Publications by authors named "Hallgeir Halvari"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Narrative Tensions in Strained Junior Elite Performers' Experiences of Becoming Elite Performers.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:645098. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Contextualized within narrative theory and the field of talent identification and development systems (TIDS), this interview study examined strained junior elite performers' experiences of becoming elite performers while participating in prestigious national TIDS. The study explored how junior elite performers perceive and negotiate their personal narratives of becoming within a cultural master narrative of being. The focus is on how the quality of person-environment interaction, characterized by narrative alignment or tensions, relates to perceptions of identity, agency, and physical and mental health. We purposefully recruited eight participants (age = 17.31, = 0.9) from a previously published study, who reported experiencing suboptimal psychological functioning compared with their peers to explore narrative tensions in their storylines. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and examined, using narrative analysis. We identified "the performance narrative" as the dominating cultural narrative within the TIDS and three distinct personal narratives of negotiation with unique characteristics: obsessive and externally driven alignment - "striving to stay at the top of the game"; tensions - "just hanging in there"; and disruption from alignment - "when the going gets tough." The results indicated that tensions and lack of alignment between the dominating cultural narrative and the individual narrative seem to increase the risk of experiencing identity challenges, suboptimal functioning, and aspects of ill-being. The study offers critical reflections on the dominating performance narrative within TIDS and additionally suggests an alternative athlete-centered and more holistic approach that combines both personal and performance developments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.645098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209255PMC
June 2021

The Roles of Patients' Authenticity and Accepting External Influence, and Clinicians' Treatment Styles in Predicting Patients' Dental Anxiety and Avoidance of Dental Appointments.

Eur J Psychol 2020 Mar 3;16(1):45-61. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Business, Marketing and Law, University of South-Eastern Norway, Hønefoss, Norway.

A substantial proportion of adults suffer from high dental anxiety, which is related to poor oral health and functioning. Using authenticity theory and self-determination theory, we applied a model testing two moderated mediation hypotheses: (i) the negative indirect association between authenticity and avoiding dental appointments through dental anxiety would be more evident when clinicians provides higher levels of autonomy support; and (ii) the indirect positive association between accepting external influence and avoiding dental appointments through dental anxiety would be more evident when clinicians provides higher levels of controllingness. Participants (N = 208) responded to a survey with validated questionnaires. The model with hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in LISREL and Conditional Process Modeling (moderated mediation). The results supported our hypotheses. The SEM model tested was found to fit the data well. Patient's personality and dental clinic treatment environments predicted 38% of the variance in dental anxiety, which explained 38% of avoidance of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v16i1.1664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913025PMC
March 2020

Composites of perfectionism and inauthenticity in relation to controlled motivation, performance anxiety and exhaustion among elite junior performers.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Mar 25;21(3):428-438. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

The present study identified profiles of perfectionism and inauthenticity at baseline and tested whether they differed in the maladaptive outcomes of controlled motivation, performance anxiety, and exhaustion after a nine-month period. We purposefully selected elite junior performers (= 219; = 156), 16-19 years of age, from Norwegian talent development schools in sports and performing arts. The participants completed questionnaires to report their perceptions of the study variables. The results of the latent profile analysis indicated a multidimensionality of perfectionism, thereby identifying four profiles. Although our identified profiles are in line with the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism; however, the results of the mean differences between the identified profiles did not align with the 2 × 2 model's hypotheses. The elite junior performers who displayed non-perfectionism demonstrated to be the most adaptive profile. They reported the lowest level of inauthenticity and the maladaptive outcomes of controlled motivation, performance anxiety, and exhaustion. The mixed perfectionism profile, displaying high levels of perfectionistic concerns (PC) and perfectionistic strivings (PS), demonstrated to be the least adaptive profile. This profile reported higher levels of inauthenticity and was even more maladaptive than the PC dominated profile contrary to the proposed hypotheses. Findings showed that a heightened vulnerability of perfectionism seems evident in PC, independent of the reported PS levels. Because only one out of five elite junior performers were distributed in the non-perfectionism profile, the vulnerability of perfectionism might be an important risk factor to note in talent development settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2020.1763478DOI Listing
March 2021

Change in basic need frustration in relation to perfectionism, anxiety, and performance in elite junior performers.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 Apr 8;30(4):754-765. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

