Publications by authors named "Hai Zhang"

615 Publications

An ethyl thioglycolate-based chemosensor: Spectrophotometric detection of Fe and fluorometric detection of Hg with high selectivity.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 12;260:119955. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Academician Workstation, Zunyi Normal College, Zunyi 563006, China. Electronic address:

A novel symmetric bianthracene derivative (D2) containing one benzene ring and two ethyl thioglycolates connecting to the benzene ring on both sides of the bianthracene unit was designed and synthesized. D2 can detect Fe and Hg in acetonitrile/water (6:4, v/v) solution via different changes of absorbance and fluorescence in the pH range from 3 to 10. D2 exhibits high colorimetric sensitivity for Fe with low detection limit (1.87 × 10 mol/L). The absorbance intensity of D2 in acetonitrile/water solution show a linear response to Fe in the wide concentration range of 0 -1000 μM, which is beneficial for quantitative analysis. D2 also displays highly selective fluorescent sensing for Hg with a low detection limit of 1.07 µM over other metal ions and can accurately detect the existence of Hg in water samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119955DOI Listing
November 2021

Cadmium Impairs Autophagy Leading to Apoptosis by Ca-Dependent Activation of JNK Signaling Pathway in Neuronal Cells.

Neurochem Res 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Chixia District, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China.

Autophagy, a process for self-degradation of intracellular components and dysfunctional organelles, is closely related with neurodegenerative diseases. It has been shown that cadmium (Cd) induces neurotoxicity partly by impairing autophagy. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. In this study, we show that Cd induced expansion of autophagosomes with a concomitant abnormal expression of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins in PC12 cells and primary murine neurons. 3-MA, a classical inhibitor of autophagy, attenuated Cd-induced expansion of autophagosomes and apoptosis in the cells. Further investigation demonstrated that Cd activated JNK pathway contributing to autophagosome expansion-dependent neuronal apoptosis. This is supported by the findings that pharmacological inhibition of JNK with SP600125 or expression of dominant negative c-Jun markedly attenuated Cd-induced expansion of autophagosomes and abnormal expression of Atg proteins, as well as apoptosis in PC12 cells and/or primary neurons. Furthermore, we noticed that chelating intracellular free Ca ([Ca]) with BAPTA/AM profoundly blocked Cd-elicited activation of JNK pathway and consequential expansion of autophagosomes, abnormal expression of Atg proteins, and apoptosis in the neuronal cells. Similar events were also seen following prevention of [Ca] elevation with EGTA or 2-APB, implying a Ca-dependent mechanism involved. Taken together, the results indicate that Cd impairs autophagy leading to apoptosis by Ca-dependent activation of JNK signaling pathway in neuronal cells. Our findings highlight that manipulation of intracellular Ca level and/or JNK activity to ameliorate autophagy may be a promising intervention against Cd-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03341-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Active-Ingredient Screening and Synergistic Action Mechanism of Shegan Mixture for Anti-Asthma Effects Based on Network Pharmacology in a Mouse Model of Asthma.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 29;15:1765-1777. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, People's Republic of China.

Background: Shegan Mixture (SGM) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects on asthma. However, its active ingredients and combined action mechanism have not been fully elucidated so far. The purpose of this study was to screen the effective ingredients and targets and elucidate the synergistic action mechanism of SGM in asthma mice using the network pharmacological approach.

Methods: A mouse model of asthma model was used in this study. Mice were orally administered SGM at three doses for 4 weeks and the effect of SGM on asthma was evaluated. The active ingredients and their targets of SGM were identified by searching databases, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP). The main active ingredients were selected with parameters OB and DL. The synergistic action mechanisms of SGM in asthma were studied through key active ingredient-target interaction network and verified using surface plasmon resonance assay (SPR).

Results: SGM exerts anti-asthmatic effects by reducing lung tissue damage and inflammatory factors (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in asthmatic mice. Twenty ingredients and 45 related proteins were selected as potential nodes using enrichment analysis and network analysis. Inflammation and smooth muscle regulation-related pathways were considered to be the main pharmacological mechanisms of SGM in the treatment of asthma. Especially, 5 molecule-target pairs (including 3 ingredients and 4 proteins) were well docked with each other and the SPR assay revealed that glabridin-PTGS2 had good binding with 44.5 μM Kd value.

Conclusion: SGM exerts the synergistic anti-asthma effects by virtue of reducing lung-tissue damage and inflammatory factors in asthmatic mice, which explains the theoretical basis for the traditional Chinese medicine, SGM, to treat asthma. Our study thus sheds light on a variety of options including Chinese medicine that could potentially be used in the clinical treatment of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S288829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092947PMC
April 2021

Art Teachers' Attitudes Toward Online Learning: An Empirical Study Using Self Determination Theory.

Front Psychol 2021 6;12:627095. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Media Science, School of Journalism, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China.

