Publications by authors named "Halina Milnerowicz"

100 Publications

Activity of glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme in the context of single nucleotide polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene (rs1695) and tobacco smoke exposure in the patients with acute pancreatitis and healthy subjects.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 12;140:111589. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-556, Poland. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress associated with the course of acute pancreatitis (AP) can cause changes in the involvement of antioxidants, which can result in the increased production of free radicals with pro-inflammatory potential. Through its noncatalytic activity, the glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme (GST-π), apart from cellular xenobiotics detoxification, are involved in the regulation of cellular signalling, metabolism and apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of SNP rs1695 in the GSTP1 gene on GST and GST-π activity in healthy subjects and patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). The concentration of glutathione (GSH) as an important component of the antioxidant system, necessary for environmental xenobiotics detoxification by GST, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress induced by inflammation were also assessed. SNP was examined in 39 AP patients and 51 healthy subjects using PCR-RFLP methods. GST activity (in plasma and erythrocyte lysate) and GST-π activity (in erythrocyte lysate) were measured using the spectrophotometric method with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and ethacrynic acid as substrate, respectively. Blood GSH concentration was measured using the Patterson method. Concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and MDA were measured using commercial tests. In the blood of non-smoking AP patients with GG genotypes for SNP rs1695 in the GSTP1 gene, the lowest GST-π activity was shown. It was accompanied by the lowest hsCRP concentration in this group. In the blood of smoking healthy subjects with AG genotype, a decrease in GST-π activity was noted compared to non-smokers from this group. However, in the blood of smokers with AP, a gradually decreasing GST-π activity was noted in individuals with AA genotype, which was associated with the increasing MDA concentration. It confirms the role of GST-π in the neutralization of oxidative stress induced by the exposure to smoke xenobiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111589DOI Listing
August 2021

Importance of Genetic Polymorphisms in and Genes in Metals Homeostasis and Their Relationship with the Risk of Acute Pancreatitis Occurrence in Smokers-Preliminary Findings.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 27;22(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

This study was aimed at evaluating the changes in metallothionein (MT) concentration in the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and healthy subjects, taking into account the extracellular (plasma) and intracellular (erythrocyte lysate) compartments. The impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the (rs11640851), (rs964372) and (rs10636) genes on MT concentration and their association with the concentration of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd) and ceruloplasmin as Cu-related proteins were analyzed. The concentration of a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and IL-6 as markers of inflammation, and malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SODs) activity and the value of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as parameters describing the pro/antioxidative balance were also assessed. In the AP patient groups, an increased MT concentration in erythrocyte lysate compared to healthy subjects was shown, especially in individuals with the GG genotype for rs964372 in the gene. A Zn concentration was especially decreased in the blood of smoking AP patients with the AA genotype for SNP rs11640851 in the gene and the GC genotype for SNP rs10636 in MT2A, compared to non-smokers with AP, which was accompanied by an increase in the value of the Cu/Zn ratio. The exposure to tobacco smoke xenobiotics increased the risk of AP occurrence in subjects with the CC genotype for SNP rs11640851 in the gene by more than fourfold. The investigated polymorphisms, rs11640851 in the gene, rs964372 in the gene and rs10636 in the gene, seem to be an important factor in maintaining homeostasis in an organism under oxidative stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197913PMC
May 2021

The Impact of Early Pregnancy and Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Blood Antioxidant Status and Copper, Zinc, Cadmium Concentration-A Pilot Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

2nd Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of early pregnancy and exposure to tobacco smoke on antioxidant status and copper, zinc, and cadmium concentrations in the blood of non-smoking and smoking, as well as non-pregnant or pregnant women. The study included 213 women. More specifically, 150 women in first trimester of pregnancy and 63 non-pregnant women. Women were divided into subgroups according to exposure to tobacco smoke. Pregnancy significant influences higher copper and lower zinc concentration in the serum, whereas exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is mainly associated with an elevation in cadmium and zinc concentration. It seems that metallothionein, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase are the important antioxidants during early pregnancy, when exposure to tobacco smoke occurs, whereas the pregnancy itself is associated with a higher concentration of metallothionein and activity of catalase. Both pregnancy in the first trimester and exposure to tobacco smoke decrease glutathione concentration. In addition, active and passive maternal smoking have a similarly negative effect on antioxidant status in the first trimester. Early pregnancy as well as exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with significant alteration in antioxidant status and copper, zinc, and cadmium concentration. Due to a small number of smoking subjects (11 cases of non-pregnant, active smokers and 14 pregnant active smokers), the obtained results should be treated as a pilot, and this should be considered for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004252PMC
March 2021

Concentration/activity of superoxide dismutase isozymes and the pro-/antioxidative status, in context of type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (genes: INS, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3) - Preliminary findings.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 23;137:111396. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211, 50-556 Wrocław, Poland.

