Publications by authors named "Hai-yang Zhang"

41 Publications

Changes in notifiable infectious disease incidence in China during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Nat Commun 2021 11 26;12(1):6923. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Nationwide nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been effective at mitigating the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but their broad impact on other diseases remains under-investigated. Here we report an ecological analysis comparing the incidence of 31 major notifiable infectious diseases in China in 2020 to the average level during 2014-2019, controlling for temporal phases defined by NPI intensity levels. Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal or enteroviral diseases declined more than sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases and vector-borne or zoonotic diseases. Early pandemic phases with more stringent NPIs were associated with greater reductions in disease incidence. Non-respiratory diseases, such as hand, foot and mouth disease, rebounded substantially towards the end of the year 2020 as the NPIs were relaxed. Statistical modeling analyses confirm that strong NPIs were associated with a broad mitigation effect on communicable diseases, but resurgence of non-respiratory diseases should be expected when the NPIs, especially restrictions of human movement and gathering, become less stringent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-27292-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Infection with severe fever with thrombocytopenia virus in healthy population: a cohort study in a high endemic region, China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Nov 16;10(1):133. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, People's Republic of China.

Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia (SFTS) caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) was a tick-borne hemorrhagic fever that posed significant threat to human health in Eastern Asia. The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of SFTSV antibody in healthy population residing in a high endemic region.

Methods: A cohort study was performed on healthy residents in Shangcheng County in Xinyang City from April to December in 2018, where the highest SFTS incidence in China was reported. Anti-SFTSV IgG was measured by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralizing antibody (NAb) was detected by using PRNT50. The logistic regression models were performed to analyze the variables that were associated with seropositive rates.

Results: Totally 886 individuals were recruited. The baseline seroprevalence that was tested before the epidemic season was 11.9% (70/587) for IgG and 6.8% (40/587) for NAb, which was increased to 13.4% (47/350) and 7.7% (27/350) during the epidemic season, and further to 15.8% (80/508) and 9.8% (50/508) post epidemic. The IgG antibody-based seropositivity was significantly related to the patients aged ≥ 70 years old [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.440, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.334-4.461 compared to the group of < 50 years old, P = 0.004], recent contact with cats (adjusted OR = 2.195, 95% CI: 1.261-3.818, P = 0.005), and working in tea garden (adjusted OR = 1.698, 95% CI: 1.002-2.880, P = 0.049) by applying multivariate logistic regression model. The NAb based seropositivity was similarly related to the patients aged ≥ 70 years old (adjusted OR = 2.691, 95% CI: 1.271-5.695 compared to the group of < 50 years old, P = 0.010), and recent contact with cats (OR = 2.648, 95% CI: 1.419-4.941, P = 0.002). For a cohort of individuals continually sampled with 1-year apart, the anti-SFTSV IgG were maintained at a stable level, while the NAb level reduced.

Conclusions: Subclinical infection might not provide adequate immunity to protect reinfection of SFTSV, thus highlighting the ongoing threats of SFTS in endemic regions, which called for an imperative need for vaccine development. Identification of risk factors might help to target high-risk population for public health education and vaccination in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00918-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8600349PMC
November 2021

Broad impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on acute respiratory infections in China: an observational study.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, P. R. China.

Background: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI).

Methods: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years.

Results: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus.

Conclusions: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab942DOI Listing
November 2021

The Identification and Genetic Characterization of Parechovirus Infection Among Pediatric Patients With Wide Clinical Spectrum in Chongqing, China.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:709849. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are important causes of infection in children. However, without a comprehensive and persistent surveillance, the epidemiology and clinical features of HPeV infection remain ambiguous. We performed a hospital-based surveillance study among three groups of pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection (Group 1), acute diarrhea (Group 2), and hand, foot and mouth disease (Group 3) in Chongqing, China, from 2009 to 2015. Among 10,212 tested patients, 707 (6.92%) were positive for HPeV, with the positive rates differing significantly among three groups (Group 1, 3.43%; Group 2, 14.94%; Group 3, 3.55%; < 0.001). The co-infection with other pathogens was detected in 75.2% (531/707) of HPeV-positive patients. Significant negative interaction between HPeV and Parainfluenza virus (PIV) ( = 0.046, OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.34-0.98) and positive interactions between HPeV and Enterovirus (EV) ( = 0.015, OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.23-4.73) were identified. Among 707 HPeV-positive patients, 592 (83.73%) were successfully sequenced, and 10 genotypes were identified, with HPeV1 ( = 396), HPeV4 ( = 86), and HPeV3 ( = 46) as the most frequently seen. The proportion of genotypes differed among three groups ( < 0.001), with HPeV1 and HPeV4 overrepresented in Group 2 and HPeV6 overrepresented in Group 3. The spatial patterns of HPeV genotypes disclosed more close clustering of the currently sequenced strains than those from other countries/regions, although they were indeed mixed. Three main genotypes (HPeV1, HPeV3, and HPeV4) had shown distinct seasonal peaks, highlighting a bi-annual cycle of all HpeV and two genotypes (HPeV 1 and HPeV 4) with peaks in odd-numbered years and with peaks in even-numbered years HPeV3. Significantly higher HPeV1 viral loads were associated with severe diarrhea in Group 2 ( = 0.044), while associated with HPeV single infection than HPeV-EV coinfection among HFMD patients ( = 0.001). It's concluded that HPeV infection was correlated with wide clinical spectrum in pediatric patients with a high variety of genotypes determined. Still no clinical significance can be confirmed, which warranted more molecular surveillance in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.709849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477803PMC
September 2021