The pandemic in 2020 made online learning the widely used modality of teaching in several countries and it has also entered the spotlight of educational research. However, online learning has always been a challenge for disciplines (engineering, biology, and art) that require hands-on practice. For art teaching or training, online learning has many advantages and disadvantages. How art teachers embrace and adapt their teaching for online delivery remains an unanswered question. This research examines 892 art teachers' attitudes toward online learning, using learning environment, need satisfaction, mental engagement, and behavior as predictors. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between these four dimensions during these teachers' participation in an online learning program. The results reveal significant correlations between the learning environment, need satisfaction, mental engagement, and behavior. Moreover, this study reveals the group characteristics of art teachers, which can actually be supported by online learning programs. These findings provide insights into how art teachers view and use online learning, and thus can shed lights on their professional development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.627095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083004PMC
April 2021

3D Culture of Circulating Tumor Cells for Evaluating Early Recurrence and Metastasis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 16;14:2673-2688. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular Oncology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital & National Center for Liver Cancer, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200438, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are considered to be a key factor involved in tumor metastasis. However, the isolation and culture of CTCs in vitro remains challenging, and their clinical application for predicting prognosis and survival is still limited. The development of accurate evaluating system for CTCs will benefit for clinical assessment of HCC.

Methods: Density gradient centrifugation and magnetic separation based on CD45 antibody were used to isolate CTCs. 3D culture was used to maintain and amplify CTCs and HCC cells. Cellular immunofluorescence was used to identify CTCs and spheroids. The cutoff value of CTC spheroid was calculated using X-tile software. The relationship between clinicopathological variables and CTC spheroids in HCC patients is analyzed. In vivo models were used to evaluate tumor growth and metastasis of CTC spheroids.

Results: Patient-derived CTCs/HCC cells were isolated and expanded to form spheroids using 3D culture. CTC spheroids could be used to predict short-term recurrence of CTCs compared with conventional CTC enumeration. Different cell lines exhibited different formation rates and grew to different sizes. Identification of CTC spheroids revealed that EpCAM and β-catenin were expressed in spheroids derived from HCC cells and in the HCC/CTCs. EpCAM-positive HCC cells exhibited improved spheroid formation in 3D culture and were more tumorigenic and likely to metastasize to the lung in vivo. Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was observed in EpCAM positive cells.

Conclusion: CTC spheroids could predict prognosis of HCC more precisely compared with conventional CTC enumeration. EpCAM may participate in the formation and survival of CTC spheroids which dependent on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S298427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057830PMC
April 2021

Complete mitochondrial genome of from wuhu, China (Rotifera, Brachionidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 26;6(3):1194-1196. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Public Research Lab of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was sequenced using primers design, clone culture, DNA extraction, LONG-PCR amplification, purification and clone sequencing. We found that it is composed of two circular chromosomes, designated mtDNA I (11,398 bp) and mtDNA II (12,820 bp). The gene content of the mitochondrial genome was similar to that of the previously reported mitochondrial genome of . It contained 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs). Four of the 12 PCGs had an incomplete stop codons, TA(cob, atp6, nd3)or T(cox3). The A + T content of mitochondrial genome was apparently higher (mtDNA-I 70.2% and mtDNA II 70.4%) than that of the mitochondrial genome of (mtDNA-I 63.9% and mtDNA-II 62.9%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1903351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008871PMC
March 2021

Selective Interaction of Sugarcane eIF4E with VPgs from Sugarcane Mosaic Pathogens.

Viruses 2021 03 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

National Engineering Research Center for Sugarcane & Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) plays a key role in the infection of potyviruses in susceptible plants by interacting with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Sugarcane ( spp.) production is threatened by mosaic disease caused by (SCMV), (SrMV), and (SCSMV). In this study, two and their isoform and 4E-binding protein coding genes were cloned from sugarcane cultivar and designated , , and , respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed different expression profiles of these four genes upon SCMV challenge. A subcellular localization assay showed that SceIF4Ea, SceIF4Eb, SceIF(iso)4E, and ScnCBP were distributed in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that SceIF4Ea/b and SceIF(iso)4E were selectively employed by different sugarcane mosaic pathogens, i.e., SCMV-VPg interacted with SceIF4Ea/b and SceIF(iso)4E, SrMV-VPg interacted with both SceIF4Eb and SceIF(iso)4E, and SCSMV-VPg interacted only with SceIF(iso)4E. Intriguingly, the BiFC assays, but not the Y2H assays, showed that ScnCBP interacted with the VPgs of SCMV, SrMV, and SCSMV. Competitive interaction assays showed that SCMV-VPg, SrMV-VPg, and SCMV-VPg did not compete with each other to interact with SceIF(iso)4E, and SceIF(iso)4E competed with SceIF4Eb to interact with SrMV-VPg but not SCMV-VPg. This study sheds light on the molecular mechanism of sugarcane mosaic pathogen infection of sugarcane plants and benefits sugarcane breeding against the sugarcane mosaic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13030518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005120PMC
March 2021

Superficial CD34-Positive Fibroblastic Tumor on the Chest Wall of an 8-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 1:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

