Publications by authors named "Haiyun Zhang"

36 Publications

Differences in kinetic metabolomics in Eisenia fetida under single and dual exposure of imidacloprid and dinotefuran at environmentally relevant concentrations.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 8;417:126001. Epub 2021 May 8.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Metabolomic responses of earthworms to neonicotinoids are important for understanding their molecular-level toxicity and assessing their ecological risks, but little is known until now. We investigated impact of imidacloprid (IMI, 52.6 ng/g) and dinotefuran (DIN, 52.5 ng/g) on Eisenia fetida metabolomics under single- and dual-compound exposure scenarios for one to four weeks. Dissimilar metabolites and anti-stress strategies were found for different neonicotinoids and exposure scenarios. Specifically, IMI exposure first increased myo-inositol and UDP-glucuronate associated with transmembrane absorption and transformation to IMI-urea, and then increased glutathione and fourteen amino acids (TCA cycle precursors) to resist stress and replenish energy. In contrast, worms exposed to DIN first prepared TCA cycle intermediates from glucosamine-6-phosphate and amino acids, suppressed urea cycle and DIN transformation, and then alleviated oxidative stress by increasing carnosine, nicotinate-D-ribonucleotide and nicotinamide-β-riboside. Dual exposure increased four eicosanoids by 1.6-1.9-fold, possibly associated with membrane lipid peroxidation; the amino acids consumed to balance the energy metabolism exhibited a wave-like pattern. This study first systematically revealed the compound/time/exposure scenario- dependent effects of trace neonicotinoids on earthworm metabolomics and advanced the understanding of their action modes. Neonicotinoid transformation was closely related to worms' metabolic profiles, providing important insights in contaminant fate in soil ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126001DOI Listing
May 2021

A mechanistic study on removal efficiency of four antibiotics by animal and plant origin precursors-derived biochars.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 30;772:145468. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Extensive research has been performed on the utilization of biochar for pollutant removal via sorption. Additionally, the relationship between sorption strength of organic pollutants by organic matter and nanomaterials and their sorption site energy distribution has been studied. However, the linkage between removal efficiency of organic pollutants and the sorption site energy distribution on biochars is unknown. As a first attempt to address this knowledge gap, three biochars were derived from two plant-origin precursors (corn straw-CS; birch sawdust-BS) and one animal-origin precursor (meat and bone meal-MBM) at 500 °C (CS-500, BS-500, and MBM-500). In addition, two biochars were prepared with CS at 300 and 800 °C (CS-300 and CS-800) to examine the relationship between their site energy distribution and removal efficiency of antibiotics including sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), tetracycline (TC) and ciprofloxacin (CFX) by these materials. Our findings showed that the antibiotic-biochar interactions can be well interpreted with site energy distribution and XPS analysis results. Polar interactions between CS-300, CS-500, and CS-800 and SDZ and SMX occurring at the high-energy sites dominated their removal. However, TC and CFX removal by these biochars was driven by their polar interactions occurring at high-energy sites and π-π interactions at low-energy sites. The π-π stacking mechanism tended to dominate their removal with increasing charring temperature. Abundance of polar functionalities on CS-500, BS-500, and MBM-500 and TC removal efficiency of these materials consistently followed an order of MBM-500 > CS-500 > BS-500, highlighting importance of precursors for making biochars and polar interactions in its removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145468DOI Listing
June 2021

Process Parameters Optimization Using Taguchi-Based Grey Relational Analysis in Laser-Assisted Machining of SiN.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;14(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China.

Despite extensive research over the past three decades proving that laser-assisted machining (LAM) is effective for machining ceramic materials, which are affected by many machining parameters, there has been no systematic study of the effects of process parameters on surface quality in LAM ceramic materials. In this paper, the effects and optimization of laser power, spindle speed, feed rate, and cutting depth on surface roughness and work hardening of LAM SiN were systematically studied, using grey relational analysis coupled with the Taguchi method. The results show that the combination of machining parameters determines the material removal mode at the material removal location, and then affects the surface quality. In ductile material removal mode, both the value of surface roughness and work hardening degree are smaller. Decreased surface roughness and work hardening degree can be obtained with smaller cutting depth and higher laser power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14030529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866217PMC
January 2021