The changing pattern of enteric pathogen infections in China during the COVID-19 pandemic: a nation-wide observational study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Nov 20;16:100268. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Non pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) including hand washing directives were implemented in China and worldwide to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, which are likely to have had impacted a broad spectrum of enteric pathogen infections.

Methods: Etiologically diagnostic data from 45 937 and 67 395 patients with acute diarrhea between 2012 and 2020, who were tested for seven viral pathogens and 13 bacteria respectively, were analyzed to assess the changes of enteric pathogen infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years.

Findings: Test positive rates of all enteric viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with a relative decrease of 71•75% for adenovirus, 58•76% for norovirus, 53•50% for rotavirus A, and 72•07% for the combination of other four uncommon viruses. In general, a larger reduction of positive rate in viruses was seen among adults than pediatric patients. A rebound of rotavirus A was seen after September 2020 in North China rather than South China. Test positive rates of bacteria decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, excepting for nontyphoidal and with 66•53% and 90•48% increase respectively. This increase was larger for pediatric patients than for adult patients.

Interpretation: The activity of enteric pathogens changed profoundly alongside the NPIs implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Greater reductions of the test positive rates were found for almost all enteric viruses than for bacteria among acute diarrhea patients, with further large differences by age and geography. Lifting of NPIs will lead to resurgence of enteric pathogen infections, particularly in children whose immunity may not have been developed and/or waned.

Funding: China Mega-Project on Infectious Disease Prevention; National Natural Science Funds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450280PMC
November 2021

Endoscopic resection in combination with ligation for the treatment of duodenal subepithelial lesions: a single-center experience.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Gastroenterology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, China.

Duodenal subepithelial lesions (SELs) are increasingly detected during an endoscopic examination. However, no feasible and safe methods are available for removing duodenal SELs. In the present study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of endoscopic resection in combination with ligation (ER-L) in removing the duodenal SELs. A total of 101 patients with duodenal SELs received ER-L from February 2010 to February 2020. The primary outcomes were complete resection, en bloc resection, and R0 resection. The secondary outcomes included procedure duration, bleeding, perforation, and residual lesions. A total of 101 patients with 101 duodenal SELs (ranged from 8.4 mm to 20.2 mm in size) were included in this study. Most of the SELs (95.1%) originated from the submucosal layer and were successfully removed using ER-L. The rates of complete resection, en bloc resection, and R0 resection were 100%, 96.0%, and 88.1%, respectively. The median procedure duration was 8 min. There was no severe complication, except for four patients who developed post-procedure bleeding (4.0%) and recovered after conservative treatment. Furthermore, no residual lesions were detected during the follow-up period (median of 36 months). Indeed, logistic regression analysis showed that the size of duodenal SELs was an independent factor for R0 resection during the ER-L procedure. Conclusively, ER-L was feasible and safe to remove the duodenal SELs that originated from the submucosal layer and were less than 20 mm. However, the feasibility and safety of the ER-L should be further confirmed when removing the duodenal SELs that originated from the muscularis propria (MP) layer and were larger than 20 mm in diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17235/reed.2021.8105/2021DOI Listing
September 2021

Etiological and epidemiological features of acute respiratory infections in China.

Nat Commun 2021 08 18;12(1):5026. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25120-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373954PMC
August 2021

Characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among patients with acute diarrhea in China, 2009‒2018.

J Infect 2021 10 3;83(4):424-432. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Objectives To investigate the epidemiological features of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in patients with acute diarrhea in China. Methods An active sentinel surveillance was performed in all-age patients with acute diarrhea in China, 2009‒2018. DEC was isolated and identified by serological assay and PCR from stool samples. Results DEC was determined in 6.68% (6,119/91,651) of the patients, with higher positive rates among females than among males (6.97% vs. 6.46%) and among 18‒59 years patients (7.88%) than among other age groups. Five pathotypes were identified, the most prevalent was enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), followed by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pediatric patients <5 years had higher positive rate of EAEC (2.07%), followed by EPEC (1.81%), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) (0.31%), while the 18‒59 years patients had higher infection of ETEC (2.36%). ETEC and EPEC were more frequently identified in urban than rural areas, with age and gender adjusted positive rate of 1.68% vs. 1.14% respectively, and 1.77% vs. 1.55%, while EIEC and EHEC were more frequently identified in rural areas. Conclusions These findings highlight the epidemiology features of DEC and underscores the need for conducting DEC surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.08.001DOI Listing
October 2021

Feasibility and Safety of Mark-Guided Submucosal Tunneling Endoscopic Resection for Treatment of Esophageal Submucosal Tumors Originating from the Muscularis Propria: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 30;2021:9916927. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University, The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518020, Guangdong, China.