The alterations in concentration/activity of superoxide dismutase isozymes in the context of type 2 diabetes or obesity are well-described. Moreover, many hereditary factors, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes for coding insulin, insulin receptors, or insulin receptor substrates (INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2) or superoxide dismutase isozymes (SOD1, SOD2, SOD3), have been linked with the incidence of obesity and diabetes. However, the underlying changes in the plasma concentration/activity of superoxide dismutase isozymes and their potential connection with the said hereditary factors remain unexplored. Previously, we have observed that the plasma concentration/activity of superoxide dismutase isozymes differs in the context of obesity and/or rs2234694 (SOD1) and rs4880 (SOD2) and that the concentrations of SOD1, SOD2, SOD3 are correlated with each other. Intersexual variability of SOD1 concentration was detected regardless of obesity. In this study, the variability of concentration/activity of superoxide dismutase isozymes in plasma is considered in the context of type 2 diabetes and/or SNPs: rs2234694 (SOD1), rs5746105 (SOD2), rs4880 (SOD2), rs927450 (SOD2), rs8192287 (SOD3). Genotypic variability of SNP rs3842729 (INS), previously studied in the context of insulin-dependent diabetes, is investigated in terms of selected clinical parameters associated with type 2 diabetes. This study revealed higher SOD1 concentration in diabetic men compared to women, and extremely high SOD1 concentration, higher total superoxide dismutase, and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity, and lower superoxide dismutase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity (when adjusted for the concentration of SODs) in the diabetic group regardless of sex. Multiple logistic regression, applied to explore possible links between the studied SNPs and other factors with the odds of type 2 diabetes or obesity, revealed that the genotypic variability of rs4880 (SOD2) could affect these odds, supporting the findings of several other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111396DOI Listing
May 2021

Changes in the Activity and Concentration of Superoxide Dismutase Isoenzymes (Cu/Zn SOD, MnSOD) in the Blood of Healthy Subjects and Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Oct 1;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

This study was aimed at evaluating the changes in the concentration and activity of all superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (SOD1, SOD2, SOD3) in the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and healthy subjects, taking into account the extracellular (plasma) and intracellular (erythrocyte lysate) compartment. The relationships between the activity/concentration of SODs, metal concentration and the markers of inflammation were evaluated. To assess the pro/antioxidative imbalance, the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration and the value of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The impact of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the SOD1 gene (rs2070424) on the activity/concentration of SOD1 as the main isoenzyme of the SOD family was also analyzed in this study. The SOD2 activity in erythrocytes was increased compared to plasma: 10-fold in the AP patient group and 5-fold in healthy subjects. The plasma of AP patients showed an increased SOD1 concentration and decreased SOD2 and SOD3 concentrations compared to healthy subjects. The Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1 + SOD3) concentration in plasma of AP patients was elevated compared to healthy subjects, but changes in plasma Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1 + SOD3) activity in the examined groups were not observed. An influence of SNP rs2070424 in the SOD1 gene on the total activity of SOD in AP patients (with AG genotype), accompanied by an increased IL-6 concentration, was observed. In oxidative stress conditions induced by inflammation, the participation of individual forms of plasma SOD isoenzymes in total antioxidative activity of SOD changed. A significant increase in the intracellular SOD1 concentration in plasma of AP patients proves the important role of this isoenzyme in the neutralization of oxidative stress induced by impaired Cu and Zn homeostasis. The presence of increased concentration of SOD2 in erythrocytes of healthy subjects and AP patients confirms the important function of this isoenzyme in the antioxidative defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601220PMC
October 2020

Alterations in Concentration/Activity of Superoxide Dismutases in Context of Obesity and Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Genes: , , .

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 17;21(14). Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska Street 211, 50-556 Wrocław, Poland.

Little is known about the contribution of each of the three superoxide dismutase isozymes (SODs) to the total SOD activity in extracellular fluids. This study was aimed to investigate the alterations in concentration/activity of (SODs) in plasma, in context of sex, obesity, exposition to cigarette smoke, and genotypic variability of five selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes , , . Men showed higher SOD1 concentration, lower SOD3 concentration and higher total antioxidative capacity (TAC) values. Intersexual variability was observed in concentration of copper, zinc, and cadmium. The obese showed higher total oxidative capacity regardless of sex. An increase in SOD2 activity was coexistent with obesity in men, and exposition to cigarette smoke in non-obese individuals. Additionally, in state of this exposition, Cu,Zn-SOD contribution to the total SOD was lower. Interestingly, over 90% of the obese were of C/T genotype of rs4880 (). Non-obese of T/T genotype (rs4880) were of lower total SOD activity due to decrease in both Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities. SNP rs2234694 was associated with differences in concentration of SODs, depending on obesity status. Correlations indicate that both TAC and SODs, together, may adapt to insulin resistance and inflammation-derived oxidative stress found in obesity. This topic should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404310PMC
July 2020

Increased risk of acute pancreatitis occurrence in smokers with rs5751901 polymorphisms in GGT1 gene.

Int J Med Sci 2020 14;17(2):242-254. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-556, Poland.