The present study examined whether there were different growth profiles in basic need frustration in elite junior performers over a nine-month period. Subsequently, we examined whether the identified growth profiles differed in their levels of perfectionistic strivings and evaluative concerns measured at baseline and, additionally, whether they were associated with higher or lower levels of anxiety and perceived performance level in the end of the period. A sample of 259 (M  = 17.31; SD  = 0.97) elite junior performers from sports and performing arts completed an online questionnaire to report their self-ratings of the study variables. The analyses were conducted using growth mixture modeling in Mplus 8.0. Two main contrasting growth profiles were identified in each of the basic need frustration. Perfectionistic strivings were overall higher than evaluative concerns, but did not differ between the growth profiles. Conversely, evaluative concerns differed significantly between the identified growth profiles. Higher levels of evaluative concerns were associated with the most maladaptive growth profiles. Indeed, elite junior performers, who experienced moderate and increasing levels of competence and autonomy frustration, reported higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of perceived performance level than those who reported low and decreasing levels of competence and autonomy frustration. Based on these findings, evaluative concerns and basic need frustration appear to play key roles in the development of maladaptive motivational processes over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13614DOI Listing
April 2020

The Role of Perfectionism and Controlling Conditions in Norwegian Elite Junior Performers' Motivational Processes.

Front Psychol 2019 12;10:1366. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Performance and Training, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.

Conceptualized within the framework of self-determination theory, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between perfectionistic concerns and (a) controlled (non-self-determined) motivation and (b) performance anxiety through basic psychological need frustration (frustration of competence, autonomy, and realtedness), and if these relations would be moderated by controlling teaching/coaching conditions. We used a cross-sectional moderated mediation design and purposefully selected Norwegian elite junior performers ( = 171; mean age = 17.3; SD age = 0.94) from talent development schools, who completed an online questionnaire to report their perceptions of the study variables. Associations were examined using structural equation modeling. The results showed that perfectionistic concerns were positively associated with controlling conditions, basic needs frustration, controlled motivation, and performance anxiety. Reported controlling teaching/coaching conditions moderated the positive indirect relationship between perfectionistic concerns and (a) controlled motivation and (b) performance anxiety through competence need frustration. Specifically, these indirect associations were evident for performers reporting moderate or high levels of controlling teaching/coaching conditions. In contrast, there were no indirect associations via competence need frustration for those performers who reported low levels of controlling conditions. In conclusion, the results indicate that perfectionistic concerns appear to be a vulnerability factor that exposes elite junior performers to higher risks of entering a debilitative motivational process. This seems especially likely when exposed to controlling teaching/coaching conditions. Coaches and teachers working with elite junior performers should avoid using controlling mechanisms and instead foster autonomous functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582430PMC
June 2019

Autonomy-supportive dental treatment, oral health-related eudaimonic well-being and oral health: a randomized clinical trial.

Psychol Health 2019 12 31;34(12):1421-1436. Epub 2019 May 31.

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.

We tested the hypotheses that a dental intervention designed to promote oral care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict patients' perceived autonomy support from oral health-care professionals, increases in eudaimonic well-being (i.e. both personal growth and purposeful behaviour goals) and improved oral health (i.e. reduced dental bacterial plaque on tooth surface and reduced gingivitis) over 5.5 months. We also tested a self-determination theory model with the intervention positively predicting perceived autonomy support, which in turn would predict increases in eudemonic well-being, leading to improved oral health. A randomised two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 138 patients ( = 23.31 yr,  = 3.5). Variables were measured before and right after the intervention and 5.5 months later. Overall, the experiment and hypothesised process models received strong support. The effect sizes were large for perceived autonomy support, change in personal growth, change in dental plaque and change in gingivitis, whereas the effect size for purposeful behaviour was moderate. The measurement and structural equation models for the SDT process model received good fit. The current field experiment extends previous knowledge by showing that promoting patient oral care competence in an autonomy-supportive way improves oral health through patients' eudaimonic well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2019.1613546DOI Listing
December 2019

Worksite physical activity intervention and somatic symptoms burden: The role of coworker support for basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation.

J Occup Health Psychol 2019 Feb 16;24(1):55-65. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

School of Business, University College of Southeast Norway.

