Publications by authors named "Hafiz A Makeen"

10 Publications

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Bioactive Natural Antivirals: An Updated Review of the Available Plants and Isolated Molecules.

Molecules 2020 Oct 22;25(21). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Substance Abuse and Toxicology Research Centre, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659943PMC
October 2020

Recent Advancements in the Diagnosis, Prevention, and Prospective Drug Therapy of COVID-19.

Front Public Health 2020 10;8:384. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously called 2019 novel CoV, emerged from China in late December 2019. This virus causes CoV disease-19 (COVID-19), which has been proven a global pandemic leading to a major outbreak. As of June 19, 2020, the data from the World Health Organization (WHO) showed more than 8.7 million confirmed cases in over 200 countries/regions. The WHO has declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. CoVs cause illnesses that range in severity from the common cold to severe respiratory illnesses and death. Nevertheless, with technological advances and imperative lessons gained from prior outbreaks, humankind is better outfitted to deal with the latest emerging group of CoVs. Studies on the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and drug re-purposing are being carried out in this field. Currently, no approved treatment is available for SARS-CoV-2 given the lack of evidence. The results from preliminary clinical trials have been mixed as far as improvement in the clinical condition and reduction in the duration of treatment are concerned. A number of new clinical trials are currently in progress to test the efficacy and safety of various approved drugs. This review focuses on recent advancements in the field of development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and treatment approaches for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381292PMC
July 2020

Direct Medical Expenditures Associated with Eye Complications among Adults with Diabetes in the United States.

J Diabetes Res 2020 15;2020:2864069. Epub 2020 May 15.

Pharmacy Practice Research Unit, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: National estimates of healthcare expenditures by types of services for adults with comorbid diabetes and eye complications (ECs) are scarce. Therefore, the first objective of this study is to estimate total healthcare expenditures and expenditures by types of services (inpatient, outpatient, prescription, and emergency) for adults with ECs. The second objective is to estimate the out-of-pocket spending burden among adults with ECs. . A cross-sectional study design using data from multiple panels (2009-2015) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was employed. The sample included adults aged 21 years or older with diabetes ( = 8,420). . Of adults with diabetes, 18.9% had ECs. Adults ECs had significantly higher incremental total medical expenditures of $3,125. The highest incremental expenditures were associated with outpatient and prescription drugs. After controlling for sex, age, race, poverty level, insurance coverage, prescription coverage, perceived physical and mental health, the number of chronic physical and mental conditions, marital status, education, the region of residence, smoking status, exercise, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), there was no difference in the out-of-pocket spending burden between adults with and those without ECs. However, adults with comorbid diabetes and CKD were more likely to have the out-of-pocket spending burden than those without CKD.

Conclusions: The study showed that ECs in individuals with diabetes are associated with high incremental direct medical and out-of-pocket expenditures. Therefore, it requires more health initiatives, interventions, strategies, and programs to address and minimize the risk involved in such affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2864069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245693PMC
May 2020

Utilization pattern and side effect profile of oral anticonceptives: A community-based cross-sectional study among Saudi women.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Jun 9;42(3):887-894. Epub 2020 May 9.

Pharmacy Practice Research Unit, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: The rapid change in the socio-demographic pattern and changing beliefs toward fertility and birth spacing have resulted in a notable increase in the use of oral anticonceptives in the Saudi Arabian community. However, information on the current utilization of oral anticonceptives and attitudes toward their use remains sparse.

Objective: The present study evaluated the utilization pattern of oral anticonceptives, attitude toward pill use, and incidence of side effects among Saudi women.

Setting: The study was conducted in a community setting in Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: Eligible Saudi women routinely using oral anticonceptive pills were invited to participate in this prospective, cross-sectional survey. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Jazan was selected as it recorded the highest number of women using contraceptives in Saudi Arabia.

Main Outcome Measure: The pattern of pill utilization, attitude toward pill use, and incidence of side effects.