: The study was aimed to assess γ‑glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity and concentration as a marker of oxidative stress induced by exposure to tobacco smoke in acute pancreatitis (AP) course. Examination of the relationship between GGT activity/concentration and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs5751901 and rs2236626) in GGT1 gene was performed. : We examined SNPs in 38 AP patients and 51 healthy subjects by PCR-RFLP methods. GGT concentration in blood was measured with the use of the ELISA method; GGT activity and GSH concentration were measured by the Szasz and Patterson methods, respectively. : In the non-AP smokers group with TC genotype for SNPrs5751901 an increased blood GGT activity compared to smokers with CC genotypes was shown. In the course of AP was observed an elevated GGT activity and the value of GGT activity/GGT concentration ratio in smokers compared to non-smokers, in AP patients with TC genotypes and CC genotypes, respectively, for both SNP: rs5751901 and rs2236626. In the group of smoking AP patients with the CC and TC genotypes in rs5751901 locus and CC and TT genotypes in rs2236626 locus a decreases in GSH concentration during hospitalization were noted. : SNP rs5751901 and rs2236626 cause changes in GGT activity. Smoking in the AP course contributes to increased GGT activity and excessive GSH use up in patients with TC and CC genotypes for both SNPs. Exposure to smoke xenobiotics enhances (3-fold) the risk of AP occurrence in individuals with TC genotypes for SNP rs5751901.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.38657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990886PMC
November 2020

An Assessment of the Effect of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Sage Leaves ( L.) on Germinated Plants of Maize ( L.).

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Oct 31;9(11). Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Viticulture and Enology, Faculty of Horticulture, Mendel University in Brno, Valticka 337, CZ-691 44 Lednice, Czech Republic.

AgNPs have attracted considerable attention in many applications including industrial use, and their antibacterial properties have been widely investigated. Due to the green synthesis process employed, the nanoparticle surface can be coated with molecules with biologically important characteristics. It has been reported that increased use of nanoparticles elevates the risk of their release into the environment. However, little is known about the behaviour of AgNPs in the eco-environment. In this study, the effect of green synthesized AgNPs on germinated plants of maize was examined. The effects on germination, basic growth and physiological parameters of the plants were monitored. Moreover, the effect of AgNPs was compared with that of Ag(I) ions in the form of AgNO solution. It was found that the growth inhibition of the above-ground parts of plants was about 40%, and AgNPs exhibited a significant effect on photosynthetic pigments. Significant differences in the following parameters were observed: weights of the caryopses and fresh weight (FW) of primary roots after 96 h of exposure to Ag(I) ions and AgNPs compared to the control and between Ag compounds. In addition, the coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG) between the control and the AgNPs varied and that between the Ag(I) ions and AgNPs was also different. Phytotoxicity was proved in the following sequence: control < AgNPs < Ag(I) ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9111550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915364PMC
October 2019

N-acetyl-beta-D-Glucosaminidase in Tissues of Rats Chronically Exposed to Cadmium and Treated with Ozone.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2019 Mar;49(2):193-203

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Wrocław Medical University, Poland.

Our aims were to evaluate N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity in an experimental rat model of chronic exposure to cadmium and its response to ozone therapy. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control, cadmium only, cadmium and oxygen, cadmium and ozone, and ozone only. Cadmium concentration (ASA method) and NAG activity (by the Maruhn method) were determined in the supernatants of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas. The histopathological alterations were evaluated in tissue sections.The highest concentration of cadmium and NAG activity was observed in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Ozone therapy led to a decrease in cadmium accumulation in the kidneys and liver. An examination of renal, hepatic and pancreatic tissues revealed severe histopathological lesions in Cadmium group (Cd) treated animals. The histopathological changes in animals treated with ozone were similar, but with slightly decreased intensity. Positive correlations between histochemical lesions, NAG activity and cadmium concentration in the study groups were observed. It has been shown that chronic cadmium intoxication has cytotoxic activity in the kidneys, liver, and pancreas, causing an increase in NAG activity. Ozone therapy significantly reduces NAG activity and the severity of histopathological lesions in the kidneys and liver, confirming its beneficial effects.
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March 2019

Influence of tobacco smoke on zinc, cadmium, iron, iron-binding proteins, and low-weight anti-oxidant status in pregnancy.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Nov - Dec;30(13-14):534-541. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy , Wroclaw Medical University , Wrocław , Poland.

Pregnancy and tobacco smoking (TS) each can cause increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; this, in turn, can lead to disorders in iron management and disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of TS and Cd on Fe, Zn, and anti-oxidant levels (i.e. glutathione [GSH], metallothionein [MT]) in the blood of pregnant women. The study reported here evaluated 110 blood samples from pregnant women in their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. Concentrations of ferritin and transferrin were measured in the serum; Zn, Fe and cotinine in the plasma, that of Cd in whole blood, that for glutathione in red blood cell lysates, and levels of metallothionein both in the plasma and in lysates prepared from isolated erythrocytes. The results indicated there was a decrease in Zn and increase in Cd and metallothionein levels in pregnant women smokers as compared to in nonsmoking counterparts. Differences in intracellular MT concentration were noted both in smoking and nonsmoking women during pregnancy while there were no changes in extracellular MT level. A decline in circulating ferritin and a rise in transferrin during pregnancy was observed in all groups. Based on the results, it was concluded that exposure to TS-associated xenobiotics like Cd could result in higher MT levels in erythrocytes and in pregnant smokers, the major anti-oxidant mechanism that is in place is one being mediated by MT and not by reduced GSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2019.1576805DOI Listing
September 2019

Changes in lipid profile parameters and PON1 status associated with L55M PON1 polymorphism, overweight and exposure to tobacco smoke.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Sep - Oct;30(11-12):463-471. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

a Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostics , Wroclaw Medical University , Wrocław , Poland.

Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) L55M polymorphism on the enzyme's activity and concentration in the serum as well as its association with lipid profile parameters in a group of healthy persons. We also evaluated the presence of PON1 L55M polymorphism in a group of subjects exposed to tobacco smoke and with overweight or obesity on those parameters.