Effects of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes on bioconcentration of pentachlorophenol and hepatic damages in goldfish.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jan 9. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) exerts strong adsorption capacity for pentachlorophenol (PCP) and they inevitably co-occur in the environment, but few studies have characterized the effects of MWCNT-COOH on the bioavailability of PCP and its oxidative and tissue damages to fish. In this work, we assessed the PCP accumulation in different organs and the induced oxidative and tissue damages of goldfish following 50-d in vivo exposure to PCP alone or co-exposure with MWCNT-COOH. Our results indicated that PCP bioaccumulation in goldfish liver, gill, muscle, intestine and gut contents was inhibited after co-exposure with MWCNT-COOH in uptake phase. PCP exposure alone and co-exposure with MWCNT-COOH evoked severe oxidative and tissue damages in goldfish bodies, as indicated by significant inhibition of activities of antioxidant enzymes, remarkable decrease in glutathione level, simultaneous elevation of malondialdehyde content, and obvious histological damages to liver and gill. The decreased accumulation of PCP in the presence of MWCNT-COOH led to the reduction of PCP-induced toxicity to liver tissues, as confirmed by the alleviation of hepatic oxidative damages. However, co-exposure groups had higher concentrations of PCP in the tissues than PCP treatment alone (p < 0.05 each) in the depuration phase, revealing that MWCNT-COOH-bound pollutants might pose higher risk once desorbed from the nanoparticles. These results provided substantial information regarding the combined effects of PCP and MWCNT-COOH on aquatic species, which helps to deeply understand the potential ecological risks of the emerging pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-020-02328-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Removal of PAHs at high concentrations in a soil washing solution containing TX-100 via simultaneous sorption and biodegradation processes by immobilized degrading bacteria in PVA-SA hydrogel beads.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 11;410:124533. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Soil washing process enhanced by surfactants is a promising technique in removing organic pollutants from soil. In this work, a simultaneous sorption and biodegradation technique was used to remove 16 PAHs from a soil washing solution (SWS) obtained by rinsing a heavily contaminated soil from a coking plant with Triton X-100 (TX-100). This was done by immobilizing a pyrene-degrading bacterial strain in polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate (PVA-SA) hydrogel beads. Removal performance of free bacteria, blank PVA-SA beads and beads with immobilized degrading bacteria at a low, medium and high initial concentration was evaluated. The recycling and removal performance of the used beads were also examined. Our findings showed that hydrogel beads with immobilized bacteria at a medium concentration can remove around 77% ∑16PAHs from SWS in 96 h. The beads can be recycled and reused to treat a new SWS; 32-55% ∑16PAHs was removed in 24 h. The bead provided protection for bacteria against the co-existing substances such as TX-100. The bacteria-immobilized beads are more efficient and sustainable than free bacteria and blank beads due to simultaneous sorption and biodegradation processes, thus providing a solid reference for possible industrial application of bacteria immobilization technique to deal with SWSs with complex composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124533DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient biodegradation of DEHP by CM9 consortium and shifts in the bacterial community structure during bioremediation of contaminated soil.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 1;266(Pt 2):115112. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Eco-environmental Protection Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, 201403, China; Agricultural Environment and Farmland Conservation Experiment Station of Ministry Agriculture, Shanghai, 201403, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai, 201403, China. Electronic address:

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most extensively used plasticizer in plastic formulations, is categorized as a priority environmental contaminant with carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic toxicities. Many isolated microorganisms exhibit outstanding performance as pure cultures in the laboratory but are unable to cope with harsh environmental conditions in the field. In the present study, a microbial consortium (CM9) with efficient functionality was isolated from contaminated farmland soil. CM9 could consistently degrade 94.85% and 100.00% of DEHP (1000 mg/L) within 24 h and 72 h, respectively, a higher efficiency than those of other reported pure and mixed microorganism cultures. The degradation efficiencies of DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate were significantly higher than those of dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate (p < 0.05). The primary members of the CM9 consortium were identified as Rhodococcus, Niabella, Sphingopyxis, Achromobacter, Tahibacter, and Xenophilus. The degradation pathway was hypothesized to include both de-esterification and β-oxidation. In contaminated soil, bioaugmentation with CM9 and biochar markedly enhanced the DEHP removal rate to 87.53% within 42 d, compared to that observed by the indigenous microbes (49.31%) (p < 0.05). During simulated bioaugmentation, the dominant genera in the CM9 consortium changed significantly over time, indicating their high adaptability to soil conditions and contribution to DEHP degradation. Rhodococcus, Pigmentiphaga and Sphingopyxis sharply decreased, whereas Tahibacter, Terrimonas, Niabella, Unclassified_f_Caulobacteraceae, and Allorhizobium-Neorhizobium-Pararhizobium-Rhizobium showed considerable increases. These results provide a theoretical framework for the development of in situ bioremediation of phthalate (PAE)-contaminated soil by composite microbial inocula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115112DOI Listing
November 2020

Differential histological, cellular and organism-wide response of earthworms exposed to multi-layer graphenes with different morphologies and hydrophobicity.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 1;263(Pt B):114468. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Rice University, Houston, TX, 77005, United States. Electronic address:

The growing use of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) for various applications increases the probability of their environmental releases and calls for a systematic assessment of their potential impacts on soil invertebrates that serve as an important link along terrestrial food chains. Here, we investigated the response of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to three types of multi-layer graphenes (MLGs) (G1, G2 and G3 with 12-15 layers) with variable morphology (lateral sizes: 7.4 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.1 μm; thicknesses: 5.0 ± 0.1, 4.2 ± 0.1 and 4.0 ± 0.2 nm, respectively) and hydrophobicity ((O + N)/C ratios: 0.029, 0.044 and 0.075; contact angles: 122.8, 118.8 and 115.1°, respectively). Exposure to these materials was conducted for 28 days (except for 48-h avoidance test) separately in potting or farm soil at 0.2% and 1% by weight. Earthworms avoided both soils when amended with 1% of the smaller and more hydrophilic MLGs (G2 and G3), leading to a decreased trend in worm cocoon formation. The smallest and most hydrophilic MLG (G3), which was easier to assimilate, also significantly inhibited the viability (20.2-56.0%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (32.0-48.5%) of worm coelomocytes in both soils. In contrast, oxidative damage (indicated by lipid peroxides) was more pronounced upon exposure to more hydrophobic and larger graphenic materials (G1 and G2), which were attributed to facilitated adhesion to and disruption of worm membranes. These findings highlight the importance of MLG morphology and hydrophobicity in their potential toxicity and mode of action, as well as ecological risks associated with incidental and accidental releases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114468DOI Listing
August 2020

AMPH-1 As A Critical Tumor Suppressor That Inhibits Osteosarcoma Progression.