Background: Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) has effectively removed esophageal submucosal tumors (SMTs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. However, clinical failure and adverse events of STER remain concerned. In this study, we described a mark-guided STER (markings before creating entry point) and evaluated its feasibility and safety for esophageal SMTs originating from MP.

Methods: Patients receiving the mark-guided STER from October 2017 to July 2020 were included and followed up (ranged from 3 to 30 months). The primary outcomes included complete resection, en bloc resection, and R0 resection rates. The secondary outcomes included procedure duration, main complication, and residual lesions.

Results: A total of 242 patients with 242 SMTs (median diameter of 22 mm, ranging from 7 mm to 40 mm) received the mark-guided STER. The median procedure duration was 55 min (ranging from 35 min to 115 min). The complete resection, en bloc resection, and R0 resection rates were 100%, 98.3%, and 97.5%, respectively. The adverse event rate was 4.5%. However, there was no severe complication. No residual SMTs were detected during the follow-up period. Logistic regression demonstrated that the SMT size and procedure duration were independent factors associated with en bloc resection (=0.02 and =0.04, respectively). Moreover, logistic regression demonstrated that the SMT size was an independent risk factor for main complications (=0.02).

Conclusion: Mark-guided STER was feasible and safe to remove esophageal SMTs ≦40 mm. However, it is necessary to further verify the feasibility and safety for the esophageal SMTs >40 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9916927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266477PMC
October 2021

Meteorological conditions and nonpharmaceutical interventions jointly determined local transmissibility of COVID-19 in 41 Chinese cities: A retrospective observational study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Sep 6;2:100020. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health and Health Professions, and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Before effective vaccines become widely available, sufficient understanding of the impacts of climate, human movement and non-pharmaceutical interventions on the transmissibility of COVID-19 is needed but still lacking.

Methods: We collected by crowdsourcing a database of 11 003 COVID-19 cases from 305 cities outside Hubei Province from December 31, 2019 to April 27, 2020. We estimated the daily effective reproduction numbers ( ) of COVID-19 in 41 cities where the crowdsourced case data are comparable to the official surveillance data. The impacts of meteorological variables, human movement indices and nonpharmaceutical emergency responses on were evaluated with generalized estimation equation models.

Findings: The median was 0•46 (IQR: 0•37-0•87) in the northern cities, higher than 0•20 (IQR: 0•09-0•52) in the southern cities (=0•004). A higher local transmissibility of COVID-19 was associated with a low temperature, a relative humidity near 70-75%, and higher intracity and intercity human movement. An increase in temperature from 0℃ to 20℃ would reduce by 30% (95 CI 10-46%). A further increase to 30℃ would result in another 17% (95% CI 5-27%) reduction. An increase in relative humidity from 40% to 75% would raise the transmissibility by 47% (95% CI 9-97%), but a further increase to 90% would reduce the transmissibility by 12% (95% CI 4-19%). The decrease in intracity human movement as a part of the highest-level emergency response in China reduced the transmissibility by 36% (95% CI 27-44%), compared to 5% (95% CI 1-9%) for restricting intercity transport. Other nonpharmaceutical interventions further reduced by 39% (95% CI 31-47%).

Interpretation: Climate can affect the transmission of COVID-19 where effective interventions are implemented. Restrictions on intracity human movement may be needed in places where other nonpharmaceutical interventions are unable to mitigate local transmission.

Funding: China Mega-Project on Infectious Disease Prevention; U.S. National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474870PMC
September 2020

The differential demographic pattern of coronavirus disease 2019 fatality outside Hubei and from six hospitals in Hubei, China: a descriptive analysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 26;21(1):481. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 100071, P. R. China.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated.

Methods: Data on confirmed patients, with a final outcome reported as of 29 March 2020, were obtained from official websites and other internet sources. The hospitalized CFR (HCFR) was estimated, epidemiological features described, and risk factors for a fatal outcome identified.

Results: The overall HCFR in China was estimated to be 4.6% (95% CI 4.5-4.8%, P < 0.001). It increased with age and was higher in males than females. Although the highest HCFR observed was in male patients ≥70 years old, the relative risks for death outcome by sex varied across age groups, and the greatest HCFR risk ratio for males vs. females was shown in the age group of 50-60 years, higher than age groups of 60-70 and ≥ 70 years. Differential age/sex HCFR patterns across geographical regions were found: the age effect on HCFR was greater in other provinces outside Hubei than in Wuhan. An effect of longer interval from symptom onset to admission was only observed outside Hubei, not in Wuhan. By performing multivariate analysis and survival analysis, the higher HCFR was associated with older age (both P < 0.001), and male sex (both P < 0.001). Only in regions outside Hubei, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, were associated with higher HCFR.