Methods: Analysis of L55M polymorphism was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR - RFLP). Serum PON1 concentration and lipid profile parameters were assayed using commercial tests. PON1 activities were measured earlier elaborated procedures.

Results: We observed a statistically significant difference in HDL and PON1 concentration: the highest in the LL genotype and the lowest in the MM genotype with the LM genotype having an intermediate concentration. L55M polymorphism influence on PON1 arylesterase and phosphotriesterase activity, whereas PON1 lactonase activity did not differ in all polymorphic variant groups. Exposure to tobacco smoke and overweight or obesity additionally disorder above mentioned parameters. Overweight and obesity in LM and MM genotype could be associated with higher PON1 phosphotriesterase activity. It is also possible that MM genotype could be a determinant of smoking addiction.

Conclusions: L55M polymorphism, like exposure to tobacco smoke and overweight, disorders PON1 status and lipid profile parameters; therefore, it could be a crucial risk factor for the development of many metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2018.1554014DOI Listing
August 2019

Decreases in Paraoxonase-1 Activities Promote a Pro-inflammatory Effect of Lipids Peroxidation Products in Non-smoking and Smoking Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

Int J Med Sci 2018 20;15(14):1619-1630. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

The study investigated the extent to which tobacco smoke exposure causes changes in lipids biochemistry through measurement blood concentrations of: paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activities as lipid-bound enzyme into cell membrane, concentration of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), protein adducts of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE-adducts), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), total cholesterol (CH) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). Additionally, the activity of P isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GST-π) was measured. Investigations were performed in the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) on the 1, 3 and 7 day of hospitalization and in healthy volunteers. The activities of PON-1 forms, GST-π were determined spectrophotometrically. Concentrations of PON-1, MDA, HNE-adducts, oxLDL, HDL, CH were measured using commercial tests. Near 2-fold higher concentrations of MDA, HNE-adducts, oxLDL, correlating with inflammatory markers in AP patients compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated, which were accompanied by gradually increasing CH/HDL ratio during hospitalization. During hospital treatment, decreased activities of all PON-1 subtypes were observed in AP patients compared to healthy subjects, more pronounced in tobacco smokers. A decreased PON-1 phosphotriesterase activity in non-AP control group smokers compared to non-smokers was noted. In non-smoking AP patients GST-π activity normalized during hospitalization in contrast to smokers. GST-π and PON-1 phosphotriesterase activities seem to be a sensitive marker of pro/antioxidative imbalance in smokers. Lipids peroxidation products generated during AP can intensify preexisting inflammation. Increasing stay in the hospital was associated with worsening of lipids peroxidation markers and the parameters of lipid profile, in both non-smoking and smoking AP patients, what can indicate that the oxidative-inflammatory process are not extinguished.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.27647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299411PMC
April 2019

Development of New Silver Nanoparticles Suitable for Materials with Antimicrobial Properties.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 05;19(5):2762-2769

Central Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackeho 1941/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic.

Silver nanoparticles are the most important nanoparticles in connection with the antimicrobial effect. Nowadays, the green synthesis of various types of nanoparticles is rapid, effective and produce less toxic nanoparticles often with specific properties. In our experiment we have developed and described in details various types of silver nanoparticles synthesized chemically or by the green synthesis. Nine different silver nanoparticles were synthesized, three by citrate method at different pHs (8; 9; 10), four using gallic acid at alkaline pHs (10; 11), and two by green synthesis using green tea and coffee extracts, both at pH 9. Characterisation of silver nanoparticles was performed using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles prepared by green synthesis showed the highest antioxidant activity and also ability for quenching of free radicals. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was determined on bacterial cultures such as and Silver nanoparticles synthesized using green tea and coffee extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity for both bacterial strains. Minimal inhibition concentration for both strains was found to be 65 M at each silver nanoparticle synthesized using green synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15867DOI Listing
May 2019

Zinc Modified Nanotransporter of Anticancer Drugs for Targeted Therapy: Biophysical Analysis.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 05;19(5):2483-2488

Central Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackeho 1941/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic.

Modern anticancer therapy aims to increase the effectiveness of tumor treatment. The aim of this work was to propose a new nanotransporter for targeted delivery of anthracycline antibiotics, which is characterized by its bioavailability, increased uptake of the drug from the bloodstream at the site of the tumor tissue as well as low toxicity to non-target tissue. Chitosan nanoparticles have attracted great attention in the field of drug delivery due to their stability, low toxicity and easy preparation. Deacetylated chitosan skeleton is composed of glucosamine units and has a high density of charged amino groups which allow strong electrostatic interactions with biomolecules, transition metals (Zn, Se) and peptides. We obtained an effective level of chitosan encapsulation, 20%. Electrochemical detection of the bounded Zn ions into the chitosan structure showed a potential shift from -0.99 to -0.93 V. This result proved the formation of a chitosan-zinc complex. The ability of metallothione to quench the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical in the presence of 50 M doxorubicin was confirmed by the change of relative absorbance over the range from 50 to 60%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15870DOI Listing
May 2019

A Rapid Method for the Detection of Sarcosine Using SPIONs/Au/CS/SOX/NPs for Prostate Cancer Sensing.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 22;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Research and Development, Prevention Medicals, Tovarni 342, 742 13 Studenka-Butovice, Czech Republic.

