Publications by authors named "Hafiz Abdullah Shakir"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of sex steroid hormones and reproductive irregularities in diethyl phthalate-exposed premature mice: modulatory effect of raw honey against potential anomalies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Phthalates, plasticizing chemicals, are top-rated environmental contaminants. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), a chief member of this family, was declared a potent endocrine disruptor and carcinogen in animals and humans. The current study was designed to explore the probable reproductive damage induced by DEP and the therapeutic efficacy of raw honey in male albino mice. Four-week-old 50 male mice were randomized equally in five groups, as control (C) received 0.1 ml distilled water; vehicle control (VC) received corn oil (0.1 ml/mouse); DEP (3mg/g/BW) dissolved in corn oil; honey control (HC) administered with honey (0.2 mg/g/day); and phthalate plus honey (P+H) administered with DEP and honey (3mg and 0.2 mg/g/BW/day respectively). Mice were treated through oral gavage for 54 days routinely, acclimatized for 6 days, and dissected. In the first instance, the antioxidant potential and total phenolic contents (TPC) of honey were analyzed through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu assay to confirm the antioxidant capacity of honey. The morphological, morphometric, histological, micrometric, sperm count, and hormonal analyses, and antioxidant capacity test in tissue homogenates were conducted by using tissues (testis, epididymis) and blood samples of mice. Mice exposed to DEP have a significant increase in body weight, LH level, and seminiferous tubule lumen diameter and decrease in the gonado-somatic index, testosterone level, sperm count, and seminiferous tubule diameter. Additionally, histopathology of testes showed interstitial space dilations, exfoliations, Leydig cell atrophy, germ cell degenerations, and spermatid retention in DEP-exposed testes sections. However, concomitant use of honey and DEP had shown a significant improvement in histopathological lesions, steroid hormone levels, and healthy sperm count. By these results, it is concluded that honey possessed antioxidant potential that can efficiently protect DEP-induced anomalies in male mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14774-wDOI Listing
June 2021

A comprehensive review on anticancer mechanism of bazedoxifene.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Medicine and Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Cancer is counted as a second leading cause of death among nontransmissible diseases. Identification of novel anticancer drugs is therefore necessary for the effective treatment of cancer. Conventional drug discovery is time consuming and expensive process. Unlike conventional drug discovery, drug repositioning offers a novel strategy for urgent drug discovery since it is a cost-effective and faster process. Bazedoxifene (BZA) is a synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulator, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. BZA is now being studied for its anticancer activity in various cancers including breast cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, head and neck cancer, medulloblastoma, brain cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Studies have reported that BZA is effective in reducing cancer progression through multiple mechanisms. BZA could effectively inhibit STAT3, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK signaling pathways and induce apoptosis. In addition to its anticancer activity as monotherapy, BZA has been shown to enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy of clinical drugs such as paclitaxel, cisplatin, palbociclib, and oxaliplatin in multiple neoplasms. This review mainly focused on the anticancer activity, cellular targets, and anticancer mechanism of BZA, which may help the further design and conduct of research and repositioning it for oncological clinic trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.2150DOI Listing
March 2021

Hippophae rhamnoides mediate gene expression profiles against keratinocytes infection of Staphylococcus aureus.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 19;48(2):1409-1422. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Chemical and Life Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of skin diseases such as bacterial keratitis, follicles, psoriasis, cellulitis and atopic dermatitis. This study aims to investigate the S. aureus mediated molecular modulation, and the effect of HR in reversing the deleterious impact of S. aureus in keratinocytes. Human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells were cultured in DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. Subcultures were divided into three flasks: control with no S. aureus and extract (C), S. aureus infected (SA) and S. aureus infected cells and extract (SE). RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was performed. The data was annotated using GO functional analysis and DAVID functional annotation. For each comparison group, significant probes were filtered out at significant cut off by fold change (P < 0.05 and/or > twofold change). For SA vs control, SE vs control, and SE vs SA, 204, 9369, 9900 probes were filtered respectively. In SA vs control, TNF signaling, NOD-like receptor and chemokine receptor signaling pathways were upregulated with key genes such as CCL2, CCL20 and BIRC3. The SE vs SA, showed significant expression variations of a number of important genes. Molecular pathways associated with ILs, TNFs, TGFs, IFNs, FGFs, MAPKs, MMPs, caspases and Wnts were either up regulated or downregulated. This effect was reversed by the extract, possibly through downregulating various proinflammatory cytokines and apoptotic pathways. Our study reveals that S. aureus inserts a negative impact on the regulation of various key genes which is apparently reversed by the HR extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06221-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Exploring the new potential antiviral constituents of Moringa oliefera for SARS-COV-2 pathogenesis: An molecular docking and dynamic studies.