Conclusions: This up-to-date and comprehensive picture of COVID-19 HCFR and its drivers will help healthcare givers target limited medical resources to patients with high risk of fatality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06187-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153527PMC
May 2021

Association between fatality rate of COVID-19 and selenium deficiency in China.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 19;21(1):452. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, 20 Dong-Da Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, People's Republic of China.

Background: COVID-19 has impacted populations around the world, with the fatality rate varying dramatically across countries. Selenium, as one of the important micronutrients implicated in viral infections, was suggested to play roles.

Methods: An ecological study was performed to assess the association between the COVID-19 related fatality and the selenium content both from crops and topsoil, in China.

Results: Totally, 14,045 COVID-19 cases were reported from 147 cities during 8 December 2019-13 December 2020 were included. Based on selenium content in crops, the case fatality rates (CFRs) gradually increased from 1.17% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.28% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 3.16% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P = 0.002). Based on selenium content in topsoil, the CFRs gradually increased from 0.76% in non-selenium-deficient areas, to 1.70% in moderate-selenium-deficient areas, and further to 1.85% in severe-selenium-deficient areas (P < 0.001). The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model showed a significantly higher fatality risk in cities with severe-selenium-deficient selenium content in crops than non-selenium-deficient cities, with incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 3.88 (95% CIs: 1.21-12.52), which was further confirmed by regression fitting the association between CFR of COVID-19 and selenium content in topsoil, with the IRR of 2.38 (95% CIs: 1.14-4.98) for moderate-selenium-deficient cities and 3.06 (1.49-6.27) for severe-selenium-deficient cities.

Conclusions: Regional selenium deficiency might be related to an increased CFR of COVID-19. Future studies are needed to explore the associations between selenium status and disease outcome at individual-level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06167-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132024PMC
May 2021

Etiological, epidemiological, and clinical features of acute diarrhea in China.

Nat Commun 2021 04 29;12(1):2464. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Institute for Disease Prevention and Control of PLA, Beijing, China.

National-based prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute diarrhea was conducted in China between 2009‒2018. Here we report the etiological, epidemiological, and clinical features of the 152,792 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Rotavirus A and norovirus are the two leading viral pathogens detected in the patients, followed by adenovirus and astrovirus. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and nontyphoidal Salmonella are the two leading bacterial pathogens, followed by Shigella and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Patients aged <5 years had higher overall positive rate of viral pathogens, while bacterial pathogens were more common in patients aged 18‒45 years. A joinpoint analysis revealed the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. Our findings fill crucial gaps of how the distributions of enteropathogens change across China in patients with diarrhea. This allows enhanced identification of the predominant diarrheal pathogen candidates for diagnosis in clinical practice and more targeted application of prevention and control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22551-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085116PMC
April 2021

Fitness consequences of divorce in the azure-winged magpie depends on the breeding experience of a new mate.

Curr Zool 2021 Feb 20;67(1):17-25. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Tianshui South Road 222#, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, 730000, China.

Sexual conflict in producing and raising offspring is a critical issue in evolutionary ecology research. Individual experience affects their breeding performance, as measured by such traits of provisioning of offspring and engagement in extra-pair copulations, and may cause an imbalance in sexual conflict. Thus, divorce is hypothesized to occur within aged social pairs, irrespective of current reproductive success. This concept was explored in the azure-winged magpie by investigating the divorce of a social pair and its relationship to their changes in breeding performance with prior experience. Females engaging in extra-pair copulation may intensify sexual conflicts and may be the main reason for divorce. Once divorced, females repairing with an inexperienced male realized higher reproductive success than that repairing with an experienced male; males repairing with an experienced female realized higher reproductive success than that repairing with an inexperienced female. This finding indicates that the fitness consequence of divorce depends on the breeding experience of new mates. Divorced females can obtain more extra-pair copulations, whereas divorced males cannot, when they repair with inexperienced breeders. Divorced females provisioned a brood at lower rates than inexperienced females whereas divorced males had no such difference. It appears that divorced females can obtain an advantage in sexual conflicts with inexperienced mates in future reproduction. Consequently, females are probably more active than males in divorcing their aged mates so as to select an inexperienced male as a new mate. Azure-winged magpies thus provide novel insights into the implications of sexual conflict in birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cz/zoaa014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901756PMC
February 2021

Parental dependence on the nest's spatial cues in offspring recognition decreases with nestling growth in the azure-winged magpie.