Results: A total of 496 women consented to participate in this study. Most of the respondents (87.5%) were using or had used oral anticonceptives for birth control. In nearly half (49.2%) of participants, oral pills were advised by a gynaecologist, and approximately two-thirds (69.0%) were using or had used combined oral anticonceptives. Nearly two-thirds (63.1%) of respondents preferred pills over other contraception methods due to their ease of use. More than one-third (39.3%) of participants agreed that oral pills are safe. Approximately half (53.2%) of participants were aware that a missed pill must be taken immediately after recalling that a dose was missed. A total of 69.6% of participants experienced at least one side effect, of which mood swings (61.1%), weight gain or increase appetite (42.2%), decreased libido (34.1%), and nausea (31.2%) were most common.

Conclusion: Saudi women had a high acceptance rate for oral anticonceptives as a legitimate method to prevent unintended pregnancy. This was associated with a modest degree of understanding about their risks and benefits. Pharmacists should provide up-to-date information and counsel patients about the use and side effects of oral anticonceptives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01046-9DOI Listing
June 2020

Gefitinib loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: characterization, evaluation and anti-human colon cancer activity .

Drug Deliv 2020 Dec;27(1):622-631

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

NLC containing Gefitinib (NANOGEF) was prepared using stearic acid, sesame oil and surfactants (sodium lauryl sulfate and tween 80). NANOGEFs were evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential, entrapment efficiency (EE), stability, release studies and cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay). The optimized NANOGEF exhibited particle size of 74.06 ± 9.73 d.nm, PdI of 0.339 ± 0.029 and EE of 99.76 ± 0.015%. The TEM study revealed spherical shape of NANOGEF formulations. The slow and sustained release behavior was exhibited by all NANOGEFs. The effects of surfactants were observed not only on particle size but also on zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, stability and release studies. The MTT assay revealed 4.5 times increase in cytotoxicity for optimized NANOGEF (IC = 4.642 µM) when compared with Gefitinib alone (IC = 20.88 µM in HCT-116 cells). Thus NANOGEF may be considered as a potential drug delivery system for the cure of colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2020.1754526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241461PMC
December 2020

Development of Formulation Methods and Physical Characterization of Injectable Sodium Selenite Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Sorafenib tosylate.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2020 ;21(8):659-666

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Sorafenib is the first oral therapeutic agent to show the activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma. Sorafenib leads to severe toxicity due to the multiple-dose regimen. Reducing the overall dose of sorafenib through injectable dosage form to release sustainably is of therapeutically more important to combat drug-induced toxicity.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate the physical parameters of sorafenib- loaded Sodium Selenite Nanoparticles (SSSNP).

Methods: Two different methods: chemical crosslinking and solvent evaporation were applied for the formulation of nanoparticles using various crosslinkers such as formaldehyde, magnesium sulfate, tripolyphosphate, dextran sulfate, and aluminum hydroxide. Physical characterization was performed with zeta potential analysis, polydispersity index, particle size and scanning electron microscopic studies for morphological analysis for all the formulated nanoparticles developed using the chemical crosslinking technique based ionic interaction.

Results: Tripolyphosphate was selected as an ideal crosslinker and used for nanoparticle formulation with the solvent evaporation technique. Based on the physical characterization, SSSNP was formulated successfully with the solvent evaporation technique using tripolyphosphate as a cross-linker. The zeta potential of SSSNP was -37.5 mV, PDI was approximately 0.3 to 0.4, and the observed size (diameter) was in the range of 208 nm to 0.2 μm. Furthermore, the particles were smooth in morphology and appeared as crystals.

Conclusion: The novel injectable sorafenib loaded sodium selenite nanoparticle dosage form will serve better than conventional oral dosage form to elicit a safe therapeutic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201021666191230124041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509770PMC
August 2020

Phytochemical and spectral analysis of the methanolic extracts of leaves of of Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Oct 21:1-5. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Jazan University , Jazan , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The present study aimed to explore the biocomponents of leaves through hot continuous percolation method using methanol as solvent. The spectral analysis by GC-MS and FTIR study demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, fatty acids, and steroids. The extract was characterized by the presence of unique compounds such as epiyangambin, stigmasterol, α-terpineol, eucalyptol, ethyl cinnamate, fatty acids, and other steroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1679137DOI Listing
October 2019

Solvent extraction, spectral analysis and antibacterial activity of the bioactive crystals of (Turner) C.Agardh from Red Sea.