This study reports a case of superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor (SCPFT) in a child and analyze the major known clinicopathological features of SCPFT and other skin mesenchymal tumors, contributing to an accurate diagnosis of this rare disease. We summarize the clinicopathologic features of an 8-year-old girl who was diagnosed with SCPFT and 46 previously reported SCPFT cases. Post-operative histopathologic examination of the current case showed the tumor lesion was well-circumscribed; tumor cells were spindled-to-polygonal with a fascicular pattern; most nuclei displayed hyperchromasia and low mitotic rate; intranuclear pseudoinclusions could be found; and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and partial myxoid stroma were observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong and diffuse CD34-positivity, vimentin staining positively but no S-100, SMA, NSE, CD31, desmin, cytokeratin, STAT6, β-catenin, MDM2, or ERG expression. The Ki-67 and CD68 labeling indexes were approximately 1%. There were no rearrangements of or tested by FISH. After surgical resection, the patient had no signs of recurrence or metastasis at a 6-month follow-up. The present case is the first that describes SCPFT in children and has significant clinical implications. SCPFT should be differentiated from other skin mesenchymal tumors. The presented compilation of all so far published SCPFT cases will help in diagnosing successfully SCPFT and increasing awareness of this tumor to guide clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2020.1859659DOI Listing
April 2021

Chronic lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis after multiple intranasal instillation of PM in mice.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jul 29;36(7):1434-1446. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Fine particulate matter (PM ) is an important component of air pollution and can induce lung inflammation and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that PM could play a role in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis. We examined whether multiple intranasal instillation of PM can induce pulmonary fibrosis in the mouse, and also investigated the underlying pro-fibrotic signaling pathways. C57/BL6 mice were intranasally instilled with 50 μl of PM suspension (7.8 μg/g body weight) or PBS three times a week over 3 weeks, 6 weeks or 9 weeks. To observe the recovery of pulmonary fibrosis after the termination of PM exposure, 9 week-PM instilled mice were also studied at 3 weeks after termination of instillation. There were significant decreases in total lung capacity (TLC) and compliance (Cchord) in the 9-week PM -instilled mice, while there were increased histological fibrosis scores with enhanced type I collagen and hydroxyproline deposition, increased mitochondrial ROS levels and NOX activity, decreased total SOD and GSH levels, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial number and aberrant mitochondrial morphology (swelling, vacuolization, cristal disruption, reduced matrix density) in PM -instilled mice. Multiple PM instillation resulted in increased expression of TGFβ1, increases of N-Cadherin and Vimentin and a decrease of E-Cadherin. It also led to decreases in OPA1 and MFN2, and increases in Parkin, SQSTM1/p62, the ratio of light china (LC) 3B II to LC3B I, PI3k/Akt phosphorylation, and NLRP3 expression. Intranasal instillation of PM for 9 weeks induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis, which was linked with aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal transition, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and mitophagy, as well as activation of TGFβ1-PI3K/Akt, TGFβ1- NOX and TGFβ1-NLRP3 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23140DOI Listing
July 2021

A propensity score matching study of the short-term efficacy of azygos arch-sparing McKeown minimally invasive esophagectomy.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Feb;12(1):28-37

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Gaozhou People's Hospital, Guangdong Esophageal Cancer Institute Gaozhou Branch, Gaozhou, China.

Background: To evaluate the short-term efficacy of azygos arch-sparing McKeown minimally invasive esophagectomy (McKeown-MIE).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 221 patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent McKeown-MIE at the Department of Thoracic Surgery of Gaozhou People's Hospital from August 1, 2017 to September 30, 2019. According to whether the azygos arch was preserved or not, the patients were assigned to one of two groups: the preservation group (40 cases) and the ligation group (181 cases). Within 3 months of the operation, the perioperative outcomes and the postoperative short-term efficacy of the two groups were compared.

Results: After propensity score (PS) matching, 40 pairs of patients were matched successfully. Between the two groups, there were no statistical difference in intraoperative blood loss, the number of lymph nodes dissected, thoracic drainage duration, fasting time, postoperative hospital stay time, and major postoperative complications (P>0.05). Compared with the ligation group, patients in the preservation group had a shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay time, a shorter operative time, a lower volume of postoperative thoracic drainage (both the first 3 days and overall) following surgery, a tubular stomach that had a smaller caliber, and a lower incidence of tubular gastric malpositioning (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Preserving the azygos arch during a McKeown-MIE is safe and feasible. Doing so, not only effectively restricts the expansion of the gastric conduit, leading to a lower incidence of malpositioning, but also dramatically reduces postoperative thoracic drainage, and ICU stay time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo-21-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944159PMC
February 2021

Global guidance network for breast lesion segmentation in ultrasound images.

Med Image Anal 2021 05 4;70:101989. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality and Human Interaction Technology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

Automatic breast lesion segmentation in ultrasound helps to diagnose breast cancer, which is one of the dreadful diseases that affect women globally. Segmenting breast regions accurately from ultrasound image is a challenging task due to the inherent speckle artifacts, blurry breast lesion boundaries, and inhomogeneous intensity distributions inside the breast lesion regions. Recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have demonstrated remarkable results in medical image segmentation tasks. However, the convolutional operations in a CNN often focus on local regions, which suffer from limited capabilities in capturing long-range dependencies of the input ultrasound image, resulting in degraded breast lesion segmentation accuracy. In this paper, we develop a deep convolutional neural network equipped with a global guidance block (GGB) and breast lesion boundary detection (BD) modules for boosting the breast ultrasound lesion segmentation. The GGB utilizes the multi-layer integrated feature map as a guidance information to learn the long-range non-local dependencies from both spatial and channel domains. The BD modules learn additional breast lesion boundary map to enhance the boundary quality of a segmentation result refinement. Experimental results on a public dataset and a collected dataset show that our network outperforms other medical image segmentation methods and the recent semantic segmentation methods on breast ultrasound lesion segmentation. Moreover, we also show the application of our network on the ultrasound prostate segmentation, in which our method better identifies prostate regions than state-of-the-art networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.101989DOI Listing
May 2021

Accuracy of the dynamic signal analysis approach in respiratory mechanics during noninvasive pressure support ventilation: a bench study.