Cancer Manag Res 2019 25;11:9913-9919. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Fourth People's Hospital of Nantong, Jiangsu 226000, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Amphiphysin 1 (AMPH-1) is involved in endocytosis, and its expression is upregulated in osteosarcoma compared with osteofibrous dysplasia.

Methods: We investigated the role of AMPH-1 in osteosarcoma cells via both gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments.

Results: Knockdown of in osteosarcoma cells promoted cell cycle progression and cell proliferation and attenuated apoptosis. Notably, silencing increased osteosarcoma progression in a mouse tumor model. The results obtained upon knockdown and AMPH-1 overexpression indicates that AMPH-1 is involved in regulating MEK/ERK signaling.

Conclusion: These data suggest that AMPH-1 plays an important role in osteosarcoma and may represent a novel therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S220544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883929PMC
November 2019

Humic Acid Can Enhance the Mineralization of Phenanthrene Sorbed on Biochars.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Nov 8;53(22):13201-13208. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences , Peking University , Beijing 100871 , China.

Biodegradation of hydrophobic organic contaminants by bacteria has been widely studied, but how dissolved organic matter (DOM) may affect their removal if accumulated on biochars is poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, microbial mineralization of phenanthrene (PHE) spiked on various biochars by PYR-1 in the presence of humic acid (HA, a model DOM) at two concentrations was investigated. Our findings showed that HA greatly increased the rate and extent of PHE mineralization. This could be attributed to enhanced PHE desorption by HA, which facilitated access to it by bacteria in the aqueous phase. Furthermore, the high HA affinity for PHE facilitated PHE flow toward the bacterial cells with HA acting as a carrier in the aqueous phase. The mineralization enhancement of PHE by HA within 480 h was negatively influenced by the aromatic carbon contents and micropore volumes in biochars. This shows the importance of the physicochemical properties of biochars in altering the HA effect. Results of this study provide novel information on how to achieve complete removal of PHE accumulated on biochars with a strong sorption affinity for it, using a microbial technique and natural DOM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05147DOI Listing
November 2019

Extracellular and macropinocytosis internalized ATP work together to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition and other early metastatic activities in lung cancer.

Cancer Cell Int 2019 1;19:254. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

1Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 USA.

Background: Extracellular ATP (eATP) was shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a very important early process in metastasis, in cancer cells via purinergic receptor signaling. However, the exact induction mechanisms are far from fully known. We previously described that eATP is internalized by cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by macropinocytosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 and other cancer cells, drastically elevates intracellular ATP levels, enhances cell proliferation and resistance to anticancer drugs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that eATP and macropinocytosis-internalized eATP also induces EMT and other early steps of metastasis.

Methods: Floating cells, fencing, and transwell assays were used to show that ATP induces cell detachment, new colony formation, migration and invasion in human A549 and other lung cancer cells. Western blots were used to detect ATP-induced changes in EMT-related proteins; Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate ATP-induced metastasis-related cell morphological changes. Inhibitors and siRNA knockdowns were used to determine P2X7's involvement in the ATP-induced EMT. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of the SNX5 gene was used to identify macropinocytosis' roles in EMT and cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Student t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to determine statistical significance, P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: eATP potently induces expression of matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs), and detachment, EMT, migration, and invasion of lung cancer cells. The induction was independent of TGF-β and semi-independent of P2X7 activation. eATP performs these functions not only extracellularly, but also intracellularly after being macropinocytically internalized to further enhance P2X7-mediated EMT, filopodia formation and other early steps of metastasis. The knockout of macropinocytosis-associated SNX5 gene significantly reduces macropinocytosis, slows down tumor growth, and changes tumor morphology in nude mice.

Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that eATP's functions in these processes not only from outside of cancer cells but also inside after being macropinocytotically internalized. These findings shed light on eATP's initiator and effector roles in almost every step in early metastasis, which calls for rethinking and rebalancing energy equations of intracellular biochemical reactions and the Warburg effect, and identifies eATP and macropinocytosis as novel targets for potentially slowing down EMT and preventing metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-019-0973-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771108PMC
October 2019

Author Correction: Long non-coding RNA expression patterns in lung tissues of chronic cigarette smoke induced COPD mouse model.

Sci Rep 2019 May 9;9(1):7398. Epub 2019 May 9.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510180, China.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43723-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506458PMC
May 2019

Effects of Various Carbon Nanotubes on Soil Bacterial Community Composition and Structure.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 05 13;53(10):5707-5716. Epub 2019 May 13.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences , Peking University , Beijing 100871 , China.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have huge industrial potential, and their environmental impacts need to be evaluated. Knowledge of CNT impacts on soil microbial communities is still limited. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically examined dynamic effects of one type of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWs) and three multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWs) with different outer diameters on the soil bacterial community in an agricultural soil over 56 days. The results showed that SWs differently affected soil bacterial abundance, diversity, and composition as compared to MWs. The differences could have resulted from the materials' distinct physical structure and surface composition, which in turn affected their bioavailability in soil. For certain treatments, soil bacterial diversity and the relative abundance of certain predominant phyla were correlated with their exposure duration. However, many phyla recovered to their initial relative abundance within 56 days, reflecting resilience of the soil bacterial community in response to CNT-induced disturbance. Further analysis at the genus level showed differential tolerance to MWs, as well as size- and dose-dependent tolerance among bacterial genera. Predictive functional profiling showed that while CNTs initially caused fluctuations in microbial community function, community function largely converged across all treatments by the end of the 56 day exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06909DOI Listing
May 2019

Au-Catalyzed tandem intermolecular hydroalkoxylation/Claisen rearrangement between allylic alcohols and chloroalkynes.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 May;17(18):4435-4439

School of Environment Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, 1 Hongjingdadao, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211167, China.

