Publications by authors named "Haiying Lin"

30 Publications

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Stable FeO submicrospheres with SiO coating for heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction at alkaline condition.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 25;764:144200. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

School of Resources, Environment and Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China.

In the traditional Fenton process, the efficient generation of hydroxyl radical (HO) strongly relies on an acidic circumstance and the iron ions would precipitate and form large amounts of hazardous iron-containing sludge at alkaline pH. To realize stable heterogeneous Fenton-like catalytic degradation at alkaline condition, FeO submicrospheres with SiO coating were successfully synthesized by using water glass as the silica sources via a facile ultrasound assisted method. The as-obtained FeO@SiO spheres were further used as catalysts for the Fenton-like degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The FeO@SiO submicrospheres exhibited superior catalytic activity in higher pH environment (pH value = 11), and the degradation efficiency toward TC was ca. 80% after ten successive runs. The kinetics for the catalytic degradation of TC were agreed well with the second-order kinetic model. The reaction rate constant (k) over the FeO@SiO submicrospheres at a pH value of 11 was 7.69 times greater than that at a pH value of 3. Reactive species scavenging experiments revealed that HO and superoxide radical (O / HO) played a dominant role during the Fenton-like degradation of TC at pH 3 and pH 11, respectively. Possible Fenton-like degradation pathways of TC were proposed through the identification of intermediates using the high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), which involved cleavage of methyl groups, N-dimethyl group, and hydroxy groups, ring-opening reaction, etc. The degradation efficiency of TC was close to 91.5% and total organic carbon (TOC) in solution was eliminated by about 41.4% at the optimized conditions. In a word, with the unique acidic surface properties and abundant Si-OH bonds, the FeO@SiO submicrospheres exhibited well dispersion, good catalytic activity, strong alkali resistance and excellent recyclability in an ultrasonic-Fenton-like system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144200DOI Listing
April 2021

The Impact of Biopsy Tool Choice and Rapid On-Site Evaluation on Diagnostic Accuracy for Malignant Lesions in the Prospective: Multicenter NAVIGATE Study.

J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 2020 Dec 22;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Department of Thoracic and Esophageal Surgery, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Departments of Surgery Interventional Pulmonology, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Inova Health System, Virginia Cancer Specialists, Fairfax, VA Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Pinehurst Medical Clinic and First Health Moore Regional Hospital, Pinehurst Department of Pulmonary Care, Atrium Health and Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, NC Department of Pulmonology, Blount Memorial Physicians Group Alcoa Department of Interventional Pulmonology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN Department of Lung Cancer Clinic, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Departments of Biostatistics Medical Affairs, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN.

Background: The diagnostic yield of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is impacted by biopsy tool strategy and rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) use. This analysis evaluates usage patterns, accuracy, and safety of tool strategy and ROSE in a multicenter study.

Methods: NAVIGATE (NCT02410837) evaluates ENB using the superDimension navigation system (versions 6.3 to 7.1). The 1-year analysis included 1215 prospectively enrolled subjects at 29 United States sites. Included herein are 416 subjects who underwent ENB-aided biopsy of a single lung lesion positive for malignancy at 1 year. Use of a restricted number of tools (only biopsy forceps, standard cytology brush, and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) was compared with an extensive multimodal strategy (biopsy forceps, cytology brush, aspirating needle, triple needle cytology brush, needle-tipped cytology brush, core biopsy system, and bronchoalveolar lavage).

Results: Of malignant cases, 86.8% (361/416) of true positive diagnoses were obtained using extensive multimodal strategies. ROSE was used in 300/416 cases. The finding of malignancy by ROSE reduced the total number of tools used. A malignant ROSE call was obtained in 71% (212/300), most (88.7%; 188/212) by the first tool used (49.5% with aspirating needle, 20.2% with cytology brush, 17.0% with forceps). True positive rates were highest for the biopsy forceps (86.9%) and aspirating needle (86.6%). Use of extensive tool strategies did not increase the rates of pneumothorax (5.5% restricted, 2.8% extensive) or bronchopulmonary hemorrhage (3.6% restricted, 1.1% extensive).