J Int Med Res 2021 Feb;49(2):300060521992184

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of respiratory mechanics using dynamic signal analysis during noninvasive pressure support ventilation (PSV).

Methods: A Respironics V60 ventilator was connected to an active lung simulator to model normal, restrictive, obstructive, and mixed obstructive and restrictive profiles. The PSV was adjusted to maintain tidal volumes (V) that achieved 5.0, 7.0, and 10.0 mL/kg body weight, and the positive end-expiration pressure (PEEP) was set to 5 cmHO. Ventilator performance was evaluated by measuring the flow, airway pressure, and volume. The system compliance (C) and airway resistance (inspiratory and expiratory resistance, R and R, respectively) were calculated.

Results: Under active breathing conditions, the C was overestimated in the normal and restrictive models, and it decreased with an increasing pressure support (PS) level. The R calculated error was approximately 10% at 10.0 mL/kg of V, and similar results were obtained for the calculated R at 7.0 mL/kg of V.

Conclusion: Using dynamic signal analysis, appropriate tidal volume was beneficial for R, especially for estimating R during assisted ventilation. The C measurement was also relatively accurate in obstructive conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521992184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925949PMC
February 2021

Cognitive status of nurses in Shanghai on pulmonary rehabilitation.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Feb 19;10(2):2184-2194. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The nurse's specific understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation is not clear. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cognitive status of Shanghai nurses on pulmonary rehabilitation, and to provide a basis for the development of pulmonary rehabilitation work.

Methods: The cognitive status of pulmonary rehabilitation of nursing staff in Shanghai was investigated in the form of a questionnaire. The questionnaire included three main aspects of the function, content and indication of pulmonary rehabilitation, with 10 options for each aspect. The total score was 30 points, with 0-17 points indicating a low score and 18-30 points indicating a high score.

Results: A total of 960 valid questionnaires were collected. The average score of pulmonary rehabilitation knowledge was 18.48 points, with a median of 19 [14-23] points. There were statistically significant differences in the total scores of pulmonary rehabilitation knowledge among nurses of different ages, types of hospitals, levels of hospitals, education levels, professional titles, positions, departments, and theoretical knowledge of pulmonary rehabilitation (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the scores among nurses of different sexes (P>0.05). The high-score group included age ≥40 years (79.5%), respiratory hospital (71.7%), tertiary hospital (65.5%), bachelor degree or above (66.5%), nurse-in-charge or above (77.9%), managerial position (72.7%), pulmonary rehabilitation-related departments (71.9%), and theoretical knowledge of lung rehabilitation (79.5%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, education level, professional title, discipline, and theoretical knowledge of lung rehabilitation were the main factors influencing the score of pulmonary rehabilitation knowledge of nursing staff in Shanghai (P<0.05).

Conclusions: More than half of the nurses surveyed in Shanghai scored high on the cognition of lung rehabilitation knowledge, but there were still many nurses who had poor theoretical knowledge of lung rehabilitation and had an insufficient understanding of the specific content of lung rehabilitation; therefore, there is room for improvement. More opportunities to develop understanding of pulmonary rehabilitation theory should be provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-190DOI Listing
February 2021

Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of the HD-ZIP Gene Family in Response to Salt Stress in Pepper.

Int J Genomics 2021 25;2021:8105124. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Key Laboratory of Special Fruits and Vegetables Cultivation Physiology and Germplasm Resources Utilization, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832000, China.

HD-ZIP is a unique type of transcription factor in plants, which are closely linked to the regulation of plant growth and development, the response to abiotic stress, and disease resistance. However, there is little known about the HD-ZIP gene family of pepper. In this study, 40 HD-ZIP family members were analyzed in the pepper genome. The analysis indicated that the introns number of Ca-HD-ZIP varied from 1 to 17; the number of amino acids was between 119 and 841; the theoretical isoelectric point was between 4.54 and 9.85; the molecular weight was between 14.04 and 92.56; most of them were unstable proteins. The phylogenetic tree divided into 4 subfamilies; 40 genes were located on different chromosomes, and all of them contained the motif 1; two pairs of parallel genes of six paralogism genes were fragment duplications which occurred in 58.28~88.24 million years ago. There were multiple pressure-related action elements upstream of the start codon of the family. Protein interaction network proved to be coexpression phenomenon between () and (, ), and three regions of them were highly homology. The expression level of gene was different with tissues and developmental stages, which suggested that CaHD-ZIP may be involved in biological functions during pepper progress. In addition, Pepper HD-ZIP I and II genes played a major role in salt stress. , , , , , and were significantly induced in response to salt stress. Notably, the expression of , , , and , homologs of Arabidopsis and genes, was significantly upregulated by salt stresses. possesses two closely linked ABA action elements, and its expression level increased significantly at 4 h under salt stress. qRT-P-CR and transcription analysis showed that the expression of and CaHDZ10 was upregulated under short-term salt stress, but was downregulated with long-term salt stress, which provided a theoretical basis for research the function of in response to abiotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8105124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869415PMC
January 2021