An efficient protocol for the synthesis of γ,δ-unsaturated α-chloroketones has been developed via Au-catalyzed tandem intermolecular hydroalkoxylation/Claisen rearrangement. In the presence of 1 mol% JohnPhosAuCl and 1 mol% NaBArF, a broad range of allylic alcohols smoothly underwent the tandem intermolecular hydroalkoxylation/Claisen rearrangement with aromatic, vinylic or aliphatic chloroalkynes to give structurally diverse γ,δ-unsaturated α-chloroketones in excellent yields. Importantly, high Z/E selectivity was achieved. Other advantages are widespread availability of the substrates, compatibility with a broad range of functional groups and mild reaction conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob00151dDOI Listing
May 2019

Fabrication of Adhesive Resistance Surface with Low Wettability on Ti6Al4V Alloys by Electro-Brush Plating.

Micromachines (Basel) 2019 Jan 18;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China.

Anti-adhesive Ni coatings with low wettability were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V substrates via an electro-brush plating method, and subsequently modified with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphology, chemical compositions, and wettability of the as-prepared coatings were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), and contact angle measurements. The results showed that the surface of Ti6Al4V substrate was endowed with flower-like structures. Each flower-like cluster was constituted by a large number of Ni ions. After surface modification of FAS, the as-prepared Ti6Al4V surface had a water contact angle as high as 151.5°, a sliding angle close to 2.1°, and a solid surface energy as low as 0.97 mJ/m². Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that the Ni coating could provide a stable corrosion protection. In addition, the effects of processing conditions, such as working voltage, relative velocity, electrolyte concentration, and processing time, were investigated. The mechanism of the adhesive resistance was proposed, and the low wettability of Ti6Al4V surfaces was explained by Cassie⁻Baxter model. As a result, it was necessary to reduce the fraction of the solid⁻liquid interface in order to achieve anti-adhesive surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi10010064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356935PMC
January 2019

Long-term effects of straw and straw-derived biochar on soil aggregation and fungal community in a rice-wheat rotation system.

PeerJ 2019 4;6:e6171. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Eco-environmental Protection Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai, China.

Background: Soil aggregation is fundamental for soil functioning and agricultural productivity. Aggregate formation depends on microbial activity influencing the production of exudates and hyphae, which in turn act as binding materials. Fungi are also important for improving soil quality and promoting plant growth in a symbiotic manner. There is a scarcity of findings comparing the long-term impacts of different yearly double-crop straw return modes (e.g., straw return to the field and straw-derived biochar return to the field) on soil aggregation and fungal community structure in rice-wheat rotation systems.

Methods: The effects of 6-year continuous straw and straw-derived biochar amendment on soil physicochemical properties and the fungal community were evaluated in an intensively managed crop rotation system (rice-wheat). Soil samples of different aggregates (macroaggregates, microaggregates, and silt clay) from four different fertilization regimes (control, CK; traditional inorganic fertilization, CF; straw returned to field, CS; straw-derived biochar addition, CB) were obtained, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis of the fungal internal transcribed spacer gene was performed.

Results: Compared to CF, CS and CB enhanced soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and aggregation in 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil, with CB exhibiting a stronger effect. Additionally, agrowaste addition increased the mean weight diameter and the geometric diameter and decreased the fractal dimension ( < 0.05). Principal coordinates analysis indicated that fertilization management affected fungal community structure and aggregation distribution. In addition, CS increased fungal community richness and diversity, compared to CK, CB decreased these aspects. Ascomycota, unclassified_k_Fungi, and Basidiomycota were the dominant phyla in all soil samples. At the genus level, CB clearly increased fungi decomposing biosolids ( in macroaggregates in 0-20 cm soil and in macroaggregates in 20-40 cm soil); decreased pathogenic fungi ( in macroaggregates and in microaggregates in 0-20 cm soil) and CO-emission-related fungi ( in microaggregates and silt clay in 0-40 cm soil) ( < 0.05). Straw and biochar with inorganic fertilizer counteracted some of the adverse effects of the inorganic fertilizer with biochar showing better effects than straw.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322488PMC
January 2019

In situ administration of cytokine combinations induces tumor regression in mice.

EBioMedicine 2018 Nov 5;37:38-46. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Beijing Chaoyang District Animal Disease Control Center, Beijing 100018, China.

Background: Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy suggest a possibility of harnessing the immune system to defeat malignant tumors, but the complex immunosuppressive microenvironment confines the therapeutic benefits to a minority of patients with solid tumors.

Methods: A lentivector-based inducible system was established to evaluate the therapeutic effect of cytokines in established tumors. Intratumoral injection of certain cytokine combination in syngeneic tumor models was conducted to assess the therapeutic potentials.

Findings: Doxycycline (Dox)-induced local expression of cytokine combinations exhibites a strong synergistic effect, leading to complete regression of tumors. Notably, IL12 + GMCSF+IL2 expression induces eradication of tumors in all mice tolerated with this treatment, including those bearing large tumors of ~15 mm in diameter, and generates intensive systemic antitumor immunity. Other combinations with similar immune regulatory roles also induce tumor elimination in most of mice. Moreover, intratumoral injection of chitosan/IL12 + GMCSF+IL2 solution induces a complete response in all the tested syngeneic tumor models, regardless of various tumor immunograms.