Chem Phys Lett 2021 Mar 26;767:138379. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, 38000 Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The interactions of two crucial proteins of COVID-19 have been investigated with potential antiviral compounds from using quantum chemical, molecular docking and dynamic methods. The results of the present investigation show that ellagic acid and apigenin possess the highest binding affinities of -7.1 and -6.5 Kcal.molagainst nsp9 and -6.9 and -7.1 Kcal.mol against nsp10, respectively. The dynamic behavior of individual proteins and their respective best docked ligand-protein complexes are also studied at 30 ns timescale. Both of these compounds also show the highest intestinal absorption and total clearance rate as compared to the other compounds under present investigation without any toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2021.138379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835070PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of Cadmium Chloride-Induced Toxicity in Chicks Via Hematological, Biochemical Parameters, and Cadmium Level in Tissues.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Sep 30;199(9):3457-3469. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Zoology, The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Cadmium is a heavy metal and a non-biodegradable environmental contaminant, and its omnipresence ensures its recurrent exposure to humans and animals. Its intake by chicks leads to fatal implications. Cadmium chloride (CdCl) because of its bio-accumulative nature is an emerging threat to the poultry industry as well as to the humans which consumes these cadmium-intoxicated chickens. In the current study, the target was to elucidate the toxic effects of CdClon body weight, hematological, and biochemical parameters as well as its bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler chicks. Various concentrations of CdCl (0, 12, 24, 38, and 48 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) of broiler chicks, respectively. The biometric screening of the exposed birds was carried out by hematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total protein, white blood cells (WBC), and hemoglobin (Hb), as well as biochemical parameters superoxide dismutase (SOD), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with commercially available kits. Metal accumulation in different organs was detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The compound exposure produced a varied impact on broiler birds. Hematological parameters showed a significant decrease except for WBC. Biochemical parameters also decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. However, it was revealed that the body weight of chickens was not affected considerably after CdCl exposure. A direct relationship was detected between the accumulation of metal within tissues (lungs, heart, and flesh) and exposure frequency. It can be deduced that an increase in Cd deposition in tissues may lead to an alteration in hematological-biochemical markers which may significantly contribute to systemic toxicity in broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02453-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Abnormal steroidogenesis, oxidative stress, and reprotoxicity following prepubertal exposure to butylparaben in mice and protective effect of Curcuma longa.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 28;28(5):6111-6121. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

Mammalian reproduction is a highly regulated process that can be distorted following exposure to synthetic antimicrobial preservatives like butylparaben (BP). Besides, studies have not investigated the potential antioxidant effects of turmeric on BP-provoked reprotoxicity. The present research was planned on prepubertal mice, orally treated with BP (150 μg/g body weight/day) with and without Curcuma longa (turmeric) (400 μg/mice/day) from postnatal day 35 to 65 routinely. Results showed an insignificant reduction in body weight of both sexes but contrary to these, gonadal weight increased significantly in PB-exposed mice. Additionally, elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone while decreased estrogen levels were observed in BP-treated females against control. Sperm count and motility were disturbed, coupled with abnormal sperm morphology in BP-intoxicated group. These findings were synchronized with a decreased testosterone levels in the same group as compared with control. The follicular count revealed reduction in the number of antral follicles while an increase in empty follicles. The BP also significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities, while the morphometric, biochemical, and histological deviations were less pronounced in the group, which was co-administered with BP and turmeric. Results indicated that turmeric has antioxidant potential to protect BP-induced oxidative stress and reprotoxicity in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10819-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Alpha Solanine: A Novel Natural Bioactive Molecule with Anticancer Effects in Multiple Human Malignancies.