Suffering from somatic symptoms can seriously hamper one's quality of life and ability to function, causing lost work productivity, sickness absence, and extensive medical utilization. Physical activity (PA) has demonstrated promising results related to mild to moderate cases of somatic symptoms. The present study explored whether a worksite health promotion intervention was able to increase PA and cardiorespiratory fitness, and to reduce somatic symptoms and sickness absence. The intervention was designed based on the tenets of Self-determination theory. A pre-post cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 202 industrial workers in a Norwegian logistics company. Results from repeated measures, multivariate analysis of variance, revealed an overall intervention effect and significant change between groups related to somatic symptoms in favor of the intervention group, albeit no significant change in sickness absence. We applied structural equations modeling to test a model of health behavioral change, which posited that increased support for PA from coworkers and autonomous motivation for PA predicted changes in PA, cardiorespiratory fitness, and somatic symptoms. The results underline the effectiveness of including coworker social support in health promotion programs aimed to increase PA and reduce somatic symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000131DOI Listing
February 2019

Sickness Absence due to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: The Exploration of a Predictive Psychological Model Including Negative Moods, Subjective Health and Work Efficacy in an Adult County Population (The HUNT Study).

Eur J Psychol 2018 Jun 19;14(2):373-385. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

University College Southeast Norway, School of Business and Social Sciences, Hønefoss, Norway.

The relation between musculoskeletal pain and sickness absence was tested in an adult county population. Maximal explained variance in absence from work due to chronic musculoskeletal pain (sickness absence) was tested in a model in which subjective health was expected to mediate the associations between such pain and dysphoria, respectively, and work efficacy. In turn, work efficacy was expected to mediate the link between subjective health and sickness absence. All the residents in the County of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, aged 20 and older, were invited to take part in a public health survey during 1995-97 (HUNT-2), and 66,140 (71.2%) participated. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, dysphoria, subjective health and work efficacy were assessed, as well as sickness absence last year due to musculoskeletal pain. The model test was performed by use of the LISREL procedure based upon data from 30,158 employees reporting chronic musculoskeletal pain last year. The measurement model fitted the data well: χ = 9075, df = 52, p < .0004, Critical N = 1041, RMSEA = 0.038, CFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.020. The structural model fitted the data equally well, and the best prediction of sickness absence was obtained with lower back pain, upper and lower extremity pain, as well as dysphoria as the primary variables affecting subjective health that, in turn, was the convergent predictor of work efficacy that, finally, best explained the variance in sickness absence (56%). The data supported an indirect sequence of complaint-health-efficacy (CHE-model) as the best predictor of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v14i2.1470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6016039PMC
June 2018

Associations between physical activity and motivation, competence, functioning, and apathy in inhabitants with mental illness from a rural municipality: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2017 11 6;17(1):359. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Innlandet Hospital Trust, Department for Acute Psychiatry and Psychosis, Reinsvoll, Division of Psychiatry, Vestre Toten, Norway.

Background: There is increasing evidence for physical activity (PA) having a positive impact on physical and mental health as well as illness symptoms in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI experience several barriers that makes it difficult to take advantage of the benefits associated with PA. One barrier consistently reported to impede PA is motivational issues. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to examine associations between PA and motivation for PA, perceived competence for PA, functioning, apathy, and demographic variables among individuals with SMI. This was conducted within a larger study aiming at including all inhabitants with SMI in one particular small, rural municipality.

Method: A total of 106 participants were recruited to the study. Questionnaire-based interviews conducted by two mental health nurses assessed self-reported PA, motivation and competence for PA, functioning, and apathy. Additionally, 71 participants accepted to wear an accelerometer-equipped wristwatch yielding an objective assessment of PA.

Results: The participants engaged in little PA. However, they did not lack motivation, as over 90% stated that they would like to be more active, and participants across PA level displayed high scores of a motivation reflecting that they valued the benefits of PA. Results showed that higher self-reported PA level was associated with higher levels of integrated regulated motivation and perceived competence for PA while it was unrelated to functioning and apathy. In the subpopulation with objectively measured PA, integrated regulated motivation for PA remained significantly associated with PA level, whereas poor scores on functioning lowered the odds ratio for higher PA level.