The function of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

Bone Joint Res 2021 Feb;10(2):122-133

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital (People's Hospital of Xiangxi Autonomous Prefecture), Jishou University, Jishou, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA), one of the most common motor system disorders, is a degenerative disease involving progressive joint destruction caused by a variety of factors. At present, OA has become the fourth most common cause of disability in the world. However, the pathogenesis of OA is complex and has not yet been clarified. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) refers to a group of RNAs more than 200 nucleotides in length with limited protein-coding potential, which have a wide range of biological functions including regulating transcriptional patterns and protein activity, as well as binding to form endogenous small interference RNAs (siRNAs) and natural microRNA (miRNA) molecular sponges. In recent years, a large number of lncRNAs have been found to be differentially expressed in a variety of pathological processes of OA, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, synovial inflammation, chondrocyte apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Obviously, lncRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, maintaining the phenotype of cartilage and synovial cells, and the stability of the intra-articular environment. This article reviews the results of the latest research into the role of lncRNAs in a variety of pathological processes of OA, in order to provide a new direction for the study of OA pathogenesis and a new target for prevention and treatment. Cite this article: 2021;10(2):122-133.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.102.BJR-2020-0228.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937410PMC
February 2021

Shrinkage Strains in the Dentin of Endodontically Treated Teeth with Water Loss.

J Endod 2021 May 6;47(5):806-811. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Oral Health Science, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Introduction: Dehydration has been considered as a potential contributor to vertical root fractures (VRFs) after root canal treatment (RCT). A loss of water could cause embrittlement of dentin and detrimental shrinkage strains. Senior patients have the highest risk of VRF. In this study, we characterized the spatial distribution in shrinkage of tooth roots with respect to donor age and prior RCT.

Methods: Single-rooted human teeth with and without prior RCT were collected from young (age <25 years) and old (age >60 years) adults. Transverse slices were sectioned from the apical, middle, and coronal thirds of the roots, and digital image correlation was used to evaluate shrinkage during free convection. Crack initiation and growth analysis was performed via optical microscopy, and bound water in dentin was characterized by Raman spectroscopy.

Results: The rate of shrinkage was significantly higher (p ≤ .05) in the apical third than in the middle and coronal thirds of all teeth regardless of donor age. The highest shrinkage strain occurred in the apical third of old donor teeth with prior RCT. In addition, the RCT-treated old teeth suffered the highest percentage of water loss with dehydration. Cracks initiated from the root surface and extended toward the canal with loss of water and shrinkage.

Conclusions: The apical third undergoes significantly larger shrinkage strains with dehydration than the remainder of the root. Prior RCT exacerbates the extent of shrinkage, particularly in the teeth of seniors and after clinical function, which could increase the propensity for VRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2021.01.012DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibition of oral biofilm formation by zwitterionic nonfouling coating.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Inhibition of oral biofilm formation is critical to prevent and treat dental caries and periodontal diseases. In this study, we synthesized zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine) (pCB) based polymer as a nonfouling coating to provide anti-bacterial properties to tooth surfaces. Four catechol derived l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) groups were conjugated to pCB to serve as a surface anchoring group. The pCB-(DOPA) polymer was coated on the hydroxyapatite (HA) and enamel samples by simple immersion and characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The nonfouling effectiveness of the pCB based coating was determined by protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion assays. The coating was transparent on sample surfaces. The protein adsorption was significantly reduced to 8.2% and 6.9%, respectively, on pCB-(DOPA) coated HA and enamel samples. The pCB-(DOPA) -coated samples also demonstrated significantly fewer adhered Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutants compared to the control. This novel coating material provides an innovative approach to resist biofilm formation on tooth surfaces and has great potential in future dental clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34801DOI Listing
February 2021

Blockade of Macrophage CD147 Protects Against Foam Cell Formation in Atherosclerosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 8;8:609090. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Cell Biology, National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

The persistence of macrophage-derived foam cells in the artery wall fuels atherosclerosis development. However, the mechanism of foam cell formation regulation remains elusive. We are committed to determining the role that CD147 might play in macrophage foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that CD147 expression was primarily increased in mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions that were rich in macrophages and could be upregulated by ox-LDL. High-throughput compound screening indicated that ox-LDL-induced CD147 upregulation in macrophages was achieved through PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. Genetic deletion of macrophage protected against foam cell formation by impeding cholesterol uptake, probably through the scavenger receptor CD36. The opposite effect was observed in primary macrophages isolated from macrophage-specific -overexpressing mice. Moreover, bioinformatics results indicated that CD147 suppression might exert an atheroprotective effect via various processes, such as cholesterol biosynthetic and metabolic processes, LDL and plasma lipoprotein clearance, and decreased platelet aggregation and collagen degradation. Our findings identify CD147 as a potential target for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.609090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820343PMC
January 2021

Short-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Mortality From Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jan;77(3):271-281

Institute of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI); however, only a limited number of studies investigated its association with death from MI, and the results remain inconsistent.

