially accumulated anthocyanins while maize accumulated total phenolics and flavonoids. This work contributes to improving our understanding of the differences in growth, physiological and biochemical responses of major crops of two functional photosynthetic groups (C3 and C4 plants) under ambient and elevated CO grown under AsO-NP stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.05.036DOI Listing
September 2021

Perfluoroalkylated acids (PFAAs) accumulate in field-exposed snails (Cepaea sp.) and affect their oxidative status.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 27;790:148059. Epub 2021 May 27.

Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicologal Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group (BECO), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address:

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a group of synthetic persistent chemicals with distinctive properties, such as a high thermal and chemical stability, that make them suitable for a wide range of applications. They have been produced since the 1950s, resulting in a global contamination of the environment and wildlife. They are resistant to biodegradation and have the tendency to bio-accumulate in organisms and bio-magnify in the food chain. However, little is known about the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in terrestrial invertebrates, including how they affect the physiology and particularly oxidative status. Therefore, we studied the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in snails that were exposed for 3 and 6 weeks along a distance gradient radiating from a well-known fluorochemical hotspot (3M). In addition, we examined the potential effects of PFAAs on the oxidative status of these snails. Finally, we tested for relationships between the concentrations of PFAAs in snails with those in soil and nettles they were feeding on and the influence of soil physicochemical properties on these relationships. Our results showed higher concentrations of PFOA and/or PFOS in almost every matrix at the 3M site, but no concentration gradient along the distance gradient. The PFOS concentrations in snails were related to those in the nettles and soil, and were affected by multiple soil properties. For PFOA, we observed no relationships between soil and biota concentrations. Short-chained PFAAs were dominant in nettles, whereas in soil and snails long-chained PFAAs were dominant. We found a significant positive correlation between peroxidase, catalase and peroxiredoxins and PFAA concentrations, suggesting that snails, in terms of oxidative stress (OS) response, are possibly susceptible to PFAAs pollution. CAPSULE: We observed a positive correlation between the levels of PFAAs and the antioxidants peroxidase, catalase and peroxiredoxins in snails, exposed on nettles grown at contaminated sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148059DOI Listing
October 2021
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