Background: Sarcosine is an amino acid that is formed by methylation of glycine and is present in trace amounts in the body. Increased sarcosine concentrations in blood plasma and urine are manifested in sarcosinemia and in some other diseases such as prostate cancer. For this purpose, sarcosine detection using the nanomedicine approach was proposed. In this study, we have prepared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with different modified surface area. Nanoparticles (NPs) were modified by chitosan (CS), and sarcosine oxidase (SOX). SPIONs without any modification were taken as controls. The obtained NPs were characterized by physicochemical methods. The size of the NPs determined by the dynamic light scattering method was as follows: SPIONs/Au/NPs (100⁻300 nm), SPIONs/Au/CS/NPs (300⁻700 nm), and SPIONs/Au/CS/SOX/NPs (600⁻1500 nm). The amount of CS deposited on the NP surface was found to be 48 mg/mL for SPIONs/Au/CS/NPs and 39 mg/mL for SPIONs/Au/CS/SOX/NPs, and repeatability varied around 10%. Pseudo-peroxidase activity of NPs was verified using sarcosine, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as a substrate. For TMB, all NPs tested evinced substantial pseudo-peroxidase activity at 650 nm. The concentration of SPIONs/Au/CS/SOX/NPs in the reaction mixture was optimized to 0⁻40 mg/mL. Trinder reaction for sarcosine detection was set up at 510 nm at an optimal reaction temperature of 37 °C and pH 8.0. The course of the reaction was linear for 150 min. The smallest amount of NPs that was able to detect sarcosine was 0.2 mg/well (200 µL of total volume) with the linear dependence y = 0.0011x - 0.0001 and the correlation coefficient = 0.9992, relative standard deviation (RSD) 6.35%, limit of detection (LOD) 5 µM. The suggested method was further validated for artificial urine analysis ( = 0.99, RSD 21.35%, LOD 18 µM). The calculation between the detected and applied concentrations showed a high correlation coefficient ( = 0.99). NPs were tested for toxicity and no significant growth inhibition was observed in any model system (, , ). The hemolytic activity of the prepared NPs was similar to that of the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control. The reaction system was further tested on real urine specimens. The proposed detection system allows the analysis of sarcosine at micromolar concentrations and to monitor changes in its levels as a potential prostate cancer marker. The whole system is suitable for low-cost miniaturization and point-of-care testing technology and diagnostic systems. This system is simple, inexpensive, and convenient for screening tests and telemedicine applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320840PMC
November 2018

The application of capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and Brdicka reaction in human and rabbit metallothioneins analysis.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Nov;27(11):1601-1608

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a family of evolutionary conserved low molecular weight proteins with small variations in their amino acid sequences. They play a role in the regulation of trace metals metabolism, in the detoxification of heavy metal ions and in mechanisms controlling growth, differentiation and proliferation of cells.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the human and rabbit MTs purity and characterization using advanced analytical approaches. Due to the common use of MT from rabbit liver as a model protein, the properties of the rabbit and human MTs were compared.

Material And Methods: Capillary electrophoresis (CE), matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and Brdicka reaction were used for human and rabbit MTs characterization.

Results: In chip CE analysis, changes in the range of 5-8 kDa corresponding to the MT monomer, as well as some peaks of 13-14 kDa corresponding to dimers in both species, were observed. Using MALDI-MS, rabbit (MT-2D) and human (MT-1A, MT-1G, MT-1G + Cd and MT-2A) MTs were identified. In the Brdicka reaction analysis, a lower concentration of MTs from both organisms coincided with a decrease in the signal corresponding to MT level (Cat2). However, human MT gave higher Cat2 peak than the same concentration (0.025 mg/mL) of rabbit MT.

Conclusions: The applied methods allowed for the characterization of MTs and gave complementary information about MT isoforms. Altered electrochemical activity of human and rabbit MTs, despite the same number of -sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, was observed, which may be due to different availability of MT cysteinyl groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/98916DOI Listing
November 2018

Metallothionein and Superoxide Dismutase-Antioxidative Protein Status in Fullerene-Doxorubicin Delivery to MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 20;19(10). Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most frequently used anticancer drugs in breast cancer treatment. However, clinical applications of DOX are restricted, largely due to the fact that its action disturbs the pro/antioxidant balance in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fullerene (C) in cell treatment by DOX on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), concentration of metallothionein (MT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and SOD activity in these cells. The use of C in complexes with DOX causes a change in the level of cell proliferation of about 5% more than when caused by DOX alone (from 60⁻65% to 70%). The use of C as a DOX nanotransporter reduced the MT level increase induced by DOX. C alone caused an increase of SOD1 concentration. On the other hand, it led to a decrease of SOD activity. C in complex with DOX caused a decrease of the DOX-induced SOD activity level. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to DOX-C complexes results in a decrease in viable cells and may become a new therapeutic approach to breast cancer. The effects of C in complexes with DOX on MCF-7 cells included a decreased enzymatic (SOD activity) and nonenzymatic (MT) antioxidant status, thus indicating their prooxidant role in MCF-7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214080PMC
October 2018

The copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity in selected diseases.