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the association of short-term exposure to air pollution across a wide range of concentrations with MI mortality.

Methods: A time-stratified case-crossover study was conducted to investigate 151,608 MI death cases in Hubei province (China) from 2013 to 2018. Based on each case's home address, exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO), carbon monoxide, and ozone on each of the case and control days was assessed as the inverse distance-weighted average concentration at neighboring air quality monitoring stations. Conditional logistic regression models were implemented to quantify exposure-response associations.

Results: Exposure to PM, PM, and NO (mean exposure on the same day of death and 1 day prior) was significantly associated with increased odds of MI mortality. The odds associated with PM and PM exposures increased steeply before a breakpoint (PM, 33.3 μg/m; PM, 57.3 μg/m) and flattened out at higher exposure levels, while the association for NO exposure was almost linear. Each 10-μg/m increase in exposure to PM (<33.3 μg/m), PM (<57.3 μg/m), and NO was significantly associated with a 4.14% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25% to 7.12%), 2.67% (95% CI: 0.80% to 4.57%), and 1.46% (95% CI: 0.76% to 2.17%) increase in odds of MI mortality, respectively. The association between NO exposure and MI mortality was significantly stronger in older adults.

Conclusions: Short-term exposure to PM, PM, and NO was associated with increased risk of MI mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.11.033DOI Listing
January 2021

The Landscape of Cell and Gene Therapies for Solid Tumors.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jan;39(1):7-8

Clinical Trials Center, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.12.005DOI Listing
January 2021

-Induced Downregulation of lncRNA Gm28309 Triggers Macrophages Inflammatory Response Through the miR-3068-5p/NF-κB Pathway.

Front Immunol 2020 22;11:581517. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

State International Joint Research Center for Animal Health Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Objectives: The underlying mechanism of the inflammatory response against Brucellosis caused by remains poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating of inflammatory and anti- responses.

Materials And Methods: Microarray analysis was performed to detect differentially expressed lncRNAs in THP-1 cells infected with an S2308 strain. The candidate lncRNAs were screened using bioinformatic analysis and siRNAs; bioinformatic prediction and luciferase reporter assay were also conducted, while inflammatory responses was assessed using RT-qPCR, western blot, immunofluorescence, ELISA, HE, and immunohistochemistry.

Results: The lncRNA Gm28309 was identified to be involved in regulating inflammation induced by Gm28309, localized in the cytoplasm, was down-expressed in RAW264.7 cells infected with S2308. Overexpression of Gm28309 or inhibition of miR-3068-5p repressed p65 phosphorylation and reduced NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. Mechanistically, Gm28309 acted as a ceRNA of miR-3068-5p to activate NF-κB pathway by targeting κB-Ras2, an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling. Moreover, the number of intracellular was higher when Gm28309 was overexpressed or when miR-3068-5p or p65 was inhibited. However, these effects were reversed by the miR-3068-5p mimic.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that LncRNAs are involved in regulating immune responses during infection, and Gm28309, an lncRNA, plays a crucial role in activating NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.581517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784117PMC
December 2020

Exposure to organophosphate flame esters during early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion: A case-control study.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 24;268:129375. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 201204, China. Electronic address:

Prenatal exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including low birth weight and preterm birth. However, no study has addressed the impacts of OPFRs exposure on spontaneous abortion (SAB) and fetal chromosome abnormalities. We examined whether prenatal exposure to OPFRs was associated with increased risk of SAB and fetal chromosome abnormalities. A total of 272 pregnant women, including 136 SAB cases and 136 healthy controls, were enrolled in this case-control study. Urinary concentrations of 3 OPFRs metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) and bis (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP)) were measured using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). More than 70% of the urine samples detected quantifiable levels of 3 OPFRs metabolites. Concentrations of BCIPP were significantly higher in SAB cases than in healthy controls. Higher urinary BCIPP levels were associated with increased risk of SAB. Per unit increase in ln-transformed BCIPP concentrations was associated with 103% (OR = 2.03, 95% CI, 1.57, 2.63) increase in the odds of SAB. While higher BDCIPP levels were associated with increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormalities and the corresponding OR associated with a unit increase in ln-transformed BDCIPP concentrations were 2.34 (95% CI, 1.14, 4.81). Our results suggested the potential developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of some OPFRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129375DOI Listing
April 2021

Enhanced Infrared Sparse Pattern Extraction and Usage for Impact Evaluation of Basalt-Carbon Hybrid Composites by Pulsed Thermography.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 14;20(24). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Vision and Systems Laboratory, Laval University, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

Nowadays, infrared thermography, as a widely used non-destructive testing method, is increasingly studied for impact evaluation of composite structures. Sparse pattern extraction is attracting increasing attention as an advanced post-processing method. In this paper, an enhanced sparse pattern extraction framework is presented for thermographic sequence processing and defect detection. This framework adapts cropping operator and typical component extraction as a preprocessing step to reduce the dimensions of raw data and applies sparse pattern extraction algorithms to enhance the contrast on the defect area. Different cases are studied involving several defects in four basalt-carbon hybrid fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates. Finally, comparative analysis with intensity distribution is carried out to verify the effectiveness of contrast enhancement using this framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20247159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765007PMC
December 2020

Tumor-associated macrophage polarization promotes the progression of esophageal carcinoma.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 12 15;13(2):2049-2072. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Pathology and Key Laboratory for Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases (Ministry of Education), Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Xinjiang 832000, China.