Nutr Cancer 2020 Aug 7:1-12. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite improvement in existing treatment modalities and addition of new anticancer drugs in the cancer clinic, cancer associated mortalities are continuously increasing. It is therefore, necessary to explore alternative treatment options to reduce the burden of cancer. In recent years, there is growing concern toward the use of natural products for treating cancer because of their ability to target multiple signaling molecules. α-solanine is a glycolalkaloid mainly present in potato tuber and Nightshade family plants. It possesses anti-pyretic, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic activities. In recent years, α-solanine has been explored for its anticancer activity and showed promising results. Among all sources, potato peel contains adequate concentration of α-solanine. Every year, a large volume of potato peel is produced as a waste or sold at low cost. So α-solanine can be proved as an effective and cheap source for cancer therapy. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent data on anticancer activity of α-solanine and discuss it as a potential lead for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1803932DOI Listing
August 2020

Cardiac toxicity of heavy metals (cadmium and mercury) and pharmacological intervention by vitamin C in rabbits.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 21;27(23):29266-29279. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Zoology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Mercury and cadmium are highly dangerous metals that can lead to disastrous effects in animals and humans. The aim of the current research was to elucidate the poisonous effects of mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride individually and in combination on biochemical profiles of plasma and their accumulation in heart. The therapeutic effect of vitamin C against these metals in rabbits was also studied. Mercuric chloride (1.2 μg/g), cadmium chloride (1.5 μg/g), and vitamin C (150 μg/g of body weight) were orally given to treatment groups of the rabbits (1-control; 2-vitamin; 3-CdCl; 4-HgCl; 5-vitamin + CdCl; 6-vitamin + HgCl; 7-CdCl + HgCl, and 8-vitamin + CdCl + HgCl. After the biometric determination of all intoxicated rabbits, biochemical parameters, viz low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), cholesterol, creatine kinase, and troponin T (TnT) were analyzed using available kits. Levels of cholesterol (0.7 ± 0.1 mmol/l), creatine kinase (2985.2 ± 11 IU/L), LDL (20.35 ± 1.31 mg/dl), and troponin T (1.22 ± 0.03 μg/l) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased. HDL (84.78 ± 4.30 mg/dl) was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, while supplementation of vitamin C decreased the adverse effects of CdCl and HgCl on biochemical parameters in all metal-exposed groups. A similar trend was also seen in rabbits treated with CdCl + vitamin and vitamin + CdCl + HgCl. Accumulation of Cd and Hg was higher in heart tissues. This study, therefore, provides awareness on the cardiac toxicity of mercury and cadmium chlorides in the rabbits and the possible protective role of vitamin C against the perturbations induced by metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09011-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Brevilin A induces ROS-dependent apoptosis and suppresses STAT3 activation by direct binding in human lung cancer cells.

J Cancer 2020 6;11(13):3725-3735. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

School of Medicine and Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, P.R. China.

Sesquiterpene lactones have been shown to be promising leads for anticancer drug development. Brevilin A (BLN-A), a sesquiterpene lactone compound of has been shown to exhibit anticancer effects against various cancer cells. However, the anticancer mechanism and cellular targets of BLN-A remain elusive. Here in this study, BLN-A inhibits proliferation and induces cell morphological changes in A549 and NCI-H1650 non-small cell lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, BLN-A increased ROS generation and bax/bcl-2 ratio while decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential which resulted in induction of apoptosis as evident by annexin-V/FITC staining, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Supplementation of cells with NAC (ROS Scavenger) effectively protected the cells from BLN-A-induced apoptosis. Finally, BLN-A inhibited constitutive as well as IL-6- and EGF-induced STAT3 activation at Tyr705. Using molecular docking and SPR analyses, we found that BLN-A directly binds with STAT3 and thereby inhibits its activation. Knocking down of STAT3 by stable transfection with shRNA suppressed growth and augmented cytotoxicity of BLN-A, indicating the key role of STAT3 in BLN-A-mediated apoptosis. Cumulative findings suggest that BLN-A is a promising lead structure for developing it into a potent STAT3 inhibitor and therapeutic agent against NSCLC as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.40983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171504PMC
April 2020