Eur J Clin Invest 2019 Jan 6;49(1):e13036. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) plays a protective role in various types of tissue protecting them from oxidative damage. Alterations in Cu,Zn-SOD (SOD1 and SOD3) activity and its expression have been observed in pathological occurrences most prevalent in modern society, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and its implications-diabetes and hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moreover, several SOD1 and SOD3 gene polymorphisms have been associated with the risk of developing a particular type of disease, or its exacerbation. This article features recent observations in this topic, aiming to show the importance of proper gene sequence and activity of Cu,Zn-SOD in the aforementioned diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13036DOI Listing
January 2019

Relationship between somatostatin and interleukin-6: A cross-sectional study in patients with acute pancreatitis.

Pancreatology 2018 Dec 28;18(8):885-891. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Wrocław Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556, Wroclaw, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of the analysis is to determine dynamic changes in somatostatin (SS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations during in acute pancreatitis (AP).

Methods: The influence of tobacco smoking on IL-6 and SS levels in the serum of non-smoking (n = 10) and smoking (n = 27) patients with diagnosed AP and control group: non-smoking (n = 44), smoking (n = 42) and passive smoking (n = 29) healthy persons was proved. The concentration of IL-6 and SS was determined by means of ELISA. Differences between the groups analyzed were tested using the U Mann Whitney test. The Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlations.

Results: The concentrations of IL-6 and SS were significantly higher in smoking patients with AP and healthy persons when compared with non-smoking population on every day (1 day: p = 0.0002, p = 0.015; 3 day: p = 0.005, p = 0.001 and 7 day: p = 0.025, p = 0.038). Dynamic changes in concentrations of IL-6 and SS in the serum of patients with AP were demonstrated in the ensuing days of the disease. In case of non-smoking and smoking patients, significant positive correlations between IL-6 and SS was observed.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that some of the antiinflammatory effects of SS against acute pancreatitis may be mediated by reducing the local proinflammatory cytokine secretion in the pancreas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2018.09.013DOI Listing
December 2018

Carbon Nanomaterials for Targeted Cancer Therapy Drugs: A Critical Review.

Chem Rec 2019 Feb 29;19(2-3):502-522. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackeho 1946/1, 612 42, Brno, Czech Republic.

Cancer represents one of the main causes of human death in developed countries. Most current therapies, unfortunately, carry a number of side effects, such as toxicity and damage to healthy cells, as well as the risk of resistance and recurrence. Therefore, cancer research is trying to develop therapeutic procedures with minimal negative consequences. The use of nanomaterial-based systems appears to be one of them. In recent years, great progress has been made in the field using nanomaterials with high potential in biomedical applications. Carbon nanomaterials, thanks to their unique physicochemical properties, are gaining more and more popularity in cancer therapy. They are valued especially for their ability to deliver drugs or small therapeutic molecules to these cells. Through surface functionalization, they can specifically target tumor tissues, increasing the therapeutic potential and significantly reducing the adverse effects of therapy. Their potential future use could, therefore, be as vehicles for drug delivery. This review presents the latest findings of research studies using carbon nanomaterials in the treatment of various types of cancer. To carry out this study, different databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar were employed. The findings of research studies chosen from more than 2000 viewed scientific publications from the last 15 years were compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.201800038DOI Listing
February 2019

Preliminary analysis of the interactions between CdTe quantum dots and human metallothionein.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Oct 20;170:447-453. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostic, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, PL-50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Metallothionein (MT) plays the important role in the detoxification of heavy metals, protection against oxidative compounds and as a prognostic marker in the development of tumors. It is important to find selective, stable and sensitive tools and probes to evaluate the presence of MT in biological fluids or tissues. QDs linked with ligands such as peptides or small molecules are a promising tool for selective, fast, and sensitive tagging and imaging in medicine. In previous findings, the authors proved the possibility of interaction with QDs (particularly with CdTe) and analyzed the stability of the formed complexes between CdTe and MT during incubation over time. Following that, an initial analysis of the interactions between CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and human metallothionein (MT) was performed. Complexes of mercaptosuccinic acid-covered CdTe QDs + MT were investigated using fluorescence intensity changes along a timeline, quenching analysis, stability interpretation based on zeta potential, and quenching intensity. Based on the preliminary results, it appears as though the possible interactions depend on the size of the CdTe QDs. Additionally, the formation of complexes between CdTe and human MT likely depends mostly on structural changes and conformational reorganization rather than on electrostatic interactions. Both types of interactions are responsible for complex creation and stabilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.06.045DOI Listing
October 2018

Fullerene as a doxorubicin nanotransporter for targeted breast cancer therapy: Capillary electrophoresis analysis.

Electrophoresis 2018 09 10;39(18):2370-2379. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

The clinical use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by dose-related cardiomyopathy, which becomes more prevalent with increasing cumulative doses of the drug. Complexes of fullerene with DOX were designed and studied using biophysical methods. The ability of DOX to release from fullerene at different pHs was analyzed. It has been shown that the size of the fullerene-DOX complexes was ∼280 nm. The zeta potential for fullerene was -30 mV, for DOX -8 mV, and for fullerene-DOX conjugates -24 mV. Drug release was studied by CE with LIF detection. When fullerene-DOX conjugates were separated in a pH 7.5 buffer, 43% of all DOX signals were derived from free DOX, with the signal increasing as pH decreased. At pH 5.25, all DOX had been released and 100% of the signal was derived from free DOX. The release of DOX from complexes with fullerene at lower pH can be used in targeted antineoplastic therapy, resulting in lower toxicity for less acidic non-target tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201800148DOI Listing
September 2018

Diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic diseases (type 3c): The effect of smoking on the exocrine-endocrine interactions of the pancreas.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2018 May 21;15(3):243-259. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

1 Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy with Division of Laboratory Diagnostics, Wrocław Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

The present study was conducted to ascertain how cigarette smoke affects the exocrine-endocrine interactions of the human pancreas with diabetes mellitus secondary to pancreatic diseases (type 3c). Blood has been collected from smoking and non-smoking healthy individuals as well as from patients with diagnosed chronic pancreatitis and diabetes type 3c. The concentrations of interleukin-6, endothelin-1 and insulin in the plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. The activities of amylase and lipase in the serum, as well as the lipid profile, creatinine, uric acid and urea concentrations, were measured using colorimetric methods. Samples of normal pancreatic tissue and chronic pancreatitis were verified histopathologically and then interleukin-6, endothelin-1, insulin and glucagon were localized by immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-human antibody. The highest levels of interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 and the lowest levels of insulin and glucagon intensity from the immunostaining were observed in smoking patients with diabetes. In all smoking patients with pancreatitis and diabetes, there was a significant elevation in interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 concentration and amylase and lipase activities, hyperlipidaemia and a lower value of estimated glomerular filtration rate and blood urea nitrogen when compared to non-smokers. Our study confirmed that smoking exerts a pro-inflammatory effect and disturbs the exocrine-endocrine interactions of the pancreas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164118764062DOI Listing
May 2018

The role of pancreatic polypeptide in pancreatic diseases.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Dec;26(9):1447-1455

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

The aim of this study was to review the diagnostic significance of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in pancreatic diseases. PP may play a significant role in monitoring the development of the disease and the patient's healing process, particularly after the removal of a portion of the pancreas. Determining PP in acute pancreatitis is quite controversial. At the 1st stage of severe pancreatic damage, there is excessive PP release followed by its fall. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, a significant decrease in PP secretion was found in the presence of a food stimulant. In this case, PP could be a good marker for determining the stage of pancreatitis. Pancreatic polypeptide also functions as a hepatic glucose regulator. PP increases hepatic insulin sensitivity, resulting in reduced hepatic glucose production. Therefore, impaired hepatic insulin sensitivity in chronic pancreatitis is abrogated after the PP administration. Endocrine pancreatic tumors initially grow without specific symptoms. In contrast, they are almost always correlated with elevated serum pancreatic polypeptide. Therefore, the level of PP may be a good diagnostic parameter confirming the presence of pancreatic cancer. Depending on the type of disease, the polypeptide concentration can be increased or decreased, evidencing the disease progress or regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/65094DOI Listing
December 2017

Inhibition of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity by selected environmental xenobiotics.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Mar 29;58:105-113. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Wroclaw Medical University, Faculty of Pharmacy Borowska 211, 50-556 Wrocław, Poland.

The function of Cu,Zn-SOD is to dismutate superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. This task is fulfilled due to structural nuances of the enzyme. Many environmental xenobiotics have been proved to inhibit Cu,Zn-SOD. Those compounds could be found not only in industrial sewage, cigarettes and various chemical agents - some of them are used as drugs, drug production substrates or are the product of drug biotransformation. Cu,Zn-SOD exposition to these compounds leads to inhibition due to: copper ion chelation, unfolding the structure of the enzyme, affecting residues vital for activity maintenance. This review covers a selection of Cu,Zn-SOD inhibitors, referring to in vivo and in vitro study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.12.022DOI Listing
March 2018

The effect of divalent metal chelators and cadmium on serum phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase 1.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Mar 27;58:77-83. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wrocław, Poland.

Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium dependent enzyme involved in many functions in human body. PON1 is synthesized in the liver and secreted to the bloodstream where bounds high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Association of PON1 with HDL increases the enzyme stability and biological activities. PON1 have three different activities: phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase. Until now there is now commercial available kits to determine these three PON1 activities. Also there is no date about stability of PON1 in serum after storage condition. We have elaborated the optimal conditions for determination of PON1 activities in serum using manual procedure as well as the best storage temperature of human serum for determination of PON1 activities. We have also confirmed that PON1 in serum is associated with HDL. Additionally we have investigated the effect of D-penicillamine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and cadmium chloride on PON1 activities in human serum. D-penicillamine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in therapeutic doses as well as cadmium chloride in toxic doses decrease PON1 activities in human serum when compared to non-treated serum. D-penicillamine as metal chelator inhibits much stronger PON1 activities than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.12.019DOI Listing
March 2018

Zinc-Modified Nanotransporter of Doxorubicin for Targeted Prostate Cancer Delivery.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2017 Dec 8;7(12). Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, 61200 Brno, Czech Republic.

