Publications by authors named "Halima Ali Shuwa"

8 Publications

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Sero-survey of measles virus antibodies among symptomatic children attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

GMS Hyg Infect Control 2021 26;16:Doc04. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

University Health Center, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Federal University, Dutse, Nigeria.

Nigeria is one of the countries with a high prevalence of measles outbreak in children under 5 years old, despite a history of vaccination. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anti-measles virus IgM and IgG among children under 5 years attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. : Whole blood was collected, centrifuged, and serum anti-IgM and anti-IgG against measles virus was analysed using ELISA. Sociodemographic variables and vaccination history of subjects were obtained by interview-based questionnaires. The overall anti-Measles virus IgG and IgM seroprevalences were 29.2% and 14.6%, respectively. The prevalence of measles IgG was significantly associated with the parent's employment status ( =11.67, p=0.008). However, the prevalence of measles virus IgM was significantly associated with children's age ( =16.62, p=0.002), parents' employment status and children's vaccination status ( =7.72, p=0.02). A majority of study participants were not immunised against measles, and a significant number of participants had serological evidence of acute measles virus infection. There is a need for more concerted and massive measles vaccination of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/dgkh000375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894129PMC
January 2021

Humoral immunological kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and diagnostic performance of serological assays for coronavirus disease 2019: an analysis of global reports.

Int Health 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms 'COVID-19', 'Serological assay', 'Laboratory Diagnosis', 'Performance characteristics', 'POCT', 'LFA', 'CLIA', 'ELISA' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928871PMC
February 2021

Understanding the implications of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections on immune response milieu, laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 9;7(1):e05951. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Nursing Sciences, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Maradi, Nigeria.

Several months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), cases of re-infection after recovery were reported. The extent and duration of protective immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection is not fully understood. As such, the possibility of re-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, cases of re-infection were mainly due to different variants or mutant SARS-CoV-2. Following the fast and pandemic-scale spread of COVID-19, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have raised new diagnostic challenges which include the redesign of the oligonucleotide sequences used in RT-PCR assays to avoid potential primer-sample mismatches, and decrease sensitivities. Since the initial wave of the pandemic, some regions had experienced fresh outbreaks, predisposing people to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Hence, this article sought to offer detailed biology of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections and their implications on immune response milieu, diagnostic laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810769PMC
January 2021

Regulatory B cells in respiratory health and diseases.

Immunol Rev 2021 01 6;299(1):61-73. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, Division of Infection, Immunity & Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

B cells are critical mediators of humoral immune responses in the airways through antibody production, antigen presentation, and cytokine secretion. In addition, a subset of B cells, known as regulatory B cells (Bregs), exhibit immunosuppressive functions via diverse regulatory mechanisms. Bregs modulate immune responses via the secretion of IL-10, IL-35, and tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β), and by direct cell contact. The balance between effector and regulatory B cell functions is critical in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. The importance of Bregs in airway immune responses is emphasized by the different respiratory disorders associated with abnormalities in Breg numbers and function. In this review, we summarize the role of immunosuppressive Bregs in airway inflammatory diseases and highlight the importance of this subset in the maintenance of respiratory health. We propose that improved understanding of signals in the lung microenvironment that drive Breg differentiation can provide novel therapeutic avenues for improved management of respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imr.12941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986090PMC
January 2021

Leucocytes and Th-associated Cytokine Profile of HIV-Leishmaniasis Co-Infected Persons Attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Eurasian J Med 2020 Oct;52(3):271-276

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Objective: T-helper cells (Th)-1& -2 cytokines homeostasis control or predict clinical outcome of infected persons, especially those with HIV /AIDS. This case-control study evaluated the leucocytes differentials, TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2 and -10 levels among HIV infected persons with serological evidence of leishmaniasis attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples from 28 HIV infected persons who had Leishmania donovani rK39 and Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) positive (group 1), 30 age- & -sex matched HIV infected persons without Leishmania antibodies (group 2) and 30 apparently healthy persons without HIV and Leishmania antibodies (group 3). Full blood counts, TNF alpha, IL-2 and -10 levels were analyzed using automated hematology analyzer and ELISA, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to collate biodata and clinical presentations of participants.

Results: Ten (35.7%) participants in group 1 were on ART, 15 (50%) in group 2 were on ART, while group 3 were ART naïve. There were significantly higher values in basophil (4.4±2.5%) and eosinophil counts (12.9±3.8%) in HIV/leishmania coinfected persons (p<0.005). However, other white cells subpopulation was significantly lower in HIV/leishmania co-infected participants (p<0.05). There was significantly reduced CD4+ T cell counts ([119±26 versus 348±63 versus 605±116 cells/mm3]), TNF-alpha ([36.82±8.21 versus 64.67±12.54 versus 254.98±65.59 pg/mL]) and IL-2 levels ([142.14±20.91 versus 507.6±84.42 versus 486.62±167.87 pg/mL]) among HIV/Leishmania co-infected participants compared to group 2 and group 3 participants, respectively. However, higher IL-10 level (80.35±14.57 pg/mL) was found in HIV/Leishmania co-infected participants as opposed to the HIV monoinfected (62.2±10.43 pg/mL) and apparently healthy persons (23.97±4.88 pg/mL) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Eosinophil, basophil counts and serum IL-10 level were high in HIV/Leishmania coinfected persons, demonstrating parasite-induced hypersensitivity and immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/eurasianjmed.2020.20008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7651764PMC
October 2020