Conclusion: These results suggest that extensive biopsy tool strategies, including the aspirating needle, may provide higher true positive rates for detecting lung cancer without increasing complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LBR.0000000000000740DOI Listing
December 2020

Programmed responses of different life-stages of the seagrass Ruppia sinensis to copper and cadmium exposure.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 8;403:123875. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Engineering Laboratory for Marine Ranching, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

Seagrass meadows are recognized as crucial and are among the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The aquatic plant genus Ruppia is tolerant of a wide salinity range, and high concentrations of trace metals. However, the tolerance of its early life stages to such trace metal exposure is unclear. Thus, the current study investigated the trace metal-absorbing capacity of three different life-history stages of Ruppia sinensis, a species that is widely distributed in China, by observing toxic symptoms at the individual, subcellular, and transcription levels. The seedling period was the most vulnerable, with visible toxic effects at the individual level in response to 50 μM copper and 500 μM cadmium after 4 days of exposure. The highest concentrations of trace metals occurred in the vacuoles and cytoplasmic structures of aboveground tissues. Genes related to signal identification and protein processing were significantly downregulated after 4 days of exposure to copper and cadmium. These results provide information relating to the strategies evolved by R. sinensis to absorb and isolate trace elements, and highlight the phytoremediation potential of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123875DOI Listing
February 2021

Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A rare aetiology for fetal pleural effusion.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):777-779

Department of Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Obstetrics & Gynecology Institute of Guangzhou, Guangzhou, China; The Medical Centre for Critical Pregnant Women in Guangzhou, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We present fetal pleural effusions associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).

Case Report: We report a case of fetal pleural effusion in late pregnancy. Due to developing rapidly over short period of time, the baby was delivered by caesarean section at 34 weeks gestation. Generalised oedema, sparse haemorrhagic papules, pulmonary involvement, mediastinal mass and liver dysfunction were identified postnatally. Structural malformations, maternal-fetal blood type incompatibility, chromosomal abnormalities and viral infection were excluded. Mediastinal mass biopsy and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The baby is currently in a stable condition and undergoing regular chemotherapy.

Conclusions: Congenital LCH is a rare aetiology of fetal pleural effusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.029DOI Listing
September 2020

Jiawei Shengmai San herbal formula ameliorates diabetic associate cognitive decline by modulating AKT and CREB in rats.

Phytother Res 2020 Dec 3;34(12):3249-3261. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Affiliated TCM Hospital/Sino-Portugal TCM International Cooperation Center/School of Basic Medicine, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Memory loss is a complication of diabetes which requires new approaches to its treatment. Shengmai San (SMS) is a famous traditional Chinese formula containing Panax ginseng, Ophiopogon japonicas, and Schisandra chinensis, whereas Radix puerariae has many reported pharmacological uses. In this study the combination, as Jiawei SMS (J-SMS) was screened for its ability to reverse diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rats. This was assessed behaviorally in diabetic rats (Streptozotocin, 45 mg/kg), with biochemical and western blot analysis (Akt and CREB). Diabetic rats showed fasting blood glucose (FBG) in the range of 13-15 mM throughout the study. J-SMS (0.5, 1.5, 4.5 g/kg) treatment significantly improved learning and memory deficit among diabetic rats as evidenced by preference for novel object, reduced escape latency and increased number of platform crossings (p < .05) in the NORT and MWM tests. Treatment with J-SMS also significantly improved the histopathological changes in the diabetic brain and increased the protein expression of AKT and CREB, required for proper memory function (p < .01). This study highlighted that J-SMS can reverse reference and working memory deficit among diabetic rats by modulating AKT and CREB proteins activation. Thus, J-SMS formulation might be possible candidate for further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6773DOI Listing
December 2020

Development of fundamental power couplers for 166.6 MHz superconducting quarter-wave beta = 1 proof-of-principle cavities.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Jun;91(6):063301

Accelerator Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Superconducting 166.6 MHz β = 1 cavities of quarter-wave geometry have been chosen for a high energy photon source, a 6 GeV diffraction-limited synchrotron light source currently under construction in Beijing. Five cavities will provide the required 5.4 MV radio frequency (rf) voltage and 900 kW beam power. Each cavity will be equipped with one fundamental power coupler (FPC), delivering a minimum rf power of 180 kW to the beam. A 50 Ω coaxial structure with one planar warm window was employed. Its location was carefully selected to avoid electron bombardments on the ceramic window due to potential cavity field emission while preserving the required strong coupling. Focusing on optimized heat loads, a compact geometry was pursued to allow assembly with the cavity in a class 10 clean room, thus minimizing contamination. Two prototype FPCs have been fabricated and examined with high power on room-temperature test stands. The couplers were tested up to 50 kW continuous wave (cw) limited by the available solid-state amplifier. The rf conditioning was conducted initially in travelling-wave mode and later in a standing-wave setup with the variable phase of the reverse wave. All rf surfaces were thus exposed to a high field equivalent to 200 kW cw traveling wave. Being the most critical component, the window-inner-conductor assembly was conditioned up to 150 kW at 650 MHz on a hybrid test stand. Multipacting barriers were encountered as predicted and can be processed by rf conditioning. The design, fabrication, and high-power tests of the first 166.6 MHz FPCs are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0001540DOI Listing
June 2020

Development and vertical tests of a 166.6 MHz proof-of-principle superconducting quarter-wave beta = 1 cavity.