Interpretation: Administration of certain cytokine combinations in tumor microenvironment induces a strong synergistic antitumor response, including the recruitment of large amount of immune cells and the generation of systemic antitumor immunity. It provides a versatile method for the immunotherapy of intractable malignant neoplasms. FUND: There is no external funding supporting this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.09.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284351PMC
November 2018

Endoscopic treatment for patients with gastric outlet stricture and biliary obstruction in the absence of endoscopic ultrasound: a retrospective study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 11;30(11):1332-1336

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai.

Background And Aim: Endoscopic biliary drainage is difficult in patients with biliary obstruction combined with gastric outlet stricture (GOS). Endoscopic ultrasound is useful for such patients, but needs advanced technique and sophisticated equipment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with GOS and biliary obstruction without the assistance of endoscopic ultrasound.

Patients And Methods: Seventy-four patients with GOS proximal to the ampulla and biliary obstruction, including 27 with benign GOS and 47 with malignant GOS, were retrospectively enrolled. Three conventional methods were used to pass through the stricture and allow the duodenoscope to reach the papilla: adjusting the endoscope, balloon dilation, and metal stent insertion. The uncovered metal stent insertion was applied only in patients with malignant GOS. The primary outcome evaluated was successful biliary drainage.

Results: No serious complications occurred during or after ERCP. The overall success rate of biliary drainage in the patients was 81.1%. The success rate of duodenoscopy insertion by endoscope adjustment, balloon dilation, and stent insertion was 44.6, 68.9, and 71.4%, respectively. Endoscope adjustment was more successful in the patients in the benign group compared with the patients in the malignant group (60.9 vs. 35.7%). Similar findings were obtained for balloon dilation (92.3 vs. 59.4%).

Conclusion: Most GOS, encountered during ERCP, can be safely dealt with using conventional endoscopic approaches in patients with biliary obstruction. However, the efficacy of endoscope adjustment or balloon dilation is better for benign GOS than for malignant GOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001230DOI Listing
November 2018

Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Decreases Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via Blocking the Activation of MAPK/HIF-1α Signaling Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2018 1;9:263. Epub 2018 May 1.

State Key Lab of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aberrant activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is frequently encountered and promotes oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study investigated whether sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS), a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, can mediate its effect through inhibiting HIF-1α-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD in mice. Here, we found that STS improved pulmonary function, ameliorated emphysema and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lungs of CS-exposed mice. STS reduced CS- and cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in the lungs and macrophages. STS also inhibited CSE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as the upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NOX1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in macrophages. In addition, STS suppressed HIF-1α expression and , and pretreatment with HIF-1α siRNA reduced CSE-induced elevation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and HO-1 content in the macrophages. Moreover, we found that STS inhibited CSE-induced the phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAPK and JNK in macrophages, and inhibition of these signaling molecules significantly repressed CSE-induced HIF-1α expression. It indicated that STS inhibits CSE-induced HIF-1α expression likely by blocking MAPK signaling. Furthermore, STS also promoted HIF-1α protein degradation in CSE-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that STS prevents COPD development possibly through the inhibition of HIF-1α signaling, and may be a novel strategy for the treatment of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938387PMC
May 2018

Long non-coding RNA expression patterns in lung tissues of chronic cigarette smoke induced COPD mouse model.

Sci Rep 2018 05 15;8(1):7609. Epub 2018 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510180, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have critical regulatory roles in protein-coding gene expression. Aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs have been observed in various human diseases. In this study, we investigated transcriptome profiles in lung tissues of chronic cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD mouse model. We found that 109 lncRNAs and 260 mRNAs were significantly differential expressed in lungs of chronic CS-induced COPD mouse model compared with control animals. GO and KEGG analyses indicated that differentially expressed lncRNAs associated protein-coding genes were mainly involved in protein processing of endoplasmic reticulum pathway, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism pathway. The combination of high throughput data analysis and the results of qRT-PCR validation in lungs of chronic CS-induced COPD mouse model, 16HBE cells with CSE treatment and PBMC from patients with COPD revealed that NR_102714 and its associated protein-coding gene UCHL1 might be involved in the development of COPD both in mouse and human. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that aberrant expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs existed in lungs of chronic CS-induced COPD mouse model. From animal models perspective, these results might provide further clues to investigate biological functions of lncRNAs and their potential target protein-coding genes in the pathogenesis of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25702-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954018PMC
May 2018

Extracellular ATP, as an energy and phosphorylating molecule, induces different types of drug resistances in cancer cells through ATP internalization and intracellular ATP level increase.

Oncotarget 2017 Oct 23;8(50):87860-87877. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA.