Dose and duration-dependent toxicological evaluation of lead acetate in chicks.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 18;27(13):15149-15164. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Applied Entomology and Medical Toxicology, Department of Zoology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Lead is one of the utmost contaminated and dangerous heavy metals. This toxicant ultimately enters into the human body through the food chain and accumulated in the body because the animal/human body has not an appropriate mechanism to excrete it from the body. The main objective of the present research was to assess the toxicological effects of lead on body weights, biochemical, and hematological parameters of chickens and also to measure its bioaccumulation in the brain. Lead acetate was administrated orally at doses of 0, 71, 142, 213, and 284 mg/kg of body weight of chicken for groups A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Along with determination of biometry of all experimental chicks, hematological [hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total erythrocyte count (TEC), white blood cells (WBCs), leukocyte differential count (LDC)] and biochemical [low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] parameters were measured. The present study showed that the bodyweight of chickens was not affected significantly by lead acetate exposure. The levels of MCHC, PCV, TEC, Hb, LDL, HDL, and total protein were found to be significantly decreased while WBC, LDC, and ALT profile were enhanced due to administration of lead acetate. Bioaccumulation of lead acetate was found to be higher in the brain. We conclude that the chronic administration of lead acetate affected the blood and biochemical profile of exposed chicken. These effects might be due to the accumulation of the chemical in certain vital organ(s). However, further studies in the future are suggested to refine such findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08016-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Therapeutic role of garlic and vitamins C and E against toxicity induced by lead on various organs.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Mar 8;27(9):8953-8964. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Microbial Biotechnology and Medical Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Due to industrial and urban sewage, the metal contaminations in aquatic and terrestrial environments are increasing day by day, especially in developing countries. Despite the study of several years, we are inert far away from an actual medication for prolonged toxicity of heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium etc. Lead is one of the most common heavy metals that possess toxicological effects on numerous tissues of animals as well as humans. Several toxic effects of lead on reproductive organs, renal system, central nervous system, liver, lungs, blood parameters, and bones have been reported. On the other hand, several reports depicted that garlic is operative in declining the absorption of lead in bones as well as soft tissues. A combination of vitamin C and vitamin E enhances the biological recovery induced by lead and mobilize the heavy metal such as lead from intra-cellular positions. This review provides therapeutic approaches such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and extract of garlic to treat the detrimental effects caused after the exposure of lead. These therapeutic strategies are beneficial for both the prevention and alleviation of lead noxiousness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07654-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Toxicological effects of toxic metals (cadmium and mercury) on blood and the thyroid gland and pharmacological intervention by vitamin C in rabbits.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 16;26(16):16727-16741. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Cadmium and mercury are non-biodegradable toxic metals that may cause many detrimental effects to the thyroid gland and blood. Vitamin C has been found to be a significant chain-breaking antioxidant and enzyme co-factor against metal toxicity and thus make them less available for animals. The current study was performed to find the effect of individual metals (cadmium and mercury), their co-administration, and the ameliorative effects of vitamin C on some of the parameters that indicate oxidative stress and thyroid dysfunction. Cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/kg), mercuric chloride (1.2 mg/kg), and vitamin C (150 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to eight treatment groups of the rabbits (1. control; 2. Vit C; 3. CdCl; 4. HgCl; 5. Vit C + CdCl; 6. Vit C + HgCl; 7. CdCl + HgCl, and 8. Vit C + CdCl + HgCl). After the biometric measurements of all experimental rabbits, biochemical parameters viz. triidothyronine (T), thyroxine (T), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and triglycerides were measured using commercially available kits. The results exhibited significant decline (p < 0.05) in mean hemoglobin, corpuscular hemoglobin, packed cell volume, T (0.4 ± 0.0 ng/ml), and T (26.3 ± 1.6 ng/ml) concentration. While, TSH (0.23 ± 0.01 nmol/l) and triglyceride (4.42 ± 0.18 nmol/l) were significantly (p < 0.05) increased but chemo-treatment with Vit C reduces the effects of Cd, Hg, and their co-administration but not regained the values similar to those of controls. This indicates that Vit C had a shielding effect on the possible metal toxicity. The Cd and Hg also found to accumulate in vital organs when measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The metal concentration trend was observed as follows: kidney > liver > heart > lungs. It was concluded that Cd and Hg are toxic and tended to bioaccumulate in different organs and their toxic action can be subdued by vitamin C in biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04886-9DOI Listing
June 2019