The immune response facilitated by tumor-associated macrophages is a vital determinant of tumor progression. We identified differentially expressed genes between various macrophage phenotypes in the Gene Expression Omnibus, and used Kaplan-Meier Plotter to determine which of them altered the prognosis of esophageal carcinoma patients. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (), an immunosuppressive factor in the tumor microenvironment of various cancers, was upregulated in M2 macrophages, and higher expression was associated with poorer survival in esophageal carcinoma patients. Using the TIMER database, we found that expression correlated positively with the levels of immune markers of infiltrating B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells in esophageal carcinoma samples. Correlation analyses in cBioPortal revealed that the mRNA levels of correlated strongly with those of interleukin 10, matrix metalloproteinase 9, C-C motif chemokine ligand 5, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3, interleukin 13, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, macrophage colony-stimulating factor and fibroblast growth factor 7 in esophageal carcinoma tissues. The same cytokines were upregulated when esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells were co-cultured with M2-like tumor-associated macrophages. Thus, by secreting FGL2, M2-like tumor-associated macrophages may create an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment that induces the occurrence and progression of esophageal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880404PMC
December 2020

Direct reprogramming of hepatocytes into insulin-producing cells for anti-diabetic treatment by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction enhanced hydrodynamic gene delivery.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(11):7275-7286. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Translational Medicine Collaborative Innovation Center, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology) Shenzhen 518020, Guangdong, China.

In animal models, hepatocytes can be reprogrammed into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) for a novel antidiabetic treatment. However, the potential for an immunologic reaction and issues with gene integration of the viral vehicle hamper system efficacy. Here, we adopted an Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction (UTMD) enhanced hydrodynamic gene delivery system in a streptozotocin induced mouse diabetic model to examine its treatment effect. After transfection by combining UTMD and hydrodynamic injection, accumulated luciferase signal was only found in the liver with optimal signal intensity. Liver function tests showed an increase in alanine aminotransferase level followed by a decrease to normal levels. Then this new gene delivery system was used to deliver , and plasmids into diabetic mice. We found that glucose levels gradually decreased, and insulin levels increased in transfected diabetic mice compared to controls. Glucose intolerance in transfected mice was alleviated. Gene expression assay confirmed the reprogramming of hepatocytes. We demonstrated the feasibility of repeated plasmid transfection by UTMD enhanced hydrodynamic gene delivery system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724341PMC
November 2020

CD147-spike protein is a novel route for SARS-CoV-2 infection to host cells.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2020 12 4;5(1):283. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

National Translational Science Center for Molecular Medicine & Department of Cell Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China.

In face of the everlasting battle toward COVID-19 and the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2, no specific and effective drugs for treating this disease have been reported until today. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, mediates the virus infection by binding to spike protein. Although ACE2 is expressed in the lung, kidney, and intestine, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. Considering the great infectivity of COVID-19, we speculate that SARS-CoV-2 may depend on other routes to facilitate its infection. Here, we first discover an interaction between host cell receptor CD147 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The loss of CD147 or blocking CD147 in Vero E6 and BEAS-2B cell lines by anti-CD147 antibody, Meplazumab, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Expression of human CD147 allows virus entry into non-susceptible BHK-21 cells, which can be neutralized by CD147 extracellular fragment. Viral loads are detectable in the lungs of human CD147 (hCD147) mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, but not in those of virus-infected wild type mice. Interestingly, virions are observed in lymphocytes of lung tissue from a COVID-19 patient. Human T cells with a property of ACE2 natural deficiency can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in a dose-dependent manner, which is specifically inhibited by Meplazumab. Furthermore, CD147 mediates virus entering host cells by endocytosis. Together, our study reveals a novel virus entry route, CD147-spike protein, which provides an important target for developing specific and effective drug against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00426-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714896PMC
December 2020

Distribution and prognostic impact of M1 macrophage on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Apr;42(4):537-545

Department of Pathology and Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases (Ministry of Education)/Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, China.

Macrophages are a double-edged sword with potential cancer-promoting and anticancer effects. Controversy remains regarding the effect of macrophages, especially M1 macrophages, on tumor promotion and suppression. We aimed to investigate the role of M1 macrophages in the occurrence and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Analyzing the data in Gene Expression Omnibus database by the CIBERSORT algorithm found that M1 macrophages were one of the important components of many immune cells in ESCCs, and the increase in their number was obviously negatively correlated with tumor T staging. This result was verified by our experimental data: the density of CD68/HLA-DR double-stained M1 macrophages in ESCC tumor nest and tumor stroma was significantly higher than that in cancer-adjacent normal (CAN) tissues. The density of M1 macrophages in ESCC tumor nest was negatively correlated with the patient's lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (P < 0.05), and the negative tendency was more obvious for M1 macrophages in ESCC tumor stroma (P < 0.001). Exposure to M1 macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited ESCC cell migration and invasion ability significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, the increased M1 macrophage density in ESCC tumor stroma correlated positively with good prognosis of ESCC. M1 macrophages were involved in inhibiting ESCC cell migration and invasion, which could serve as a good prognostic factor in patients with ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa128DOI Listing
April 2021