Rev Sci Instrum 2019 Aug;90(8):084705

Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

A low-frequency superconducting cavity is needed in main accelerators for storage ring light sources with ultralow emittance. A compact 166.6 MHz superconducting proof-of-principle cavity was designed adopting a quarter-wave β = 1 geometry for a High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It is a 6 GeV diffraction-limited synchrotron light source currently being developed at the Institute of High Energy Physics. The cavity is exceedingly compact in size yet possessing a low resonant frequency. The nearest higher order mode is largely separated from the fundamental, making the cavity an attractive geometry for effective damping of these modes in high current accelerators such as HEPS. The achieved accelerating voltage of 3.0 MV is well beyond the designed 1.5 MV and required 1.2 MV for HEPS operation. High surface electromagnetic fields were reached with excellent rf and mechanical performances, and multipacting barriers were easily processed. This constitutes the first demonstration of a compact low-frequency β = 1 superconducting cavity for HEPS. The design, fabrication, surface preparation, and cryogenic tests of the cavity are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5119093DOI Listing
August 2019

Time-dependent impairments in learning and memory in Streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats.

Metab Brain Dis 2019 10 8;34(5):1431-1446. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Affiliated TCM hospital/ Sino-Portugal TCM International Cooperation Center / Department of Physiology in School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, China.

The sedentary lifestyle is responsible for the high prevalence of diabetes which also impairs cognition including learning and memory. Various studies have highlighted the learning and memory impairments in rodent models but data regarding the timeline of their development and their correlation to biochemical parameters are scarce. So, the present study was designed to investigate the type of memory which is more susceptible to hyperglycemia and its correlation with biochemical parameters such as inflammatory cytokines, cAMP response element binding (CREB) and protein kinase B (Akt) activation. Hyperglycemia was induced using streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg i.p.) and confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose levels after 1 week of STZ injection. Learning and memory deficits were evaluated using the Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and Morris water maze (MWM), and correlated with biochemical parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, and dopamine) at 3, 6 and 9 weeks. STZ-injected rats after 3 weeks of injection demonstrated moderate hyperglycemia (blood glucose = 7.99 ± 0.62 mM) with intact learning and reference memory; however, their working memory was impaired in MWM. Severe hyperglycemia (blood glucose = 11.51 ± 0.69 mM) accompanied by impaired short, long, and working memory was evident after 6 weeks whereas learning was intact. After 9 weeks of STZ injection, hyperglycemia was more pronounced (13.69 ± 1.43 mM) and accompanied by a learning deficit in addition to short, long, and working memory impairments. The extent of hyperglycemia either in terms of duration or severity resulted in enhanced inflammation, down-regulation of the level of dopamine, protein expression of AKT and CREB, which possibly affected learning and memory negatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-019-00448-7DOI Listing
October 2019

A unique meadow of the marine angiosperm Zostera japonica, covering a large area in the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta, China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Oct 23;686:118-130. Epub 2019 May 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Marine submerged aquatic angiosperms (seagrasses) are declining globally. The species Zostera japonica Asch. & Graebn. is endangered in its native range in Asia, but has been successfully introduced to North America. A large area (1031.8 ha) of Z. japonica meadow has recently been discovered in the intertidal zone of Yellow River Delta, China. This seagrass occurs along both sides of the river mouth, forming dense meadows in turbid water conditions. Seasonal investigations over two years were conducted to examine the distribution, biomass, seed reproduction, seed bank, and population recruitment of the seagrass meadows at three sites in the intertidal zone. The meadows generally showed relatively high coverage, biomass, reproductive effort, and seed production in August. The seed bank was found to be large and contributed to population recruitment. There were significant inter-annual variations overall, and at individual sites. These variations are likely due to winter temperatures, which determine the abundance of overwintering shoots and seedling success. Differences in micro-topography may also play a role in producing variations in seedling success between sites. Microsatellite analysis revealed a high genetic exchange between the two sides of the river mouth. The results indicate that the seagrass bed in the Yellow River Delta shallow waters is in good condition, which can be attributed to its location within a national nature reserve. Establishment of protected areas might act as an effective way to mitigate the anthropogenic disturbance, conserve the seagrass meadows, and then enhance critical ecosystem functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.320DOI Listing
October 2019

Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions: One-Year Results of the Prospective, Multicenter NAVIGATE Study.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 03 23;14(3):445-458. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Inova Health System, Falls Church, Virginia.

Introduction: Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) is a minimally invasive technology that guides endoscopic tools to pulmonary lesions. ENB has been evaluated primarily in small, single-center studies; thus, the diagnostic yield in a generalizable setting is unknown.