Curr Zool 2020 Dec 8;66(6):643-648. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

In altricial birds, to address which cues are used by parents to recognize their offspring, and when they switch between cues during reproduction, it has not been well determined. In this study, we address this question in a Tibetan population of the azure-winged magpie , by examining the dependence of parents on a nest's spatial position in offspring recognition. During the egg and nestling phases, azure-winged magpie nests were translocated to new positions across various distances from their original site, and parental responses to the translocated nests were investigated. Our findings show that a nest's spatial position is not connected with the survival of its young, but might be used as a cue in parental offspring recognition. When nests are translocated to a new position within a certain distance, parents could recognize their nests and returned to resume their parenting behaviors. Parental dependence on the nest's spatial position in offspring recognition is higher during the egg phase than during the nestling phase, and it decreases with the growth of nestlings. After nestlings reach a certain age, the nest' s spatial position was no longer used by parents as the single cue for offspring recognition. These findings suggest that azure-winged magpies switch their cues in offspring recognition during the different stages of reproduction. After parent-offspring communication has been established, the offspring's phenotypic traits may become a more reliable cue than the nest's spatial position in offspring recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cz/zoaa017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769586PMC
December 2020

Epidemiology of imported infectious diseases, China, 2014-18.

J Travel Med 2020 12;27(8)

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, P.R. China.

Background: The frequent movement of population between countries brings an increasing number of travel-related infections. This study aims to define the spectrum and dynamics of imported infections observed from international travel in the Chinese mainland.

Methods: Sick travellers were screened by inbound sentinel surveillance and post-travel clinic visits from 2014 to 18. The infections were classified as respiratory, gastrointestinal, vector-borne, blood/sexually transmitted and mucocutaneous. The analysed variables included the place of origin of the travellers (Chinese or foreign) and the time when travel-related infection was present (at the time of return, during travel and post-travel visits to the clinic).

Results: In total, 58 677 cases were identified amongst 1 409 265 253 travellers, with an incidence of 41.64/million, comprising during-travel incidence of 27.44/million and a post-travel incidence of 14.20/million. Respiratory infections constituted the highest proportion of illnesses during travel (81.19%, 31 393 of 38 667), which mainly came from Asian countries and tourists; with influenza virus and rhinovirus infections being mainly diagnosed. Vector-borne diseases constituted the highest proportion of post-travel illnesses (98.14%, 19 638 of 20 010), which were mainly diagnosed from African countries and labourers; with malaria and dengue fever being mainly diagnosed. The differential infection spectrum varied in terms of the traveller's demography, travel destination and travel purpose. As such, a higher proportion of foreign travellers had blood/sexually transmitted diseases (89.85%, 2832 of 3152), while Chinese citizens had a higher prevalence of vector-borne diseases (85.98%, 19 247 of 22 387) and gastrointestinal diseases (79.36%, 1115 of 1405). The highest incidence rate was observed amongst travellers arriving from Africa, while the lowest was observed amongst travellers arriving from Europe.

Conclusions: The findings might help in preparing recommendations for travellers and also aid in primary care or other clinics that prepare travellers before trips abroad. The findings will also help to identify locations and the associated types of infections that might require attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757385PMC
December 2020

Epidemiological parameters of COVID-19 and its implication for infectivity among patients in China, 1 January to 11 February 2020.

Euro Surveill 2020 10;25(40)

These senior authors contributed equally to this manuscript.

BackgroundThe natural history of disease in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained obscure during the early pandemic.AimOur objective was to estimate epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and assess the relative infectivity of the incubation period.MethodsWe estimated the distributions of four epidemiological parameters of SARS-CoV-2 transmission using a large database of COVID-19 cases and potential transmission pairs of cases, and assessed their heterogeneity by demographics, epidemic phase and geographical region. We further calculated the time of peak infectivity and quantified the proportion of secondary infections during the incubation period.ResultsThe median incubation period was 7.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.9‒7.5) days. The median serial and generation intervals were similar, 4.7 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.3) and 4.6 (95% CI: 4.2‒5.1) days, respectively. Paediatric cases < 18 years had a longer incubation period than adult age groups (p = 0.007). The median incubation period increased from 4.4 days before 25 January to 11.5 days after 31 January (p < 0.001), whereas the median serial (generation) interval contracted from 5.9 (4.8) days before 25 January to 3.4 (3.7) days after. The median time from symptom onset to discharge was also shortened from 18.3 before 22 January to 14.1 days after. Peak infectivity occurred 1 day before symptom onset on average, and the incubation period accounted for 70% of transmission.ConclusionThe high infectivity during the incubation period led to short generation and serial intervals, necessitating aggressive control measures such as early case finding and quarantine of close contacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.40.2000250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545819PMC
October 2020

Doping evolution of the magnetic excitations in the monolayer CuO.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Jun 5;32(41):415603. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