Leveraging on the genomics and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 for vaccines development: prospects and challenges.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 03 16;17(3):620-637. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

The incidence and case-fatality rates (CFRs) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the etiological agent for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been rising unabated. Even though the entire world has been implementing infection prevention and control measures, the pandemic continues to spread. It has been widely accepted that preventive vaccination strategies are the public health measures for countering this pandemic. This study critically reviews the latest scientific advancement in genomics, replication pattern, pathogenesis, and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these concepts could be used in the development of vaccines. We also offer a detailed discussion on the anticipated potency, efficacy, safety, and pharmaco-economic issues that are and will be associated with candidate COVID-19 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1812313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993231PMC
March 2021

Phenotypic profile of pulmonary aspergillosis and associated cellular immunity among people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Ci Ji Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jul-Sep;31(3):149-153

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria.

Objective: causes many forms of pulmonary infectious diseases ranging from colonization (noninvasive) to invasive aspergillosis. This largely depends on the underlying host's lung health and immune status. Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA), especially the invasive form, occurs as opportunistic to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a result of cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ lymphopenia. The majority of patients with comorbid HIV and aspergillosis go undiagnosed. This study aimed to isolate, identify the etiologies, and determine the prevalence of PA among HIV-infected persons with a productive cough (at least <2 weeks) at the HIV Clinics of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: After ethical approval, three consecutive early morning sputum samples were collected from patients with negative tuberculosis results. The samples were individually inoculated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide in duplicate for 7 days at 37°C and 25°C, respectively. The fungal isolates were examined morphologically and microscopically and identified using the standard biochemical reagents. CD4+ cell counts were performed using flow cytometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the patients data. All patients were antiretroviral naïve.

Results: The prevalence of PA was 12.7% in these 150 patients. Of the 19 fungal culture-positive individuals, accounted for the highest proportion of the isolates (8, 42.1%) followed by (5, 26.3%), (4, 21.1%), and (2, 10.5%). Based on the assessment of functionality of cellular immunity, HIV participants who were negative for PA (131/150) had significantly higher mean ± standard deviation CD4 T-cell counts (245.65 ± 178.32 cells/mL) than those with aspergillosis (126.13 ± 105.27 cells/mL) ( = 0.0051). PA was relatively highest among patients with CD4+ cell counts <200 cells/mL (12. 34.3%) followed by those with CD4+ cell counts between 200 and 350 cells/mL (5, 9.6%) and least among those with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/mL (2, 3.2%). The Chi-square test showed a significant association between the prevalence of PA and the CD4+ cell count, age, and gender ( < 0.05) but not with occupation or education level ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings from this study indicate that spp. is a significant etiology of acute productive cough in people living with HIV and this is related to the CD4+ cell count of coinfected persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/tcmj.tcmj_46_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559025PMC
July 2019

Effects of Adalimumab, an Anti-tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNF-α) Antibody, on Obese Diabetic Rats.

Malays J Med Sci 2018 Jul 30;25(4):51-62. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents a major health problem worldwide. Recent studies have confirmed that obesity is a state of chronic inflammation that is characterised by increased concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other inflammatory markers. It has been reported that increased TNF-α and IL-6 cause an immunological disturbance in DM. In the present study, the levels of fasting glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 were estimated in order to determine whether adalimumab can improve the glucose levels in obese diabetic rats.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: obese + diabetes + adalimumab (group 1), obese + diabetes (group 2), obese (group 3) and normal control (group 4), respectively ( = seven per group). Obesity was induced by feeding the rats in groups 1, 2 and 3 with a high-fat diet for four weeks. Some 30 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) was administered to groups 1 and 2 so as to induce diabetes. Adalimumab was administered at a rate of 50 mg/kg to group 1 following the induction of diabetes. The fasting glucose, TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were determined.

Results: A significant decrease was observed in the glucose levels of the treated rats (6.91 [0.11] mmol/L) when compared to those of the untreated rats (15.43 [0.44] mmol/L) ( < 0.001). The TNF-α levels were lower in group 1 (20.71 [0.35] ng/L) than in groups 2 (37.90 [0.27] ng/L) and 3 (25.89 [0.12] ng/L) ( < 0.001), although they were higher when compared to the levels seen in group 4 (12.44 [0.38] ng/L) ( < 0.001). The IL-6 concentrations were found to be elevated in groups 1 (22.89 [0.45] ng/L), 2 (21.00 [0.40] ng/L) and 3 (31.80 [1.32] ng/L) when compared to the levels seen in group 4 (18.70 [0.37] ng/L) ( < 0.001), although they were lower in group 1 (22.89 [0.45] ng/L) than in group 3 (31.80 [1.32] ng/L) ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: Adalimumab reduced the glucose and TNF-α levels of diabetic rats, which indicates that it has a therapeutic effect in terms of controlling the blood glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2018.25.4.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422540PMC
July 2018
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