This work investigated the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles used as carriers for doxorubicin for targeted cancer delivery. Prepared nanocarriers were stabilized and functionalized via zinc ions incorporated into the chitosan nanoparticle backbone. We took the advantage of high expression of sarcosine in the prostate cancer cells. The prostate cancer targeting was mediated by the AntiSar antibodies decorated surface of the nanocage. Formation of the chitosan nanoparticles was determined using a ninhydrin assay and differential pulse voltammetry. Obtained results showed the strong effect of tripolyphosphine on the nanoparticle formation. The zinc ions affected strong chitosan backbone coiling both in inner and outer chitosan nanoparticle structure. Zinc electrochemical signal depended on the level of the complex formation and the potential shift from -960 to -950 mV. Formed complex is suitable for doxorubicin delivery. It was observed the 20% entrapment efficiency of doxorubicin and strong dependence of drug release after 120 min in the blood environment. The functionality of the designed nanotransporter was proven. The purposed determination showed linear dependence in the concentration range of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled gold nanoparticles from 0 to 1000 µg/mL and the regression equation was found to be = 3.8 - 66.7 and R² = 0.99. Performed ELISA confirmed the ability of Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles with loaded doxorubicin to bind to the sarcosine molecule. Observed hemolytic activity of the nanotransporter was 40%. Inhibition activity of our proposed nanotransporter was evaluated to be 0% on the experimental model of . Anti-sarcosine IgG labeled chitosan nanoparticles, with loaded doxorubicin stabilized by Zn ions, are a perspective type of nanocarrier for targeted drug therapy managed by specific interaction with sarcosine and metallothionein for prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano7120435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746925PMC
December 2017

Resistin as a Prooxidant Factor and Predictor of Endothelium Damage in Patients with Mild Acute Pancreatitis Exposed to Tobacco Smoke Xenobiotics.

Mediators Inflamm 2017 26;2017:3039765. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

Objectives: The study was aimed to assess the influence of tobacco smoke exposure on the intensity of inflammation measured by IL-6, -antitripsin (AAT) and -acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations, and Cd level and oxidative stress intensity measured by advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) concentration in the blood of healthy subjects and AP patients during hospitalization. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and resistin concentrations, markers of endothelium injury, were determined.

Results: An increased IL-6 concentration in healthy smokers compared to nonsmokers and AP patients compared to controls was shown. An increased AAT and AGP concentrations during hospitalization of AP patients were noted, in both smokers (AAT, AGP) and nonsmokers (AAT). In comparison to control groups, in AP patients, a 2-fold increased resistin concentration correlating with ET-1 concentration and decreased albumin concentration accompanied by increased AOPP concentration were demonstrated. AOPP concentration was higher in smokers with AP compared to nonsmokers and gradually enhanced during their hospitalization.

Conclusions: Tobacco smoke exposure can have a proinflammatory effect in both healthy subjects and AP patients. Increased resistin concentration in AP patients negatively correlating with albumin concentration has prooxidative effect on this protein resulting in enhanced AOPP level. Increased resistin concentration can intensify AAT and AGP production during AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3039765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5634610PMC
June 2018

Kinetic analysis of human metallothionein and CdTe quantum dot complexes using fluorescence and voltammetry techniques.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017 Dec 14;160:381-389. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Thanks to quantum dots' (QDs) properties, they can be used as selective and sensitive biomarkers in molecular imaging. In a previous paper, we confirmed the possibility of interaction between mercaptosuccinic acid-capped cadmium telluride QDs (MSA-CdTe) and human metallothionein (MT). The aim of this study was to expand on our previous research with an evaluation of the stability of the formed complexes between human MT and four CdTe compounds of the following sizes: 3.4nm (blue QDs), 3.8nm (green QDs), 4.5nm (yellow QDs), and 5.2nm (red QDs). Complexes were evaluated over time using fluorescence intensity and differential pulse voltammetry. Differences between the voltammograms obtained for standard solutions and for CdTe+MT show that complexes were formed. An increase in fluorescence intensity was observed for blue (Δ%≈40 for t=1→120min) and red (Δ%≈30 for t=1→120min) CdTe-MT complexes than CdTe alone, whereas green and yellow CdTe-MT complexes had a lower fluorescence intensity than CdTe alone. A stronger time dependence of the mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) peak height on the timeline and differences in the MSA peak shape (in CdTe, and CdTe+MT complexes) were also observed by voltammetry. Authors noticed a decrease in the Cat2 signal of the red and green CdTe+MT complexes at the time of conjugation. Our results reveal that the size of QDs has an impact on the interaction between CdTe and human MT, as well as on the stability of complexes formed during these interactions. The bioconjugates' stability was also found to depend on the time of interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.09.033DOI Listing
December 2017

The effect of passive and active exposure to tobacco smoke on lipid profile parameters and the activity of certain membrane enzymes in the blood of women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jul 27;53:74-80. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analysis, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

The effect of tobacco smoke on lipid peroxidation, the lipid profile and membrane-bound enzymatic activity in the first trimester of pregnancy was investigated. In the plasma of women with active exposure to tobacco smoke, we have found increased lipid peroxidation and higher total concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins in the blood, as well as a decreased concentration of high-density lipoproteins. A higher concentration of low-density lipoproteins and a lower concentration of high-density lipoproteins were also found in the plasma of passive smokers. In contrast, women who smoked before pregnancy had only a higher low-density lipoprotein concentration. In the group of active and passive smoking women, lower arylesterase and phosphotriesterase activities of paraoxonase were observed, while the lactonase activity of paraoxonase decreased only in the group of active smoking women. In women with active exposure to tobacco smoke, a higher activity level of alanine aminopeptidase and γ-glutamyltransferase in the plasma was found. It is important to monitor the lipid profile during pregnancy, especially when exposure to tobacco smoke occurs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.018DOI Listing
July 2017
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