Methods: NAVIGATE is a prospective, multicenter, cohort study that evaluated ENB using the superDimension navigation system (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota). In this United States cohort analysis, 1215 consecutive subjects were enrolled at 29 academic and community sites from April 2015 to August 2016.

Results: The median lesion size was 20.0 mm. Fluoroscopy was used in 91% of cases (lesions visible in 60%) and radial endobronchial ultrasound in 57%. The median ENB planning time was 5 minutes; the ENB-specific procedure time was 25 minutes. Among 1157 subjects undergoing ENB-guided biopsy, 94% (1092 of 1157) had navigation completed and tissue obtained. Follow-up was completed in 99% of subjects at 1 month and 80% at 12 months. The 12-month diagnostic yield was 73%. Pathology results of the ENB-aided tissue samples showed malignancy in 44% (484 of 1092). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for malignancy were 69%, 100%, 100%, and 56%, respectively. ENB-related Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 2 or higher pneumothoraces (requiring admission or chest tube placement) occurred in 2.9%. The ENB-related Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 2 or higher bronchopulmonary hemorrhage and grade 4 or higher respiratory failure rates were 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: NAVIGATE shows that an ENB-aided diagnosis can be obtained in approximately three-quarters of evaluable patients across a generalizable cohort based on prospective 12-month follow-up in a pragmatic setting with a low procedural complication rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2018.11.013DOI Listing
March 2019

Which Genes in a Typical Intertidal Seagrass () Indicate Copper-, Lead-, and Cadmium Pollution?

Front Plant Sci 2018 24;9:1545. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Healthy seagrasses are considered a prime indicator of estuarine and coastal ecosystem function; however, as the only group of flowering plants recolonizing the sea, seagrasses are frequently exposed to anthropogenic heavy metal pollutants, which are associated with high levels of molecular damage. To determine whether biologically relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene expression study using transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq). We exposed the typical intertidal seagrass to 0 and 50 μM of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) under laboratory conditions. A total of 18,266 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 2001 co-expressed genes directly related by Cu, Pb, and Cd stress. We also examined the effects of short-term heavy metal Cu, Pb, and Cd pulses on the accumulation of metals in and showed metal concentrations were higher in the shoots than in roots. Twelve differentially expressed genes were further analyzed for expression differences using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our data suggest that as coastal seawater pollution worsens, the sensitive genes identified in this study may be useful biomarkers of sublethal effects and provide fundamental information for resistant gene engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207952PMC
October 2018

Expression, purification and characterization of the full-length SmpB protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Protein Expr Purif 2018 11 29;151:9-17. Epub 2018 May 29.

MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis & Instrumentation, Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

The trans-translation system is recognized as an excellent target for developing new drugs to rapidly sterilize Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection and significantly shorten TB treatment duration. As a vital component of the trans-translation system for rescuing stalled ribosomes, the SmpB protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbSmpB, 1-160 a. a.) mediates tmRNA binding to stalled ribosomes through forming a complex with tmRNA. So far, few works have been conducted to prepare, characterize biophysical properties and determine three-dimensional structure for the full-length MtbSmpB protein. In the present work, we successfully expressed and purified the His-tagged full-length MtbSmpB protein in Escherichia coli with a yield of 26.9 mg from 1 L of Luria Bertani medium. We also obtained MtbSmpB with a yield of 18.5 mg from 1 L of M9 minimal medium. The MtbSmpB protein showed a single band in SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of ∼20 kDa consistent with the measurement from MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry. The dynamic light scattering experiment indicated that MtbSmpB existed in a monomeric form. Moreover, both circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments exhibited that MtbSmpB was well structured, suggesting that it could be feasible to determine its solution structure by NMR spectroscopy. NMR titration experiments showed that MtbSmpB specifically bound to tmRNA. This work lays the essential basis for further determining the solution structure and dynamics of the full-length MtbSmpB protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2018.05.014DOI Listing
November 2018

Tolerance of Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage.

Front Plant Sci 2018 23;9:221. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve Management Bureau, Dongying, China.

Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass) populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different seed types and developed two feasible long-term seed storage methods. The ability of seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1) wet storage at a salinity of 30-40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2) dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22%) of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3) seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C) and desiccation; (4) there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their conservation and habitat restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876315PMC
March 2018

Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in sediment and seagrass tissues in the largest Zostera japonica habitat, the Yellow River Estuary, northern China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Sep 10;134:5-13. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR China.