In this paper, we study theoretically the doping evolution behaviors of the magnetic excitations (MEs) in the monolayer CuO grown on BiSrCaCuO substrate. For the undoped system, the MEs exhibit the low energy commensurate behavior around (π, π). They turn to be incommensurate when the system is slightly hole-doped. In the intermediate doping regime, the low energy MEs diminish gradually. They turn to be dominated by the high energy modes. With further doping, an exotic structure transition of the MEs occurs in the heavily hole-doped regime which is directly related to the Lifshitz transition. Distinct MEs are separated by the transition point around which the low energy MEs exhibit the ring-like structure around (0, 0). Before the transition, the MEs are dominated by the broad particle-hole continuum at very high energies. In contrast, across the transition point, two new low energy modes develop around (0, 0) and (π, π) attributing to the intrapocket and interpocket particle-hole scatterings, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ab99ecDOI Listing
June 2020

Effect and safety of mark-guided standard peroral endoscopic myotomy: A retrospective case control study.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Mar;26(9):973-983

Department of Gastroenterology, the Second Clinical Medicine College (Shenzhen People's Hospital) of Jinan University, Shenzhen 518020, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a promising therapeutic modality for esophageal achalasia worldwide. However, clinical failure and adverse events of POEM have still been concerned.

Aim: To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel mark-guided POEM with standard POEM.

Methods: A total of 133 patients with esophageal achalasia who underwent POEM from May 2013 to May 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Of the 133 patients, there were 64 patients in the mark-guided POEM group and 69 patients in the standard POEM group. The clinical success, procedural duration and adverse events were compared between the two groups at 3 mo, 12 mo and 24 mo postoperatively.

Results: Characteristic baseline was similar in the mark-guided POEM group and standard POEM group. The clinical success was comparable between the two groups, ranging from 92% to 98%, at 3 mo, 12 mo and 24 mo postoperatively (all > 0.5). Eckart score, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire score and SF-36 score were not different between the two groups after treatment (all > 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in the two groups. However, mark-guided POEM required shorter procedural duration, and less use of proton pump inhibitors and lower incidence of reflux symptoms than the standard POEM (all < 0.001).

Conclusion: Mark-guided POEM and standard POEM were both effective and safe for the treatment of esophageal achalasia. However, the mark-guided POEM was characterized by shorter procedural duration, less use of proton pump inhibitors and lower incidence of reflux symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i9.973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081014PMC
March 2020

Environmental estrogen exposure converts lipid metabolism in male fish to a female pattern mediated by AMPK and mTOR signaling pathways.

J Hazard Mater 2020 07 20;394:122537. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

LANEH, School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China. Electronic address:

Environmental estrogens, including bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2), which are widely used in industries and medicine, pose a severe ecological threat to fish due to feminization induction. However, the related metabolic basis for reproductive feminization in male fish has not been well addressed. We first found that female zebrafish exhibited higher lipid accumulation and lipogenesis activity than males. Next, we exposed male and female zebrafish to E2 (200 ng/L) or BPA (100 μg/L) for six weeks, and observed an early-phase reproductive feminization in males, accompanied with reduced spermatids, significant fat deposition and lipogenic gene expressions that mimicked female patterns. Cellular signaling assays revealed that, E2 or BPA modulated lipid metabolism in males mainly through lowering 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and upregulating the lipogenic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. For the first time, we show that environmental estrogens could alter lipid metabolism in male fish to a female pattern (metabolic feminization) prior to gonad feminization in male fish, to allows males to accumulate efficiently lipids to harmonize with the feminized gonads. This study suggests that negative effects of environmental estrogens, as hazardous materials, on vertebrate health are more complicated than originally thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122537DOI Listing
July 2020

Efficacy of low-dose versus high-dose simethicone with polyethylene glycol for bowel preparation: A prospective randomized controlled trial.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Sep 7;35(9):1488-1494. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Gastroenterology, the Second Clinical Medicine College (Shenzhen People's Hospital) of Jinan University, Shenzhen, China.

Background And Aim: Additional simethicone (SIM) can improve adequate bowel preparation and adenoma detection rate (ADR). However, there is no consensus on the optimal dose of SIM. In this study, we compared the adequate bowel preparation rate with supplementation of split-dose 2 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) with low-dose SIM (200 mg) versus high-dose SIM (1200 mg).

Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded trial involving consecutive subjects undergoing colonoscopy. The primary outcome was adequate bowel preparation as assessed by Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) score.

Results: Four hundred subjects were randomly allocated to low-dose SIM or high-dose SIM group. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups (P > 0.05). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to total bubble scale (BS) (8.49 ± 1.00 vs 8.39 ± 1.10, P = 0.07), total BBPS score (8.70 ± 0.81 vs 8.29 ± 1.18, P = 0.98), ADR (33.68% vs 31.79%, P = 0.69) or withdrawal time (13 [range, 10-16] min vs 13 [10-15] min, P = 0.96). The intubation time in low-dose SIM group was significantly shorter than that in high-dose SIM group (8 (4-16) min vs 10 [6-17] min, P = 0.04). In addition, BS scores as well as diminutive ADR in right colon were superior in the low-dose SIM group (2.68 ± 0.59 vs 2.52 ± 0.73, P = 0.03 and 54.29% vs 30.30%, P = 0.046, respectively).