Conclusion: The results show that PA specific motivation is associated with PA even when controlling for functioning and apathy. This highlight the importance of facilitating context specific motivation (i.e., motivation for PA) and that health care practitioners should emphasise helping people with SMI develop more intrinsic forms of motivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1528-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674780PMC
November 2017

Motivational Mechanisms in the Relation between Job Characteristics and Employee Functioning.

Span J Psychol 2017 Aug 7;20:E38. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

University College of Southeast(Norway).

This study investigates the job demands-resources (JD-R) model in relation to work motivation in a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective, with the purpose of developing a model where social-contextual factors are seen in relation to psychological needs in order to explain autonomous work motivation and, in turn, self-reported work performance and somatic symptom burden. SEM-analyses of cross-sectional survey data including 405 waiters/waitresses in Norway were conducted to evaluate the hypothesized model. Results indicate that different job resources have different relations to psychological need satisfaction, and that certain types of job demands (i.e., job challenges) actually may enhance satisfaction of specific psychological needs. In particular, task autonomy had a positive relation to autonomy satisfaction (p < .001) and to competence satisfaction (p < .05), positive feedback had a positive relation to autonomy-, competence-, and relatedness satisfaction (p < .001), and workload had a positive relation to competence satisfaction (p < .001). Furthermore, psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness positively related to autonomous work motivation and, in turn, positively to work performance and negatively to somatic symptom burden (p < .001). Indirect relations were also detected between the job characteristics and autonomous work motivation and between the basic needs and work performance (p < .05). Hence, when explaining autonomous work motivation and work outcomes, it is important to distinguish between different job demands and job resources, as well as among the three psychological needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2017.34DOI Listing
August 2017

Motivational factors associated with physical activity and quality of life in people with severe mental illness.

Scand J Caring Sci 2017 Dec 2;31(4):914-921. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Background: There has been increasing interest for investigating the role of motivation in physical activity among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Autonomous motivation has been suggested to have a potentially important role in adoption and maintenance of physical activity. However, the knowledge about factors that facilitate autonomous motivation among people with SMI is scarce.

Aim: The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with motivation for physical activity as well as the relationships between motivation, physical activity and health-related quality of life in individuals with SMI that were currently physically active.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was used, and 88 participants were recruited from a public health network promoting physical activity for people with SMI. They answered a questionnaire package consisting of scales measuring psychological need support - psychological need satisfaction - and motivation for physical activity, physical activity and health-related quality of life.

Results: The majority of participants reported to be in regular physical activity. Associations between variables were tested according to the self-determination theory process model. Structural equation modelling yielded good fit of the process model to the data. Specifically, a need-supportive environment was positively associated with psychological need satisfaction, while psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous motivation and mental health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Physical activity was positively associated with autonomous motivation and physical health-related quality of life, and negatively associated with amotivation.

Conclusion: This study indicates that individuals with SMI can be regularly physically active when provided with suitable opportunities. Furthermore, the present results suggest that it is vital for health-care practitioners to emphasise creating a need-supportive environment when organising physical activity because such an environment is associated with both increased autonomous motivation for physical activity and mental health-related quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scs.12413DOI Listing
December 2017

Changes in return to work among patients in vocational rehabilitation: a self-determination theory perspective.

Disabil Rehabil 2017 10 7;39(20):2039-2046. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

b School of Business and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway , Hønefoss , Norway.

Purpose: The aim of the current study was to examine whether patient perceptions of autonomy support from the treatment team in a vocational rehabilitation program will be associated with change (increase) in need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, perceived competence, well-being, physical activity, and return to work (RTW), and whether the self-determination theory (SDT) Model of Health Behavior will provide adequate fit to the data.

Method: A total of 90 participants were enrolled in a longitudinal study and completed measures at four time points over 15 months.

Results: Participants reported increases in all variables, and in general these changes were maintained at six weeks post-rehabilitation and at 15 months post-baseline. As well, the SDT Model of Health Behavior provided adequate fit to the data.