The protective role of ascorbic acid in the hepatotoxicity of cadmium and mercury in rabbits.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 9;26(14):14087-14096. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

The liver is one of the vital and sensitive organs which are usually exposed against the toxicity of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd). The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential toxicological effects of both Cd and Hg as individual and combined. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by monitoring the biochemical parameters of the liver and their accumulation in the liver as well as therapeutic role of vitamin C in said toxicity in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In this research, cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/kg), mercuric chloride (1.2 mg/kg), and vitamin C (150 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to treatment groups of the rabbits for 28 alternative days. Various biochemical parameters of the liver such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), total protein, and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were estimated using blood samples. Some biochemical parameters like ASAT, ALAT, LDH, GGT, and bilirubin were significantly elevated (P ≤ 0.001) in individual Cd and Hg treatment groups, while the level of total protein was found to be significantly declined. The effects of Cd and Hg in the presence of vitamin C on these biochemical parameters were low as compared to metals-treated groups. Similar results were found when rabbits were treated with co-administration of both metals and vitamin C. Accumulation of Cd and Hg found to be higher in the liver. However, chemoprevention and chemotreatment with vitamin C significantly (P ≤ 0.01) minimized the toxicological effects of both metals but not regained the accumulation similar to that of the control group. The findings of this study provide awareness on accumulation of metals in the liver in rabbits and their toxicity tested through biochemical parameters as well as the therapeutic role of vitamin C in such alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04620-5DOI Listing
May 2019

Renal toxicity of heavy metals (cadmium and mercury) and their amelioration with ascorbic acid in rabbits.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Feb 13;26(4):3909-3920. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, PK-46300, Pakistan.

Cadmium and mercury are among the most toxic and dangerous environmental pollutants that may cause fatal implications. Vitamin C is an important chain-breaking antioxidant and enzyme co-factor against heavy metals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, and their co-administration on biochemical parameters of blood serum and metal bioaccumulation in kidneys and also to elucidate the protective effect of vitamin C in rabbits against these metals. In the current research, cadmium chloride (1.5 mg/kg), mercuric chloride(1.2 mg/kg), and vitamin C (150 mg/kg of body weight) were orally administered to eight treatment groups of the rabbits (1, control; 2, vitamin; 3, CdCl; 4, HgCl; 5, vitamin + CdCl; 6, vitamin + HgCl; 7, CdCl + HgCl, and 8, vitamin + CdCl + HgCl). After the biometric measurements of all experimental rabbits, biochemical parameters viz. creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and metal bioaccumulation were determined using commercially available kits and atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The levels of creatinine (28.3 ± 1.1 μmol/l), cystatin C (1932.5 ± 38.5 ηg/ml), uric acid (4.8 ± 0.1 mg/day), and ALP (51.6 ± 1.1 IU/l) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased due to administration of mercuric chloride but in the presence of vitamin C, the effects of mercuric chloride on creatinine (21.9 ± 1.4 μmol/l), cystatin C (1676.2 ± 42.2 ηg/ml), uric acid (3.9 ± 0.1 mg/day), and ALP (43.3 ± 0.8 IU/l) were less as compared to metal-exposed specimens. Similar results were found in rabbits treated with cadmium chloride and vitamin C and also with co-administration of both metals and vitamin C. Because of the bio-accumulative nature of cadmium chloride and mercuric chloride, these metals were accumulated in kidneys of rabbits, which might lead to deleterious effects. The results of the present study provide an insight into the toxicity of the cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, and/or their combination on biochemical parameters as well as kidneys of the rabbits and the ameliorating potential of vitamin C against these metals is also evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3819-8DOI Listing
February 2019

RSM based optimization of nutritional conditions for cellulase mediated Saccharification by .

