Publications by authors named "Hamad Al-Mojalli"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A molecular genetic analysis of childhood nephrotic syndrome in a cohort of Saudi Arabian families.

J Hum Genet 2013 Jul 18;58(7):480-9. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a renal disease characterized by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema and hyperlipidemia. Its presentation within the first 3 months of life or in multiple family members suggests an underlying inherited cause. To determine the frequency of inherited NS, 62 cases (representing 49 families with NS) from Saudi Arabia were screened for mutations in NPHS1, NPHS2, LAMB2, PLCE1, CD2AP, MYO1E, WT1, PTPRO and Nei endonuclease VIII-like 1 (NEIL1). We detected likely causative mutations in 25 out of 49 families studied (51%). We found that the most common genetic cause of NS in our cohort was a homozygous mutation in the NPHS2 gene, found in 11 of the 49 families (22%). Mutations in the NPHS1 and PLCE1 genes allowed a molecular genetic diagnosis in 12% and 8% of families, respectively. We detected novel MYO1E mutations in three families (6%). No mutations were found in WT1, PTPRO or NEIL1. The pathogenicity of novel variants was analyzed by in silico tests and by genetic screening of ethnically matched control populations. This is the first report describing the molecular genetics of NS in the Arabian Peninsula.
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July 2013

Genetic diagnosis in consanguineous families with kidney disease by homozygosity mapping coupled with whole-exome sequencing.

Am J Kidney Dis 2011 Aug 12;58(2):186-95. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Stem Cell Therapy Program, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Accurate diagnosis of the primary cause of an individual's kidney disease can be essential for proper management. Some kidney diseases have overlapping histopathologic features despite being caused by defects in different genes. In this report, we describe 2 consanguineous Saudi Arabian families in which individuals presented with kidney failure and mixed clinical and histologic features initially believed to be consistent with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Study Design: Case series.

Setting & Participants: We studied members of 2 apparently unrelated families from Saudi Arabia with kidney disease.

Measurements: Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis followed by targeted isolation and sequencing of exons using genomic DNA samples from affected members of these families, followed by additional focused genotyping and sequence analysis.

Results: The 2 apparently unrelated families shared a region of homozygosity on chromosome 2q13. Exome sequence from affected individuals lacked sequence reads from the NPHP1 gene, which is located within this homozygous region. Additional polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping confirmed that affected individuals had NPHP1 deletions, rather than defects in a known focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-associated gene.

Limitations: The methods used here may not result in a clear genetic diagnosis in many cases of apparent familial kidney disease.

Conclusions: This analysis shows the power of new high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies to aid in the rapid genetic diagnosis of individuals with an inherited form of kidney disease. We believe it is likely that such tools may become useful clinical genetic tools and alter the manner in which diagnoses are made in nephrology.
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August 2011

Renal failure associated with APECED and terminal 4q deletion: evidence of autoimmune nephropathy.

Clin Dev Immunol 2010 14;2010:586342. Epub 2010 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Genetics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In addition, he has dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation, and severe global developmental delay. Patient had late development of chronic renal failure. The blastogenesis revealed depressed lymphocytes' response to Candida albicans at 38% when compared to control. Chromosome analysis of the patient revealed 46,XY,del(4)(q33). FISH using a 4p/4q subtelomere DNA probe assay confirmed the deletion of qter subtelomere on chromosome 4. Parental chromosomes were normal. The deleted array was further defined using array CGH. AIRE full gene sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation namely 845_846insC. Renal biopsy revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with advanced fibrosis. In addition, there was mesangial deposition of C3, C1q, and IgM. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper showing evidence of autoimmune nephropathy by renal immunofluorescence in a patient with APECED and terminal 4q deletion.
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June 2011

Novel mutations underlying nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in Arab families.

Genet Med 2006 Jul;8(7):443-7

Aragene Laboratory, Research Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) is genetically heterogeneous and may be inherited in an X-linked or autosomal recessive manner. We aimed to investigate the molecular basis of NDI among Arab families.

Methods: Direct sequencing of coding regions for AQP2 and AVPR2 was used to identify underlying mutations. One large deletion required Southern blot analysis and a PCR-based strategy to identify deletion junctions.

Results: We identified two novel missense mutations (AQP2:p.Gly100Arg and p.Gly180Ser) in AQP2 and one novel missense mutation (AVPR2:p.Gly122Asp), one previously reported missense mutation (AVPR2:p.Arg137His) and one novel contiguous deletion (AVPR2:c.25 + 273_ARHGAP4o:2650-420del) affecting AVPR2. We also describe evidence of lyonization associated with the novel deletion.

Conclusions: Two novel mutations were identified in each of AVPR2 and AQP2 underlying CNDI in Arab families. Identification of these mutations will facilitate early diagnosis of CNDI, counseling of families and provide opportunities for early intervention aimed at reducing morbidity. The presence of affected females and consanguinity, as is often observed in Arab communities should not be used to rule out AVPR2 as a candidate when considering diagnostic testing. Careful observation of phenotypic heterogeneity should be used in referring such families for both AQP2 and AVPR2 molecular genetic testing.
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July 2006