Conclusions: These results underscore the importance of health care practitioners' providing support for their patients' autonomy, competence, and relatedness to improve well-being, physical activity, and RTW in the context of vocational rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Vocational rehabilitation that emphasizes physical activity is associated with increases in patients' well-being, physical activity, and return to work (RTW). It is important for health care practitioners to provide support for their patients' autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the context of vocational rehabilitation, as doing so is associated with increases in patients' autonomous motivation, perceived competence, and psychosocial outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2016.1215559DOI Listing
October 2017

Predicting dental attendance from dental hygienists' autonomy support and patients' autonomous motivation: A randomised clinical trial.

Psychol Health 2017 02 26;32(2):127-144. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

b School of Business and Social Sciences , University College of Southeast Norway , Hønefoss , Norway.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in relative autonomous locus of causality (RALOC) predicting increases in caries competence, which in turn would positively predict dental attendance; (2) RALOC negatively predicting dental anxiety, which would negatively predict dental attendance; (3) RALOC and caries disease referred to the dentist after an autonomy-supportive clinical exam directly positively predicting dental attendance; and (4) the intervention moderating the link between RALOC and dental attendance.

Design: A randomised two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 138 patients (M = 23.31 yr., SD = 3.5), with pre- and post-measures in a period of 5.5 months.

Results: The experimental model was supported. The SDT path model fit the data well and supported the hypotheses explaining 63% of the variance in dental attendance.

Conclusions: Patients personality (RALOC) and hygienists promoting oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, performance of autonomy-supportive clinical exams and reductions of anxiety for dental treatment have important practical implications for patients' dental attendance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2016.1244536DOI Listing
February 2017

Stuck between a rock and a hard place: the work situation for nurses as leaders in municipal health care.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2016 5;9:153-61. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The paper aims to present how nursing leaders in the municipal health care perceive the interaction with and support from their superiors and peers. The paper further aims to identify the leaders' vulnerability and strength at work in the current situation of shortage of manpower and other resources in the health care sector. This is seen through the lens of self-determination theory.

Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine nursing leaders in nursing homes and home-care services, which, in part, capture the municipal health care service in a time of reform.

Results: The nursing leaders are highly independent regarding their role as leaders. They act with strength and power in their position as superiors for their own staff, but they lack support and feel left alone by their leader, the municipal health director. The relation between the nursing leaders and their superiors is characterized by controlling structures and lack of autonomy support. As a consequence, the nursing leaders' relations with subordinates and particularly peers, contribute to satisfy their needs for competence and relatedness, and, to some extent, autonomy. However, this cannot substitute for the lack of support from the superior level.

Conclusion: The paper maintains a need to increase the consciousness of the value of horizontal support and interaction with peers and subordinates for the municipal nursing leader. Also, the need for increased focus on "the missing link" upward between the municipal health director and the nursing leader is revealed. The impact of extensive controlling structures and lack of autonomy support from superiors might lead to reduced motivation and well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S100640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827593PMC
April 2016

Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

Scand J Psychol 2015 Aug 24;56(4):447-57. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Hønefoss, Norway.

The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12211DOI Listing
August 2015

A 1-year follow-up of effects of exercise programs on well-being in older adults.

J Aging Phys Act 2014 Jan 23;22(1):52-64. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of three types of training on wellbeing and frequency of physical activity and to determine whether preintervention motivation moderates the effects.

Methods: Sixty-two older adults (M = 75 years old, SD = 5; 61% women) completed 4-mo programs of endurance, functional or strength training, with reassessment of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, vitality) and physical activity 12 mo later.

Results: All groups showed small improvements in most measures of well-being at 4 mo. At follow-up, endurance training still had small beneficial effects, while changes with functional and strength training were generally trivial or harmful. Analysis for moderators indicated that autonomously motivated individuals better maintained gains in well-being and had higher frequencies of physical activity at follow-up compared with controlled individuals.

Conclusion: Endurance training is recommended for older adults, but the long-term outcomes depend on the individual's motivational regulation at commencement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/japa.2012-0181DOI Listing
January 2014

Self-determined motivational predictors of increases in dental behaviors, decreases in dental plaque, and improvement in oral health: a randomized clinical trial.

Health Psychol 2012 Nov 6;31(6):777-788. Epub 2012 Feb 6.

Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester.