J Biol Eng 2018 3;12. Epub 2018 May 3.

1Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Cellulases are enzyme which have potential applications in various industries. Researchers are looking for potential cellulolytic bacterial strains for industrial exploitation. In this investigation, cellulase production of was explored while attacking poplar twigs. The bacterium was isolated from the gut of freshwater fish, and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. Various nutritional conditions were screened and optimized through response surface methodology. Initially, Plackett-Burman design was used for screening purpose and optimization was conducted through Box-Bhenken design.

Results: The maximum cellulase production occurred at 0.5% yeast extract, 0.09% MgSO, 0.04% peptone, 2% poplar waste biomass, initial medium pH of 9.0, and inoculum size of 2% /v at 37 °C with agitation speed of 120 rpm for 24 h of submerged fermentation. The proposed model for optimization of cellulase production was found highly significant. The indigenously produced cellulase enzyme was employed for saccharification purpose at 50 °C for various time periods. Maximum total sugars of 31.42 mg/ml were released after 6 h of incubation at 50 °C.The efficiency of this enzyme was compared with commercial cellulase enzyme revealing significant findings.

Conclusion: These results suggested potential utilization of this strain in biofuel industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13036-018-0097-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5934882PMC
May 2018

Carboxymethyl cellulase production optimization from newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus subtilis K-18 for saccharification using response surface methodology.

AMB Express 2017 Dec 31;7(1):29. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, New Campus, Lahore, 54590, Pakistan.

In this study, a novel thermophilic strain was isolated from soil and used for cellulase production in submerged fermentation using potato peel as sole carbon source. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. Central composite design was applied for enhanced production using substrate concentration, inoculum size, yeast extract and pH as dependent variables. Highest enzyme titer of 3.50 ± 0.11 IU/ml was obtained at 2% substrate concentration, 2% inoculum size, 1% yeast extract, pH 5.0, incubation temperature of 50 °C for 24 h of fermentation period. The crude enzyme was characterized having optimum pH and temperature of 7.0 and 50 °C, respectively. The efficiency of enzyme was checked by enzymatic hydrolysis of acid/alkali treated pine needles which revealed that 54.389% saccharification was observed in acid treated pine needles. These results indicated that the cellulase produced by the Bacillus subtilis K-18 (KX881940) could be effectively used for industrial processes particularly for bioethanol production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0331-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5302012PMC
December 2017

Monitoring the impact of urban effluents on mineral contents of water and sediments of four sites of the river Ravi, Lahore.

Environ Monit Assess 2013 Dec 22;185(12):9705-15. Epub 2013 Jun 22.

Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

We assessed the impact of urban effluents on the concentrations of selected minerals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Hg) in river Ravi before and after its passage through Lahore city. Water and sediment samples were collected from three lowly to highly polluted downstream sites (Shahdera (B), Sunder (C), and Balloki (D)) alongside the least polluted upstream site (Siphon (A)) during high and low river flow seasons. All the mineral concentrations increased up to site C but stabilized at site D, showing some recovery as compared to the third sampling site. The trend of mean mineral concentration was significantly higher during the low than the high flow season at all the sites. The mean Hg concentrations approached 0.14 and 0.12 mg/l at site A which increased (%) up to 107 and 25% at site B, 1,700 and 1,317% at site C, and 1,185 and 1,177% at site D during low and high river flows, respectively. All mineral concentrations were much higher in the sediment than the water samples. Mean Cd (917%), Cr (461%), Cu (300%), Fe (254%), Pb (179%), Zn (170%), Mn (723%), Ni (853%), and Hg (1,699%) concentrations were higher in riverbed sediments sampled from site C in comparison with the sample collected at site A during low flow season. The domestic and industrial discharges from Lahore city have created undesirable water qualities during the low river flow season. As majority of the mineral levels in the river Ravi were higher than the permissible and safe levels, this is of immediate concern for riverine fish consumers and the users of water for recreation and even irrigation. The use of these waters may pose health risks, and therefore, urgent intervention strategies are needed to minimize river water pollution and its impact on fish-consuming communities of this study area and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3284-2DOI Listing
December 2013
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