Trace element accumulation is an anthropogenic threat to seagrass ecosystems, which in turn may affect the health of humans who depend on these ecosystems. Trace element accumulation in seagrass meadows may vary temporally due to, e.g., seasonal patterns in sediment discharge from upstream areas. In addition, when several trace elements are present in sufficiently high concentrations, the risk of seagrass loss due to the cumulative impact of these trace elements is increased. To assess the seasonal variation and cumulative risk of trace element contamination to seagrass meadows, trace element (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mn and Zn) levels in surface sediment and seagrass tissues were measured in the largest Chinese Zostera japonica habitat, located in the Yellow River Estuary, at three sites and three seasons (fall, spring and summer) in 2014-2015. In all three seasons, trace element accumulation in the sediment exceeded background levels for Cd and Hg. Cumulative risk to Z. japonica habitat in the Yellow River Estuary, from all trace elements together, was assessed as "moderate" in all three seasons examined. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by seagrass tissues was highly variable between seasons and between above-ground and below-ground biomass. The variation in trace element concentration of seagrass tissues was much higher than the variation in trace element concentration of the sediment. In addition, for trace elements which tended to accumulate more in above-ground biomass than below-ground biomass (Cd and Mn), the ratio of above-ground to below-ground trace element concentration peaked at times corresponding to high water discharge and high sediment loads in the Yellow River Estuary. Overall, our results suggest that trace element accumulation in the sediment may not vary between seasons, but bioaccumulation in seagrass tissues is highly variable and may respond directly to trace elements in the water column.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.02.043DOI Listing
September 2018

Synthesis and structural characteristics of high surface area TiO aerogels by ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel method.

Nanotechnology 2018 Feb;29(7):075702

School of Resources, Environment and Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, People's Republic of China. Guangxi Universities Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, People's Republic of China.

TiO aerogel is a unique three-dimensional porous nano-particle material with the characteristics of high specific surface area and good light transmittance. In this paper, a novel method involving ultrasonic-assisted sol-gel, solvent exchange, and vacuum drying was successfully developed to synthesis the TiO aerogel. The morphology and properties of the prepared TiO aerogels were characterized by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory (BET), x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO aerogels was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of Rhodamine B solution. Our results indicated that: (1) with an optimum ratio of Ti:HO = 8:1 the BET surface area, average pore diameter, and total pore volume of TiO aerogel are enhanced to 563.6 m g, 3.01 nm, and 0.42 cm g, respectively; (2) the TiO aerogels possessed controllable crystal form depending on the thermal treatments conditions. The crystal face (101) of anatase, complete anatase, mixed state of anatase and rutile, and rutile were obtained by increasing the temperature from 200 °C-300 °C, from 400 °C-500 °C, 600 °C, and from 700 °C-1000 °C, respectively; and (3) the excellent catalytic activity of the as-prepared TiO aerogels for the ultraviolet photolytic degradation of Rhodamine B had attributed to the synergistic effect of adsorption and photoactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aaa1d1DOI Listing
February 2018

Effects of temperature and salinity on Ruppia sinensis seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Sep 16;134:177-185. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve Management Bureau, Dongying 257200, PR China.

As typical submerged aquatic vegetation, Ruppia species are facing population reductions due to anthropogenic impacts. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on seed germination and seedling establishment of Ruppia sinensis seeds collected from northern China. The effects of seven salinities (0-50) and six water temperatures (0-30°C) on seed germination were investigated to identify the environmental conditions that could potentially limit survival and growth. We found that: 1) optimum seed germination was salinity 5 at 30°C; 2) high salinity (salinity 40-50) and low temperature (0°C) significantly inhibited seed germination; 3) seed germination with increasing temperature showed a bimodal pattern at suitable salinities (5-10); 4) storing seeds at high salinities (40-50) or low temperature (0°C) promoted germination after transferal to optimal germination conditions. These findings may serve as useful information for R. sinensis habitat establishment and restoration programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.08.013DOI Listing
September 2018

A novel NHS mutation causes Nance-Horan Syndrome in a Chinese family.

BMC Med Genet 2017 Jan 7;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics & School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) (OMIM: 302350) is a rare X-linked developmental disorder characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts, with occasional dental anomalies, characteristic dysmorphic features, brachymetacarpia and mental retardation. Carrier females exhibit similar manifestations that are less severe than in affected males.

Methods: Here, we report a four-generation Chinese family with multiple affected individuals presenting Nance-Horan Syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing combined with RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing was used to search for a genetic cause underlying the disease phenotype.

Results: Whole-exome sequencing identified in all affected individuals of the family a novel donor splicing site mutation (NM_198270: c.1045 + 2T > A) in intron 4 of the gene NHS, which maps to chromosome Xp22.13. The identified mutation results in an RNA processing defect causing a 416-nucleotide addition to exon 4 of the mRNA transcript, likely producing a truncated NHS protein.

Conclusions: The donor splicing site mutation NM_198270: c.1045 + 2T > A of the NHS gene is the causative mutation in this Nance-Horan Syndrome family. This research broadens the spectrum of NHS gene mutations, contributing to our understanding of the molecular genetics of NHS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-016-0360-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5219716PMC
January 2017

Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

Mar Pollut Bull 2016 Aug 7;109(1):325-333. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR China.