Objective: The present study tested the hypotheses that: (a) a dental intervention designed to promote dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict perceived clinician autonomy support and patient autonomous motivation for the project, increases in autonomous motivation for dental home care, perceived dental competence, and dental behaviors, and decreases in both dental plaque and gingivitis over 5.5 months; and (b) the self-determination theory process model with the intervention and individual differences in autonomy orientation positively predicting project autonomous motivation and increases in perceived dental competence, both of which would be associated with increases in dental behavior, which would, in turn, lead to decreased plaque and gingivitis.

Methods: A randomized two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 141 patients (Mage = 23.31 years, SD = 3.5), with pre- and postmeasures (after 5.5 months) of motivation variables, dental behaviors, dental plaque, and gingivitis.

Results: Overall, the experimental and hypothesized process models received strong support. The effect sizes were moderate for dental behavior, large for autonomous motivation for the project and perceived competence, and very large for perceived autonomy support, dental plaque, and gingivitis. A structural equation model supported the hypothesized process model.

Conclusions: Considering the very large effects on reductions in dental plaque and gingivitis, promoting dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, has important practical implications for dental treatment, home care, and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027062DOI Listing
November 2012

Self-determined motivation in physical education and its links to motivation for leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and well-being in general.

Percept Mot Skills 2010 Oct;111(2):407-32

Nord-Trøndelag University College, Røstad, Norway.

The present study tested a trans-contextual model based on self-determination theory of the relations between motivation in physical education, motivation in leisure-time physical activity, physical activity, and psychological well-being. Participants were 329 Norwegian upper secondary school students (M age = 16.5 yr., SD = 0.7). Students' perceptions of autonomy-supportive teachers in physical education were expected to be positively associated with students' psychological needs satisfaction in physical education, which was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation for physical education participation. In turn, autonomous motivation for physical education was expected to be positively associated with perceived competence and autonomous motivation for leisure-time physical activity, which both were expected to be positively associated with leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in general. Structural equation models and bootstrapping supported the hypotheses and the indirect links between variables. Sex differences indicate that more research is needed on how to motivate girls to be more physically active in leisure time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/06.10.11.13.14.PMS.111.5.407-432DOI Listing
October 2010

Perceived autonomy support, personal goal content, and emotional well-being among elite athletes: mediating effects of reasons for goals.

Percept Mot Skills 2009 Jun;108(3):721-43

The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.

The relations between perceived support of autonomy from coaches, characteristics of personal goals, and emotional well-being from the perspective of self-determination theory was examined among 95 elite athletes (59% men; M = 21.6 yr., SD = 6.1) from Track and Field, Greco-Roman Wrestling, Taekwondo, and Power Lifting. Elite athletes were those representing their country in their sport. It was hypothesized that having autonomous reasons for goals would mediate the positive associations between perceived autonomy support and intrinsic goal content with subjective positive emotional well-being, and that controlled reasons for goals would mediate the association between extrinsic goal content and subjective negative emotional well-being. An idiographic approach to measures of personal goals and the autonomous and controlled reasons and intrinsic and extrinsic contents were performed. Perceived autonomy support from the coach was assessed with the Sport Climate Questionnaire and subjective emotional well-being was assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. All hypotheses were supported by path analyses using LISREL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/PMS.108.3.721-743DOI Listing
June 2009

A hierarchical model of approach achievement motivation and effort regulation during a 90-min. soccer match.

Percept Mot Skills 2007 Oct;105(2):609-35

Department of Sport and Physical Education Finnmark University College, Follumsvei, Alta, Norway.

Research indicates that effort close to the lactate threshold during a soccer match is of importance to succeed, so a prospective study was conducted and a hierarchical achievement motivation approach model tested in relation to effort reglation among 55 male high level soccer players (M=23.6 yr., SD=4.3). The motive to chieve success was expected to be positively associated with the mastery goal, which would be positively associated with playing time close to the lactate threshold in the irst soccer match period, and this positively associated with the same magnitude of effort in the second period. We also examined whether the mastery goal would medite the link between the motive to achieve success and playing time close to the lactate threshold during the first period and also playing time close to the lactate threshold in the first period would mediate the link between the mastery goal and playing time at this effort level during the second period. LISREL analyses supported these predictions. Additional hierarchical polynomial multiple regression analyses indicated unexpected significant nonlinear associations between the motive to avoid failure and effort regulation. The latter is partly explained by ideas from the catastrophe theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.105.2.609-635DOI Listing
October 2007

Motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport competence, and involvement in physical activity: structural and mediator models.