Conclusion: Addition of low-dose SIM to split-dose 2 L PEG was as effective as addition of high-dose SIM with respect to adequate bowel preparation, ADR and patient tolerance. However, low-dose SIM was superior with respect to intubation time, right colon BS scores, right colon diminutive ADR and cost savings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15022DOI Listing
September 2020

Cytological, genetic, and proteomic analysis of a sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) mutant Siyl-1 with yellow-green leaf color.

Genes Genomics 2020 01 1;42(1):25-39. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Background: Both photosynthetic pigments and chloroplasts in plant leaf cells play an important role in deciding on the photosynthetic capacity and efficiency in plants. Systematical investigating the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development and chlorophyll (Chl) content variation is necessary for clarifying the photosynthesis mechanism for crops.

Objective: This study aims to explore the critical regulatory mechanism of leaf color mutation in a yellow-green leaf sesame mutant Siyl-1.

Methods: We performed the genetic analysis of the yellow-green leaf color mutation using the F population of the mutant Siyl-1. We compared the morphological structure of the chloroplasts, chlorophyll content of the three genotypes of the mutant F progeny. We performed the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and compared the protein expression variation between the mutant progeny and the wild type.

Results: Genetic analysis indicated that there were 3 phenotypes of the F population of the mutant Siyl-1, i.e., YY type with light-yellow leaf color (lethal); Yy type with yellow-green leaf color, and yy type with normal green leaf color. The yellow-green mutation was controlled by an incompletely dominant nuclear gene, Siyl-1. Compared with the wild genotype, the chloroplast number and the morphological structure in YY and Yy mutant lines varied evidently. The chlorophyll content also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The 2-DE comparison showed that there were 98 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) among YY, Yy, and yy lines. All the 98 DEPs were classified into 5 functional groups. Of which 82.7% DEPs proteins belonged to the photosynthesis and energy metabolism group.

Conclusion: The results revealed the genetic character of yellow-green leaf color mutant Siyl-1. 98 DEPs were found in YY and Yy mutant compared with the wild genotype. The regulation pathway related with the yellow leaf trait mutation in sesame was analyzed for the first time. The findings supplied the basic theoretical and gene basis for leaf color and chloroplast development mechanism in sesame.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-019-00876-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942039PMC
January 2020

Syntheses, crystal structures and biological evaluation of two new Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes based on (E)-2-(((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol.

J Inorg Biochem 2019 04 15;193:52-59. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China. Electronic address:

Two transition metal complexes of [M(TMP)(HO)] (TMP-Cu, M = Cu; TMP-Co, M = Co) with (E)-2-(((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol (H-TMP) were first synthesized and characterized by infrared analysis, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Notably, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay showed that TMP-Cu displayed relatively high cytotoxic activity against Hep-G2 cancer cells, and high selectivity between human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and normal HL-7702 cells, in comparison to TMP-Co and cisplatin. Further studies showed that TMP-Cu and TMP-Co caused cell cycle arrest at S phase through regulation of S phase related protein expressions and induced Hep-G2 cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2019.01.009DOI Listing
April 2019

Environmental and spatial variables determine the taxonomic but not functional structure patterns of microbial communities in alpine grasslands.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 13;654:960-968. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China. Electronic address:

There is considerable debate regarding how the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities relates to the functional diversity across space while similar questions have been explored in macro-organism communities. Here, we investigated the taxonomic and functional diversity patterns of soil microbial communities by coupling the data obtained from marker genes sequencing and functional gene surveys. Meanwhile, we evaluated the relative effects of environment and geographic distance on shaping these patterns in alpine grasslands of northern China. Although the taxonomic diversity and composition of microbial communities varied across sites, we found no consistent changes in the functional structure. Both the environmental factors and geographic distance concurrently affected the taxonomic diversity patterns but they had no effects on the spatial variations in functional genes. The functional alpha diversity was weakly correlated to the taxonomic alpha diversity across sites. Moreover, we found no significant relationship between the taxonomic and functional composition similarity among microbial communities. Together, our results provide evidence that spatial variation in microbial functions could be independent of their variations in taxonomic diversity. Even the drivers of spatial variations in the functional structure could be totally different from those of taxonomic variations such as environmental differences and dispersal limitation. Our findings suggest that spatial variations of microbial function structure within a community would not follow the variations of taxonomic structures due to different drivers between both of them over space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.138DOI Listing
March 2019

Mechanism of MEN1 gene in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

Gene 2018 Dec 9;678:252-260. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Radiobiology, Jilin University, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the regulatory mechanism of MEN1 gene in radiation-induced lung fibrosis in mice and provide a new theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of radiation pulmonary fibrosis.