To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.062DOI Listing
August 2016

Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

Environ Pollut 2016 Jul 5;214:822-830. Epub 2016 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.059DOI Listing
July 2016

[The longitude study on the mental development of congenital hearing-impaired infants and toddlers].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2015 Oct;50(10):799-804

Key Laboratory of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China; Email:

Objective: To explore the effect of chronological age and acoustic device in cognitive development of congenital hearing-impaired infants and toddlers, and analyze the correlation of abilities in cognitive development with other factors.

Methods: Depending on chronological age (1 year old group and 2 years old group) and acoustic device (hearing aids and cochlear implantation), locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, hand and eye co-ordination, performance tests in Griffith Cognitive Development Scale were used to assess the cognitive development of 80 hearing-impaired infants and toddlers aged 0-2 years, including before intervention (0 month), after intervention (6, 12 months). Datas were analyzed by Repeated Measurements and Pearson Correlation Test.

Results: During 1 year hearing intervention and rehabilitation, hearing and speech, performance and cognitive were extremely significant difference for each phase of early intervention (P < 0.01), the development of locomotor, personal-social, hand and eye co-ordination were no significant difference (P > 0.05). Personal-Social in 1 year old group with hearing impairment was much higher than 2 years old group P < 0.05). Hearing and speech in cochlear implanted group with hearing loss was much higher than hearing aids group. Cognitive development was positive correlation with various region development P < 0.01), and was negatively correlated with chronological age (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Cognitive development is proportional to recovery time. The chronological age of early intervention obviously affect deaf children's cognitive development. The ability of hearing and speech in cochlear implanted children is superior to children with hearing aids in severe and profound hearing impaired children.
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October 2015

Heavy metal spatial variation, bioaccumulation, and risk assessment of Zostera japonica habitat in the Yellow River Estuary, China.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Jan 26;541:435-443. Epub 2015 Sep 26.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, PR China.

Globally, seagrass habitats are decreasing due to both natural and environmental contaminations by human activities, including heavy metal pollution. To expand the global seagrass detection network, this study reports the spatial distributions of Zostera japonica seagrass habitats in the Yellow River Estuary, China. In addition, heavy metal concentrations of Z. japonica tissue, sediment, and surface seawater were analyzed to determine the bioaccumulation and consequent ecological risk to Z. japonica habitats due to the effects of heavy metals. It was found that concentrations of heavy metals were 1.00-2.03 times higher in seagrass-rooted sediment than in adjacent non-seagrass sediment, except for Mn (with a factor of 0.99). Pb and Hg concentrations in sediments exceeded background values more than the other heavy metals, by factors of 1.74 and 1.24, respectively. Metal concentrations in the surrounding seawater were 2.60-4.63 times higher at seagrass sites than at non-seagrass sites, except for Hg (factor of 0.97). Metal concentrations were much higher in seagrass tissues than in the sediment (e.g., bioconcentration factor of Cd is 30.95). Pb concentrations in water may cause the greatest adverse reactions among aquatic organisms, while As, Cr, Hg, Mn and Cu in sediments may occasionally cause negative ecological effects. Z. japonica showed higher bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in the above-ground tissues. Among other recent studies of seagrasses from other parts of the world, Cd concentrations are similar to the results of the present study, but Pb concentration in present study is higher than in other studies. In conclusion, Pb and As in the surrounding environment present potential risks to the seagrass habitats of the Yellow River Estuary, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.050DOI Listing
January 2016

Preparation and Application of Modified Magnetic Particles to Remove Phosphate in Aqueous Media.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015 Jun;15(6):4596-603

In this work, magnetic particles were firstly protected by oleic acid, and then polymers, the polymers was prepared with allyl-thiourea as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, and acetonitrile as the solvent. The magnetic polymers were analyzed by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, and a vibrating sample magnetometer to obtain the morphological and magnetic properties. The adsorption of phosphate on the magnetic polymers was investigated, including pH effect, initial concentration, and temperature. The results proved that the adsorbent was paramagnetic and successfully loaded with the poly-thiourea group. The data was well fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 55.20 mg-P g(-1). Furthermore, desorption of phosphate from the adsorbent could be achieved efficiently by 0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH, reusability was studied by repeating adsorption-desorption cycles five times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2015.9789DOI Listing
June 2015

Development of a conjugate vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease based on capsular polysaccharides coupled with PspA/family 1 protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Microb Pathog 2015 Jun-Jul;83-84:35-40. Epub 2015 May 7.