Percept Mot Skills 2005 Apr;100(2):497-523

Nord-Trøndelag University College, Levanger, Norway.

Students (N=231) were tested on involvement in physical activity, motivational climate, perceived sport competence, and goal orientations. Multiple regression, partial correlation, and LISREL analyses indicated that mastery goal adoption is positively correlated with a mastery climate. Performance-approach goal adoption is positively correlated with a performance climate. Mastery climate, mastery goal, and perceived sport competence are all positively correlated with involvement in physical activity. LISREL analyses supported three mediational hypotheses: (I) the positive correlation between the performance-approach goal and involvement in physical activity is mediated by (high) perceived sport competence, (II) the negative correlation between the performance-avoidance goal and involvement in physical activity is mediated by (low) perceived sport competence, (III) the positive correlation between mastery climate and involvement in physical activity is mediated by (high) mastery goal orientation. An alternative structural model with perceived competence as the last latent construct in the path was also tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.100.2.497-523DOI Listing
April 2005

Autonomous motivation: involvement in physical activity, and perceived sport competence: structural and mediator models.

Percept Mot Skills 2005 Feb;100(1):3-21

Nord-Trøndelag University College, Røstad, 7600 Levanger, Norway.

Students in upper secondary school (N = 231, M = 16.6 yr., SD = 1.6) were tested on involvement in physical activity, perceived sport competence, using the Perceived Competence Scale of Harter, and motivational regulation on the Self-regulation Questionnaire of Ryan and Connell. Correlations were positive among involvement in physical activity, autonomous motivation, and perceived sport competence. A hypothetical model indicated that autonomous motivation mediates the relation between perceived sport competence and involvement in physical activity. Although LISREL analysis supported this mediation, the best model fit of the data supported a structural model with involvement in physical activity (R2 = .63) to mediate between autonomous motivation and perceived competence (R2 = .47). Results are interpreted and discussed in terms of self-determination theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.100.1.3-21DOI Listing
February 2005

Two ways related to performance in elite sport: the path of self-confidence and competitive anxiety and the path of group cohesion and group goal-clarity.

Percept Mot Skills 2002 Jun;94(3 Pt 1):950-66

The Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education, Oslo.

A model tested among 136 Norwegian Olympic-level athletes yielded two paths related to performance. The first path indicated that self-confidence, modeled as an antecedent of competitive anxiety, is negatively correlated with anxiety. Competitive anxiety in turn is negatively correlated with performance. The second path indicated that group cohesion is positively correlated with group goal-clarity, which in turn is positively correlated with performance. Competitive anxiety mediates the relation between self-confidence and performance, whereas group goal-clarity mediates the relation between group cohesion and performance. Results from multiple regression analyses supported the model in the total sample and among individual sport athletes organized in training groups (n = 100). Among team sport athletes (n = 36), personality and group measures are more strongly intercorrelated than among individual sport athletes, and the relation with performance is more complex for the former group. The interaction of self-confidence and competitive anxiety is related to performance among team sport athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.2002.94.3.950DOI Listing
June 2002

Relation of burnout with lack of time for being with significant others, role conflict, cohesion, and self-confidence among Norwegian Olympic athletes.

Percept Mot Skills 2002 Jun;94(3 Pt 1):795-804

The Norwegian University of Sport and Physical Education, Oslo.

We studied the relationship of burnout with environmental and personal characteristics such as lack of time for being with significant others outside sport, cohesion in training groups, role conflict, and self-confidence among 136 elite athletes. Analysis indicated that the mean Burnout scores were in the low range. Cohesion in training groups and Self-confidence were negatively associated with Burnout, whereas Lack of time to be with significant others and Role conflict were positively ssociated with Burnout scores. Results are in accordance with Coakley's 1992 conception of burnout explained as a social problem, Kahn's 1978 hypothesis that role conflict is positively correlated with stress and burnout, and Smith's 1986 hypothesis that personality factors such as self-confidence should be associated with cognitive appraisal of situational demands related to burnout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.2002.94.3.795DOI Listing
June 2002
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