Cancer cells are able to uptake extracellular ATP (eATP) via macropinocytosis to elevate intracellular ATP (iATP) levels, enhancing their survival in drug treatment. However, the involved drug resistance mechanisms are unknown. Here we investigated the roles of eATP as either an energy or a phosphorylating molecule in general drug resistance mediated by ATP internalization and iATP elevation. We report that eATP increased iATP levels and promoted drug resistance to various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and chemo-drugs in human cancer cell lines of five cancer types. In A549 lung cancer cells, the resistance was downregulated by macropinocytosis inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PAK1, an essential macropinocytosis enzyme. The elevated iATP upregulated the efflux activity of ABC transporters in A549 and SK-Hep-1 cells as well as phosphorylation of PDGFRα and proteins in the PDGFR-mediated Akt-mTOR and Raf-MEK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Similar phosphorylation upregulations were found in A549 tumors. These results demonstrate that eATP induces different types of drug resistance by eATP internalization and iATP elevation, implicating the ATP-rich tumor microenvironment in cancer drug resistance, expanding our understanding of the roles of eATP in the Warburg effect and offering new anticancer drug resistance targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5675678PMC
October 2017

Ratiometric electrochemical aptasensor based on ferrocene and carbon nanofibers for highly specific detection of tetracycline residues.

Sci Rep 2017 11 7;7(1):14729. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, No.12 Zhangzhou Road, Zibo, 255049, Shandong Province, P.R. China.

A sensitive and efficient ratiometric electrochemical aptasensor was designed for tetracycline (TET) detection in milk. The ratiometric electrochemical aptasensor was constructed by integrating two aptasensors termed as aptasensor 1 and aptasensor 2. The aptasensor 1 was fabricated that based on ferrocene (Fc) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposite. Meanwhile, the aptasensor 2 was prepared that based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and AuNPs nanocomposite. TET-aptamer was immobilized effectively onto screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) surface through forming Au-S bond between AuNPs and thiol of aptamer at 5' end to construct the aptasensor 1 and aptasensor 2. And their detection results were calculated by ratio. Thus, the proposed ratiometric aptasensor solved the problem of low accuracy and large differences between batches. Under the optimized conditions, the TET was detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Taken advantage of ratio calculation, the as-prepared ratiometric aptasensor could detect TET quantitatively in the range of 10-10gL, with a detection limit of 3.3 × 10gL. Moreover, its applicability to TET-contaminated real samples (milk) showed an excellent agreement with the values determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). With high sensitivity, accuracy and reliability, the developed ratiometric aptasensor held a great potential in TET detection for food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15333-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5676786PMC
November 2017

Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of methylated PAHs in agricultural soils from Yangtze River Delta, China.

Environ Pollut 2017 Nov 10;230:927-935. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Alkylated PAHs (APAHs) have been shown to be more toxic and persistent than their non-alkylated parent compounds. However, little is known about the extent of soil contamination by these pollutants. To help understand agricultural soil pollution by these compounds at a regional scale, a total of 18 methylated PAHs (MPAHs, a major class of APAHs) in 243 soil samples were analyzed. These soil samples were collected from 11 sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, a representative fast developing area in China. The total concentration of MPAHs (∑18MPAHs) ranged from 5.5 to 696.2 ng/g dry soil, with methylnaphthalenes (M-NAPs) and methylphenanthrenes (M-PHEs) accounting for more than 70% of the compositional profile. Relatively high concentrations of ∑18MPAHs were found in Jiaxing and Huzhou areas of Zhejiang province, as well as on the border between the cities of Wuxi and Suzhou. Different MPAH groups showed dissimilar spatial distribution patterns. The spatial distribution of lower molecular weight MPAHs was related to agricultural straw burning and emissions/depositions from industrial activities, whereas that of higher molecular weight MPAHs was much more a function of the total organic carbon (TOC) content of soil. Although coal, biomass (crop straw and wood), and petroleum combustion were identified to be the major emission sources for most of the sampling sites, the areas with relatively severe pollution with ∑18MPAHs resulted from the localized hotspots of petroleum leakage. Isomeric MPAHs with methyl group substituted at 2- (β) position exhibited significantly higher concentrations than those substituted at 1- (α) position. Results of this work help to understand soil pollution by MPAHs, and are useful for designing effective strategies for pollution control so as to ensure food safety in areas with fast economic growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.035DOI Listing
November 2017

Sorption mechanisms of sulfamethazine to soil humin and its subfractions after sequential treatments.

Environ Pollut 2017 Feb 10;221:266-275. Epub 2016 Dec 10.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Sorption mechanisms of an antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMT) to humin (HM) isolated from a peat soil and its subfractions after sequential treatments were examined. The treatments of HM included removal of ash, O-alkyl carbon, lipid, and lignin components. The HF/HCl de-ashing treatment removed a large amount of minerals (mainly silicates), releasing a fraction of hydrophobic carbon sorption domains that previously were blocked, increasing the sorption of SMT by 33.3%. The de-O-alkyl carbon treatment through acid hydrolysis greatly reduced polarity of HM samples, thus weakening the interaction between sorbents with water at the interfaces via H-bonding, leaving more effective sorption sites. Sorption of SMT via mechanisms such as van der Waals forces and π-π interactions was enhanced by factors of 2.04-2.50. After removing the lipid/lignin component with the improved Soxhlet extraction/acid hydrolysis, the organic carbon content-normalized sorption enhancement index E was calculated. The results demonstrated that the E for SMT (16.9%) was higher than E (10.1%), implying that removal of unit organic carbon mass of lipid led to a higher increase in sorption strength than that of lignin. As each component was progressively removed from HM, the sorption strength and isotherm nonlinearity of the residual HM samples for SMT were gradually enhanced. The K values of SMT by HM samples were positively correlated with their aromatic carbon contents, implying that π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions between the benzene ring of sorbate and the aromatic domains in HM played a significant role in their interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.073DOI Listing
February 2017

Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on bioaccumulation and translocation of pyrene and 1-methylpyrene in maize (Zea mays) seedlings.