Nat Prod Res 2019 Aug 1:1-5. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

a College of Pharmacy, Jazan University , Jazan , Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and anti-bacterial properties of the bioactive principles of (Turner) C.Agardh, a brown seaweed in Red sea of Jazan province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Crystals were obtained from the petroleum ether extract of and subjected to chemical tests, FTIR spectroscopic analysis and NMR analysis to identify their chemical composition, and to study their antibacterial properties against selected human pathogenic bacteria. In addition, GC-MS analysis was performed to identify the bioactive compounds in the crude petroleum ether extract. Results of the antibacterial effect of the crystal analyte showed a wide spectrum of activity against the screened human pathogenic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1645659DOI Listing
August 2019

Self-reported receipt of preventive practices and its associated factors among adults with diabetes in the United States.

Prev Med Rep 2019 Jun 30;14:100857. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Pharmacy Practice Research Unit, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Previous studies indicated that a high proportion of adults with diabetes do not receive recommended preventive care in the United States. Nevertheless, a comprehensive evaluation of the factors associated with the receipt of most recommended preventive care measures collectively is lacking. Therefore, this study describes the utilization of multiple preventive care measures collectively. Moreover, this paper aims to identify factors associated with receiving the recommended preventive care. A cross-sectional study design was implemented using data from multiple panels (2009-2015) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The sample included adults aged 21 years or older with diabetes ( = 8415). The outcome for this study was either receiving five selected preventive care measures (HbA1c tests, cholesterol tests, foot examinations, dilated eye examinations, and influenza vaccines) collectively or not. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed among all adults with diabetes, those with multimorbidity, chronic kidney disease (CKD) or eye complications. Adults with diabetes were poorly adherent to receiving the five preventive care measures collectively (15.6%). Among all adults with diabetes, factors associated with receiving all the selected preventive practices included age, education, health insurance, prescription drug coverage, duration of diabetes, number of chronic conditions and smoking status. Similar results were observed among adults with multimorbidity. Among adults with CKD, those with private insurance and drug prescription coverage were more likely to receive the recommended practices. The findings suggest low adherence to receiving all five recommended practices. It is crucial to increase the awareness about the need for all the recommended practices among adults with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458492PMC
June 2019

Clinical pharmacists as medication therapy experts in diabetic clinics in Saudi Arabia - Not just a perception but a need.

Authors:
Hafiz A Makeen

Saudi Pharm J 2017 Sep 25;25(6):939-943. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

The pharmacist's role is expanding from medication dispensing to patient care. There are several newer horizons in which clinical pharmacists have a vital role to play such as diabetic care, handling asthma patients, pain management, anti-coagulation therapy and in hyperlipidemia. Among these, the disorder that is perceived to reach epidemic proportions globally is diabetes mellitus. In the Arab world, particularly in countries like Saudi Arabia, the number affected and the cost incurred in the management of diabetes are relatively high. Apart from adding to the economic burden, the complications arising due to a lag in identification and management are manifold. In developed countries, several practicing hospitals and clinics have inducted clinical pharmacists as vital members of the healthcare team. With profound knowledge about medications, clinical pharmacists are inclined to stay abreast with recent developments in research and latest guidelines, thus supporting physicians in evidence based practice. Clinical pharmacists through Medication Therapy Management can render services by guiding, identifying and monitoring drug related issues faced by the patients. This can contribute in reducing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and improving the quality of life. To keep pace with the growing prevalence of diabetes in the kingdom, clinical pharmacists need to undergo specialized training in high risk areas. Health regulating bodies should be keen in adopting provisions of inducting them in discrete specialties which can also help in trimming heathcare expenditure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2017.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5606163PMC
September 2017