College of Biological Science and Biotechnology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

The efforts were focused on exploring alternative pneumococcal vaccine strategies, aimed at addressing the shortcomings of existing formulations, without compromising efficacy. Our strategy involved the use of the carrier protein, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), conjugated with capsular polysaccharides (CPS), to provide effective and non-serotype-dependent protection. In this study, we generated a stable Escherichia coli construct expressing functional PspA from a capsular serotype 6B strain and confirmed it belonging to family 1, which was conjugated with CPS. The distribution of anti-CPS antibody response was almost completely of IgG2a subclass followed by IgG3 and low level of IgG1 subclass, but that of anti-PspA IgG subclass antibodies was almost equal IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. Though PspA was less conspicuous on the surface of pneumococci than the capsule, the antibodies induced with CPS-rPspA conjugate possessed more accessibility to the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B and 19F (the same family 1 PspA). By survival experiment, the result suggested that the level of cross-protection after immunized with the conjugate was more measurable within the same family 1. The CPS-rPspA conjugate not only induced CPS-specific protection but also provided PspA specific cross-protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2015.04.006DOI Listing
February 2016

Primer-introduced restriction analysis polymerase chain reaction method for non-invasive prenatal testing of β-thalassemia.

Hemoglobin 2015 30;39(1):18-23. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Department of Science and Technology, BGI-Shenzhen , Shenzhen , People's Republic of China .

We have developed a new method for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of paternally inherited fetal mutants for β-thalassemia (β-thal). Specially designed primer-introduced restriction analysis-polymerase chain reaction (PIRA-PCR) were used to detect four major mutations [IVS-II-654, HBB: c.316-197C > T; codon 17 (A > T), HBB: c.52A > T; -28 (A > G), HBB: c.-78A > G and codons 41/42 (-TTCT), HBB: c.126_129delCTTT] causing β-thal in China. The PIRA-PCR assay was first tested in a series of mixed DNA with different concentrations and mixed proportions. Subsequently, this assay was further tested in 10 plasma DNA samples collected from pregnant women. In the DNA mixture simulation test, the PIRA-PCR assay was able to detect 3.0% target genomic DNA (gDNA) mixed in 97.0% wild-type gDNA isolated from whole blood. For plasma DNA testing, the results detected by PIRA-PCR assay achieved 100.0% consistency with those obtained from the amniocentesis analysis. This new method could potentially be used for NIPT of paternally inherited fetal mutants for β-thal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03630269.2014.984071DOI Listing
September 2015

Clinical effect evaluation of percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with the spinal external fixator for the treatment of osteoporotic compressive fractures with posterior vertebral defect.

Eur Spine J 2014 Dec 29;23(12):2711-7. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Spinal Department, First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, 69 Chuanshan Road, Hengyang, 421001, Hunan, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report a new technique and assess clinical outcome of compressive fractures with posterior vertebral defect treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with the spinal external fixator.

Method: 80 patients (32 males and 48 females), ranging from 62 to 88 years old with the mean age of 71.5 years, underwent surgery for the compressive fractures with posterior vertebral defect by percutaneous vertebroplasty combined with the spinal external fixator. All patients were diagnosed to have fresh compressive fractures with osteoporosis and posterior vertebral defect shown on roentgenograms, computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively. They underwent spinal external fixation firstly to be fixed and restored, then to be carried out percutaneous vertebroplasty. The mean follow-up was 24 months (16-42 months). Spinal canal encroachment, spinal cobb angle and vertebral body height loss were measured to assess clinical outcome before and after surgery, at the final follow-up. The Visual Analogue Scale and Oswestry Disability Index were used for pain and functional assessment. In all cases, preoperative and postoperative radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were obtained.

Results: The average time of surgery was 88 min (75-115 min). The mean blood loss was 10 ml (6-12 ml) during surgery. The anterior height loss of vertebral body decreased significantly from 79.3 ± 11% before surgery to 8.0 ± 5.2% after surgery, and 7.6 ± 6.0% at the final follow-up. The spinal canal encroachment significantly reduced from 19.9 ± 2.6 % preoperatively to 4.0 ± 0.7% postoperatively, 4.1 ± 0.7% at the final follow-up. The Cobb angle was corrected from 25.8 ± 7.9° primarily to 8.2 ± 4.1° postoperatively, 7.8 ± 3.1° at the final follow-up. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) among them before and after the surgery. Postoperative VAS and Oswestry scores were both significantly different from the preoperative and follow-up (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The preliminary results are encouraging, showing that the spinal external fixator combined with percutaneous vertebroplasty was a safe and effective method to treat the osteoporotic compressive fractures with posterior vertebral defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-014-3346-3DOI Listing
December 2014

Degradation of 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) urea by nanoscale zerovalent iron under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2012 ;47(14):2270-6

School of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Henan Normal University, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Xinxiang, China.