Environ Pollut 2017 Jan 9;220(Pt B):1409-1417. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with outer diameters > 50 nm (MW) and a surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on bioaccumulation and translocation of pyrene and 1-methylpyrene (1-CH-pyrene) in maize seedlings in single-(F1) and bi-(F2) compound systems was investigated. Pyrene concentration in shoots was detected in all treatments in F1 and F2, ranging in 10.43-60.28 ng/g and 21.46-40.21 ng/g, respectively, and its translocation factors (TFs) ranged in 0.12-0.19 and 0.07-0.16. However, no 1-CH-pyrene in shoots was detected from F1 and F2, indicating almost 100% suppression on its translocation from roots to shoots. SDBS at 100 mg/kg significantly enhanced pyrene bioaccumulation in roots and shoots by 43.5% and 77.4% in F1, and 21.7% in roots in F2, while showed insignificant effect on shoot concentration in F2. In contrast, SDBS at 100 mg/kg exerted no significant effect on root 1-CH-pyrene concentration in F1 and F2. With increasing amendment level of MW from 50 to 3000 mg/kg, both pyrene and 1-CH-pyrene concentrations in roots and shoots sharply decreased, indicating an increasing suppression on their bioaccumulation and translocation in plant. As for 3000 mg/kg MW + 100 mg/kg SDBS, root concentrations of pyrene and 1-CH-pyrene in F1 were significantly reduced by 53.4% and 100%, while shoot concentration of pyrene was not affected, generally consistent with the trend of the corresponding bioaccumulation factors (BCF) and TFs. As for F2 with the same treatment, root 1-CH-pyrene concentration declined by 68.6%, whereas pyrene bioaccumulation in roots and shoots was insignificantly affected, which were also in agreement with their BCF and TFs. Results of this work highlight the combined impacts of soil amendment with carbon nanotubes and surfactant on bioaccumulation and translocation of pyrene and 1-CH-pyrene in maize seedlings in multi-pollutant exposure systems, which is important for soil pollution control and food safety assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.093DOI Listing
January 2017

The calcineruin inhibitor cyclosporine a synergistically enhances the susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to fluconazole by multiple mechanisms.

BMC Microbiol 2016 06 18;16(1):113. Epub 2016 Jun 18.

Ningxia Key laboratory of Clinical and Pathogenic Microbiology, the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, 750004, China.

Background: Biofilms produced by Candida albicans (C. albicans) are intrinsically resistant to fungicidal agents, which are a main cause of the pathogenesis of catheter infections. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that calcineurin inhibitor FK506 or cyclosporine A (CsA) can remarkably enhance the antifungal activity of fluconazole (FLC) against biofilm-producing C. albicans strain infections. The aim of present study is thus to interrogate the mechanism underpinning the synergistic effect of FLC and calcineurin inhibitors.

Results: Twenty four clinical C. albicans strains isolated from bloodstream showed a distinct capacity of biofilm formation. A combination of calcineurin inhibitor CsA and FLC exhibited a dose-dependent synergistic antifungal effect on the growth and biofilm formation of C. albicans isolates as determined by a XTT assay and fluorescent microscopy assay. The synergistic effect was accompanied with a significantly down-regulated expression of adhesion-related genes ALS3, hypha-related genes HWP1, ABC transporter drug-resistant genes CDR1 and MDR1, and FLC targeting gene, encoding sterol 14alpha-demethylase (ERG11) in clinical C. albicans isolates. Furthermore, an addition of CsA significantly reduced the cellular surface hydrophobicity but increased intracellular calcium concentration as determined by a flow cytometry assay (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results presented in this report demonstrated that the synergistic effect of CsA and FLC on inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation and enhanced susceptibility to FLC was in part through a mechanism involved in suppressing the expression of biofilm related and drug-resistant genes, and reducing cellular surface hydrophobicity, as well as evoking intracellular calcium concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-016-0728-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912705PMC
June 2016

Combination of Na-modified zeolite and anion exchange resin for advanced treatment of a high ammonia-nitrogen content municipal effluent.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2016 Apr 9;468:128-135. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210046, PR China.

In this study, the exchange equilibrium and kinetic experiments of ammonia-nitrogen on the Na-form zeolite were conducted. The results indicated that the presence of humic acid have a negative effect on the equilibrium exchange capacity but have limited influence on the equilibrium time except shorten the sole intra-particle diffusion control time. The exchange equilibrium data could be well fitted by Freundlich model in the absence of humic acid but Langmuir model in the presence of humic acid. While the exchange kinetic data could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model in both situations. An anion exchange resin exhibited high removal efficiency to humic acid and dissolved organic matter through kinetic results and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy results. The use of the anion exchange resin prior to the Na-form zeolite improved the ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiency from 78% to 95% and increased the treatment volume of the Na-form zeolite from 51 BV (bed volume) to 76 BV. Both the resin and the Na-form zeolite could be successfully regenerated by the combination of alkaline and sodium chloride. Complete elution of ammonia-nitrogen was achieved when the mass percentage of sodium chloride and alkaline was 10% and 0.6% respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2015.10.006DOI Listing
April 2016

Prevalence of Genes of OXA-23 Carbapenemase and AdeABC Efflux Pump Associated with Multidrug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in the ICU of a Comprehensive Hospital of Northwestern China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Aug 21;12(8):10079-92. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Ningxia Key laboratory of Clinical and Pathogenic Microbiology, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China.