Methods: First, 80 C57BL/6 mice aged 8 weeks and weighing 18-22 g were selected, half of them were male and the other half were female. The mice were divided into control group and irradiation group (40 mice in each group) according to the method of the random number table. A radiation-induced lung fibrosis mouse model was established in which a single X-ray irradiation of 20 Gy was applied to the right lung in the irradiation group; H&E and Masson staining were used to verify whether the model was successful at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks after irradiation. The expression of MEN1, smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Collagen-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) in lung tissue were detected by Western blot and qPCR. Secondly, in the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (MEF) and mouse lung epithelial cell line (MLE-12), we constructed cell models of MEN1 knockout and interference separately with the irradiation of 10 Gy X-rays. The expression of α-SMA, Collagen-1, and TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway molecules was detected by qPCR. Finally, using the immunoprecipitation (IP) method, we can detect the interaction between Smad2 and the protein menin encoded by the MEN1 gene.

Results: The results of the radiation pulmonary fibrosis model in mice showed that compared with the control group, the alveolar septum widens, the alveolar integrity decreases, the lung tissue slightly thickens, and a small amount of collagen deposits appear after 4-8 weeks in the model group. At twenty-fourth weeks, a large number of cells in the interstitial space of the lung tissue and a localized focal fibrosis area were observed. Further study found that radiation induced fibrogenic inflammatory cytokines TGF-β up-regulation, down-regulation of MEN1 gene expression, and then enhanced the expression of α-SMA and promotes the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts; At the same time, the expression of Collagen-1 was enhanced, which suggested that the extracellular matrix was overconcentrated and eventually promoted the formation of pulmonary fibrosis. In vitro, we found that knockout and interference of MEN1 gene can significantly enhance radiation-induced fibrosis, and up-regulate the expression of downstream molecules Smad2 and Smad3 of TGF-β signaling pathway, and down-regulate the expression of Smad7. Furthermore, it played an important role in regulating the process of radionuclide fibrosis.

Conclusion: MEN1 plays a key role in the formation of pulmonary fibrosis by regulating the secretion of TGF-β and the activation of TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.08.039DOI Listing
December 2018

Tumor microenvironment interruption: a novel anti-cancer mechanism of Proton-pump inhibitor in gastric cancer by suppressing the release of microRNA-carrying exosomes.

Am J Cancer Res 2017 1;7(9):1913-1925. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for CancerTianjin, China.

Poor prognosis of gastric cancer is related to not only malignancy of gastric cancer cells, but also the tumor microenvironment. Thus drugs, which can inhibit both of them, are urgently needed to be explored. Studies on effect of Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) in anti-neoplasms are increasing, but is rare in gastric in gastric cancer. Here we investigated how the gastric cancer microenvironment is regulated by PPIs. The objective response rate of gastric cancer patients in our hospital treated by PPIs is investigated. PPIs' effects were further explored by observing the change of microRNAs, cytokines, cellular apoptosis. Bioinformatic pathway analysis of microarray was used to discover the pathway involved in PPIs' regulation of gastric cancer microenvironments. Immunoblotting assays and qRT-PCR were used to define molecular events with PPIs treatment. We report here that PPIs can improve the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer patients; and inhibit the progress of gastric cancer both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, high dose of PPIs can regulate the pathway associated with tumor malignancy and microenvironment via inhibiting the release of exosomes, which packed microRNAs. PPIs can inhibit the transformation of CAFs (cancer associated fibroblasts) and cytokines released from CAFs. In addition, PPIs inhibit the malignancy of gastric cancer through regulating HIF-1α-FOXO1 axis. High dose of PPIs can inhibit malignancy of gastric cancer and regulate its surrounding tumor microenvironment. This finding suggests that PPIs maybe of potential value as a therapeutic tool for treatment of gastric cancer.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622225PMC
September 2017

Magnetic excitations in the normal and nematic phases of iron pnictides.

J Phys Condens Matter 2017 May 14;29(19):195601. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, we theoretically study the behaviors of the magnetic excitations (MEs) in the normal and nematic phases of iron pnictides. The normal state MEs exhibit commensurability to diamond and square-like structure transition with the increase of energy. This structure transition persists in the spin and orbital scenarios of nematic phases, although the MEs show anisotropic behaviors due to the C symmetry breaking induced by the nematic orders. The MEs exhibit distinct energy evolution behaviors between the spin and orbital scenarios of nematicity. For the spin-nematic scenario, the anisotropy of the MEs persists up to the high energy region. In contrast, for the orbital-nematic scenario, it reduces dramatically in the low energy region and is negligible in the high energy region. These distinct behaviors of the MEs are attributed to the different origins between the spin and orbital scenarios of nematic orders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/aa669dDOI Listing
May 2017
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