Revealing active components, action targets and molecular mechanism of Gandi capsule for treating diabetic nephropathy based on network pharmacology strategy.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Nov 23;20(1):362. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: Gandi capsule is a traditional Chinese herbal formula used to promote blood circulation and removing blood stasis in clinical. Our previous study has shown that it reduces proteinuria with routine treatment in diabetic nephrophy (DN), but its pharmacological action mechanism is still unknown.

Methods: To facilitate the identification of components, a component database of Gandi capsule and target database of DN were established by ourselves. The components absorbed in blood circle were identified in rat plasma after oral administration of Gandi capsule by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. The potential targets were screened by using Libdock tolls in Discovery studio 3.0. Then Pathway and Network analyses were used to enrich the screened targets. The possible targets were verified by using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) test and the molecular mechanism focusing these targets for treating DN was clarified by western blot.

Results: Six components in Gandi capsule were identified detected in rat plasma after oral administration by UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS. After molecular docking analyses in KEGG and Discovery studio, four protein targets including HNF4A, HMGCR, JAK3, and SIRT1, were screened out, and proved as effective binding with baicalin, wogonoside by SPR. And the molecular mechanism was clarified that baicalin and wogonoside inhibit the effect of high glucose (HG)-induced decreased cell viability and podocin expression, and strengthen the activation p-AKT, p-PI3K, and p-AMPK.

Conclusion: Baicalin and wogonoside were screened out to be the active compounds in Gandi capsule and can ameliorate HG-induced podocyte damage by influencing the AMPK and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways by binding with HNF4A, HMGCR, JAK3, and SIRT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03155-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685593PMC
November 2020

Eliminating Radiation Resistance of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Dihydroartemisinin Through Abrogating Immunity Escaping and Promoting Radiation Sensitivity by Inhibiting PD-L1 Expression.

Front Oncol 2020 28;10:595466. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Radiation resistance is linked to immune escaping and radiation sensitivity. In this study, we found that the PD-L1 expressions of non-killed tumor cells in NSCLC were enhanced after radiotherapy, and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) could synergistically enhance the antitumor effect of radiotherapy in NSCLC. A total of 48 NSCLC patients with sufficient tumor tissues for further analyses were enrolled. The PD-L1 expressions of NSCLC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, and the relationship between the PD-L1 expression and radiation resistance was investigated in patient specimens, xenograft model, and cell lines. First, the results indicate that the PD-L1 expression of NSCLC was positively related with the radiation resistance. Second, we found that DHA could eliminate the radiation resistance and synergistically enhance the antitumor effect of radiotherapy in the NSCLC cells lines and xenograft model. Finally, mechanistically, DHA could inhibit the PD-L1 expression to avoid immune escaping by inhibiting TGF-β, PI3K/Akt, and STAT3 signaling pathways. In addition, DHA could activate TRIM21 and regulate the EMT-related proteins by inhibiting the PD-L1 so as to enhance the radiation sensitivity and eliminate radiation resistance to NSCLC. Collectively, this study established a basis for the rational design of integrated radiotherapy and DHA for the treatment of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.595466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656009PMC
October 2020

Serum Procalcitonin, Smoking History Combined Age Established a New Prediction Model for Predicting Dynamic Changes of Chest CT Images in Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Patients.

Clin Lab 2020 Nov;66(11)

Background: Chest CT is widely used in clinical diagnosis and efficacy evaluation of CAP. While repeated chest CT examinations to evaluate dynamic changes in chest CT images in a short period of time is a common phenomenon, it causes a lot of waste of medical resources, and due to the large dose of CT radiation, it can cause some harm to the human body. The purpose of this study is to establish a new model to predict the dynamic chest CT image changes of CAP patients by analyzing the age, smoking history, and serum inflammatory markers.

Methods: This is a retrospective study. All patients had received chest CT scan and serum inflammatory indexes were measured, including procalcitonin (PCT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), white blood cell (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The second chest CT examination was performed after a week of treatment. General information on the medical record was also recorded (including age, smoking history, drinking history, and others). Main outcome measures were the changes of chest CT images, including absorption and non-absorption (including patients with progressive inflammation). Single factor analysis and two-dimensional logistic regression analysis were used to explore the independent risk factors of the new CT image change prediction model for CAP patients. ROC was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the new model.

Results: Among 220 patients with CAP, 150 patients had absorption in chest CT after a week of treatment (150/220), the remaining 70 patients had no absorption or even progression (70/220). Age, PCT, and smoking history were independent risk factors for inflammatory absorption. The AUC of ROC curve was 0.89 (95% CI 0.83 - 0.94), the sensitivity was 88.70%, and the specificity was 80.00%.

Conclusions: A new prediction model consists of serum PCT, age, and smoking history has high specificity and sensitivity in predicting dynamic CT changes in adult CAP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200208DOI Listing
November 2020