The objective of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology and the genetic support of clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) isolates in an ICU ward of a comprehensive hospital. A total of 102 non-duplicate drug-resistant A. baumannii isolates were identified and 93 (91.1%) of them were MDR strains. Molecular analysis demonstrated that carbapenemase genes blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 were presented in all 93 MDR isolates (100%), but other carbapenemase genes, including blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaIMP-1, blaIMP-4, blaSIM, and blaVIM genes were completely absent in all isolates. In addition, genes of AdeABC efflux system were detected in 88.2% (90/102) isolates. Interestingly, an addition to efflux pump inhibitor, reserpine could significantly enhance the susceptibility of MDR isolates to moxifloxacin, cefotaxime, and imipenem (p < 0.01). Clonal relationship analysis further grouped these clinical drug-resistant isolates into nine clusters, and the MDR strains were mainly in clusters A, B, C, and D, which include 16, 13, 25, and 15 isolates, respectively. This study demonstrated that clinical isolates carrying carbapenemase-encoding genes blaOXA-23 and AdeABC efflux pump genes are the main prevalent MDR A. baumannii, and the co-expression of oxacillinase and efflux pump proteins are thus considered to be the important reason for the prevalence of this organism in the ICU of this hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120810079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555330PMC
August 2015

Effect of model dissolved organic matter coating on sorption of phenanthrene by TiO2 nanoparticles.

Environ Pollut 2014 Nov 2;194:31-37. Epub 2014 Aug 2.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) may alter the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) to metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), but the role of DOM and NP types is poorly understood. Here, phenanthrene sorption was quantified on four types of nano-TiO2 (three rutile, one anatase), and a bulk, raw TiO2 powder. Prior to the sorption experiments, these nanoparticles were coated using four different organic materials: Lignin (LIG), tannic acid (TAN), Congo red (CON), and capsorubin (CAP). Lignin, tannic acid, congo red and capsorubin coating substantially enhanced phenanthrene sorption to various TiO2 particles. After coating with a specific DOM, Kd values by the DOM-coated TiO2 particles on percent organic carbon content and surface area (SA) basis (Koc/SA) generally followed the order: TiO2 NPs with hydrophobic surfaces > bulk TiO2 particles > other TiO2 NPs. Different Koc/SA values of various DOM-TiO2 complexes resulted from distinct conformation of the coated DOM and aggregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.039DOI Listing
November 2014

Isolation of adhesive strains and evaluation of the colonization and immune response by Lactobacillus plantarum L2 in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

Int J Food Microbiol 2009 Jun 31;132(1):59-66. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Research Institute of General Surgery, Jin Ling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Five Lactobacillus strains were tested for their ability to adhere to Caco-2 and IEC-6 cell lines as in vitro models and to induce of the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among the tested strains, Lactobacillus plantarum L2 was the most adhesive strain, approximately 595+/-125 or 704+/-273 of the added bacteria adhered to Caco-2 or IEC-6 cell cultures, respectively. Furthermore, L. plantarum L2 was also found to induce a considerable level of IL-10 from PBMCs, but low levels of all three pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-12. From these results, one promising strain, L. plantarum L2, was selected for in vivo studies. For 28 days F344 rats were fed a daily dose of 2 x 10(9)L. plantarum L2; for the next 14 days the rats were not fed any Lactobacillus. Intestinal mucosal samples and feces were taken at days 0, 28 and 42 to determine the colonizing ability of the lactobacilli. Recovered Lactobacillus isolates were initially identified by API 50CHL and strain-specific PCR. Intestinal specimen was analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a strain-specific molecular probe, and immune cell populations were determined by immunostaining for evidence of immune responses at the colonized sites. After intake of L. plantarum L2 for 28 days, a significant increase in live L. plantarum was found in the rats' feces, small intestine and colon. The bacterial levels remained high even after the L. plantarum L2 administration had been stopped for two weeks. Strain-specific PCR and FISH provided clear and direct evidence of colonization of the rat gastrointestinal tract by L. plantarum L2. Additionally, a significant increase in CD19-positive cells in the ileum was observed after intake of L. plantarum L2. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with L. plantarum L2 induced significant colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of rats, and this was associated with significant alteration of the immune response in the gastrointestinal mucosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.03.016DOI Listing
June 2009

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can inhibit expression of granzyme B, perforin, and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor receptor in rat model of small bowel transplant chronic rejection.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2008 Jan-Feb;32(1):12-7

Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: The aim of our work was to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on apoptosis and granzyme B, perforin, and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor receptor (CI-MPR) expression of intestinal epithelial cells of chronic rejection after small intestinal transplantation.

Methods: Small bowel transplantation was performed in a rat combination of 3 groups: group 1, Lewis-to-Lewis; group 2, F344-to-Lewis, dietary corn oil; group 3, F344-to-Lewis, dietary fish oil. All recipients were killed at 16 weeks posttransplantation. The apoptosis rate of mucosal cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression of granzyme B, perforin, and CI-MPR was analyzed by reverse transcriptase PCR.

Results: A high apoptotic rate was observed when the allografts demonstrated 1 or more histologic features of chronic rejection. omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in rate of the apoptosis, and it can inhibit the expression of granzyme B, perforin, and CI-MPR.

Conclusions: omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids can suppress the rejection to mucosal cells of allograft at the time of chronic rejection in small intestinal transplantation, which may be significant in increasing the surviving rate of allograft, delaying the chronic dysfunction, and prolonging the lifetime of both allograft and acceptor.
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March 2008