The goal of present study was to investigate the applicability of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) on the degradation of 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) urea (CCU) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The experimental results showed that NZVI could effectively degrade CCU, but the removal efficiencies were different under these two different conditions. The best removal efficiencies for CCU were 90.2 and 75.8% under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The highly oxidative hydroxyl radicals and reductively hydrogen would account for the rapid degradation of CCU under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The experimental results also showed that surfactant Tween 20 significantly inhibited the degradation of CCU under aerobic conditions. However it markedly enhanced the degradation of CCU under anaerobic condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2012.707556DOI Listing
January 2013

Preparation and immunogenicity of capsular polysaccharide-surface adhesin A (PsaA) conjugate of Streptococcuspneumoniae.

Immunobiology 2010 Jul 31;215(7):545-50. Epub 2009 Oct 31.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China.

The efforts were focused on exploring alternative pneumococcal vaccine strategies, aimed at addressing the shortcomings of existing formulations, without compromising efficacy. We generated a stable Escherichia coli construct expressing functional recombinant PsaA and prepared CPS-rPsaA conjugate. The distribution of anti-CPS antibody response was almost completely of IgG2a subclass followed by IgG3 and low level of IgG1 subclass, which was opposite to the distribution of anti-PsaA IgG subclass antibodies. Though rPsaA was not detectable on the surface of the pneumococcal strain, the CPS-rPsaA conjugate possessed more accessibility to the surface of the strain. Mice immunized with conjugate exhibited rapid bacterial clearance from blood for the first 23h and afterward provided the best protection against challenge with pneumococcal 23F strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2009.08.008DOI Listing
July 2010

Development of 5-valent conjugate pneumococcal protein A - Capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease.

Microb Pathog 2009 Sep 23;47(3):151-6. Epub 2009 May 23.

Fuzhou University, University Town, Fujian, PR China.

In this study, we synthesized a 5-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which was prepared with the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PCPs) (from Streptococcus pneumoniae 1, 5, 6B, 19F, 23F) and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) mediated by 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. The PspA cloned from serotype 19 strain showed good cross-immune response to 1, 5, 6B, and 23F serotypes of Streptococcus pneumonia (S. pneumoniae). Analysis of the maturation process of conjugate polyclonal antibody showed that conjugation with the protein carrier converted the polysaccharide from a weak T cell-independent (TI) antigen to a T cell-dependent (TD) antigen, although antibodies affinity to polysaccharide was not as strong as it to PspA in conjugate. We used an invasive disease mouse model to evaluate the protective efficacy of this conjugate vaccine. Active and passive protection against intraperitoneal challenge with virulent type 6B strain showed that the median survival times for mice immunized with conjugate were significantly longer than that of mice treated with capsular polysaccharides or PspA alone. Our study's results showed that immunization of the 5-valent PspA-capsular polysaccharides conjugate vaccine could afford strong protection to mice against the invasion of 1, 5, 6B, 19F, 23F serotypes S. pneumoniae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2009.05.004DOI Listing
September 2009

Quiz page December 2008. Acute kidney injury, hematuria, and orange skin pigmentation caused by arsine poisoning.

Am J Kidney Dis 2008 Dec;52(6):A33-6

Department of Nephrology, Third Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.05.036DOI Listing
December 2008

Smokeless tobacco reduction: preliminary study of tobacco-free snuff versus no snuff.

Nicotine Tob Res 2008 Jan;10(1):77-85

University of Minnesota, Tobacco Use Research Center, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA.

This preliminary study examined the effects of tobacco-free snuff (intervention, n = 52) compared with no snuff (control, n = 54) for reducing tobacco use among smokeless tobacco (ST) users not interested in quitting. Both groups received behavioral instructions, and intervention subjects received tobacco-free snuff for 8 weeks. Participants were required to reduce their intake by 50% during the first 4 weeks and by 75% during the subsequent 4 weeks. Follow-up occurred at 12 weeks. Significant reductions were observed from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) for both treatment groups in the amount of ST use (tins/week and dips/day, p<.001); mean urinary cotinine (p<.001); and mean urinary total NNAL, a carcinogen biomarker (p<.001). At week 8 the intervention resulted in a lower mean total NNAL (p = .048). Compared with the control condition, the intervention resulted in a higher percentage of subjects achieving at least a 50% reduction in cotinine (p = .046) and total NNAL (p = .002) at the end of treatment, more quit attempts (p = .030), and a longer mean duration of abstinence (p = .013) through follow-up. An ST reduction intervention incorporating tobacco-free snuff could potentially reduce risk for ST-related disease beyond that achieved with no snuff by increasing the number of patients who achieve significant reductions in carcinogen exposure and, more important, by facilitating tobacco abstinence by increasing quit attempts and abstinence duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200701704897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6615745PMC
January 2008