Publications by authors named "Haengdueng Jeong"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Olig2 regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, migration and invasion of melanoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7778. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 17104, Republic of Korea.

Melanoma is a disease with a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis; therefore, the need for targeted therapeutics is steadily increasing. Oligodendrocyte transcription factor2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed in the central nervous system during embryonic development. Olig2 is overexpressed in various malignant cell lines such as lung carcinoma, glioma and melanoma. Olig2 is known as a key transcription factor that promotes tumor growth in malignant glioma. However, the role of Olig2 in melanoma is not well characterized. We analyzed the role of Olig2 in apoptosis, migration, and invasion of melanoma cells. We confirmed that Olig2 was overexpressed in melanoma cells and tissues. Reduction of Olig2 increased apoptosis in melanoma cells by increasing p53 level and caspase-3/-7 enzyme activity. In addition, downregulation of Olig2 suppressed migration and invasion of melanoma cells by inhibiting EMT. Reduction of Olig2 inhibited expression of MMP-1 and the enzyme activity of MMP-2/-9 induced by TGF-β. Moreover, Olig2 was involved in the downstream stages of MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT, which are major signaling pathways in metastatic progression of melanoma. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the crucial roles of Olig2 in apoptosis, migration, and invasion of melanoma and may help to further our understanding of the relationship between Olig2 and melanoma progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87438-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032681PMC
April 2021

Skin irritation and inhalation toxicity of biocides evaluated with reconstructed human epidermis and airway models.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 15;150:112064. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Biocides are widely used in household products. Humans are exposed to biocides through dermal, inhalational, and oral routes. However, information on the dermal and inhalational toxicity of biocides is limited. We evaluated the effects of biocides on the skin and airways using the reconstructed human epidermis model KeraSkin™ and the airway model SoluAirway™. We determined the irritancy of 11 commonly used biocides (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one [BIT], 2-phenoxyethanol [PE], zinc pyrithione, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 3-iodoprop-2-ynyl N-butylcarbamate [IPBC], 2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one, 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol [CC], 2-phenylphenol, deltamethrin, and 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one) in the KeraSkin™ and SoluAirway™ by viability and histological examinations. BIT and CC were found to cause skin irritation at the approved concentrations or at the concentration close to approved limit while the others were non-irritants within the approved concentration. These results were confirmed via histology, wherein skin irritants induced erosion, vacuolation, and necrosis of the tissue. In the SoluAirway™, most of the biocides decreased cell viability even within the approved limits, except for PE, IPBC, and deltamethrin, suggesting that the airway may be more vulnerable to biocides than the skin. Taken together, our result indicates that some biocides can induce toxicity in skin and airway. Further studies on the dermal and inhalational toxicity of biocides are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112064DOI Listing
April 2021

Local Toxicity of Biocides after Direct and Aerosol Exposure on the Human Skin Epidermis and Airway Tissue Models.

Toxics 2021 Feb 3;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

Biocides are commonly used as spray- or trigger-type formulations, thus dermal and respiratory exposure to biocide aerosol is unavoidable. However, little is known about the impact of aerosolization on the local toxicity of biocides on the skin or the airway. We compared the local toxicity of biocides after direct or aerosol exposure on reconstructed human skin epidermis and upper airway models. Three biocides, 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one (BIT), 2-phenoxyethanol (PE), and 2-phenylphenol (OPP), most widely used in the market were selected. When the biocide was treated in aerosols, toxicity to the skin epidermis and upper airway tissue became significantly attenuated compared with the direct application as determined by the higher tissue viabilities. This was further confirmed in histological examination, wherein the tissue damages were less pronounced. LC-MS/MS and GC/MS analysis revealed that concentrations of biocides decreased during aerosolization. Importantly, the toxicity of biocides treated in 3 μm (median mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)) aerosols was stronger than that of 5 μm aerosol, suggesting that the aerosol particle size may affect biocide toxicity. Collectively, we demonstrated that aerosolization could affect the local toxicity of biocides on the skin epidermis and the upper airway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913294PMC
February 2021

Ex Vivo Live Full-Thickness Porcine Skin Model as a Versatile In Vitro Testing Method for Skin Barrier Research.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 11;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemungu, Seoul 03760, Korea.

Since the European Union (EU) announced their animal testing ban in 2013, all animal experiments related to cosmetics have been prohibited, creating a demand for alternatives to animal experiments for skin studies. Here, we investigated whether an ex vivo live porcine skin model can be employed to study the safety and skin barrier-improving effects of hydroxyacids widely used in cosmetics for keratolytic peels. Glycolic acid (1-10%), salicylic acid (0.2-2%), and lactobionic acid (1.2-12%) were used as representative substances for α-hydroxyacid (AHA), β-hydroxyacid (BHA), and polyhydroxyacid (PHA), respectively. When hydroxyacids were applied at high concentrations on the porcine skin every other day for 6 days, tissue viability was reduced to 50-80%, suggesting that the toxicity of cosmetic ingredients can be evaluated with this model. Based on tissue viability, the treatment scheme was changed to a single exposure for 20 min. The protective effects of a single exposure of hydroxyacids on skin barrier function were evaluated by examining rhodamine permeability and epidermal structural components of barrier function using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining. Lactobionic acid (PHAs) improved skin barrier function most compared to other AHAs and BHAs. Most importantly, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), an important functional marker of skin barrier function, could be measured with this model, which confirmed the significant skin barrier-protective effects of PHAs. Collectively, we demonstrated that the ex vivo live full-thickness porcine skin model can be an excellent alternative to animal experiments for skin studies on the safety and efficacy of cosmetic ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827261PMC
January 2021

Employment of cytology for in vitro skin irritation test using a reconstructed human epidermis model, Keraskin™.

Toxicol In Vitro 2020 Dec 8;69:104962. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Skin irritation tests using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) employ viability as an endpoint, but color interference or borderline results are often problematic. We examined whether the cytology of cells from treated RhE could determine skin irritancy. Six chemicals (three irritants; DnP, 1-B, PH, three non-irritants; DP, APA, HS) were evaluated in a RhE, Keraskin™. DP, HS, and PH were clearly classified with viability, but DnP, 1-B, and APA were often falsely determined, due to borderline values falling near the cutoff, 50%. In histology, the tissues treated with DnP, 1-B, and PH showed erosion of the stratum corneum, vacuolization, and necrosis in the basal layer. DP- and HS-treated tissues showed relatively normal morphology but APA induced necrosis similar to irritants. Cytology revealed that DnP, 1-B or PH depleted cells and induced irregular and abnormal cell shapes. In contrast, relatively regular and normal shapes and clear distinction between the nucleus and cytoplasm was observed for DP, APA and HS. To further confirm it, additional 10 substances, including false positives from OECD TG 439, were tested. Overall (16 substances in total), cytology: total area predicted the skin irritancy of test chemicals with the highest accuracy (87.5%) followed by cytology: cell count (81.3%), histology (75%) and viability (68.8%), confirming the utility of cytology as an alternative endpoint in the skin irritation test using RhE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.104962DOI Listing
December 2020

Rab25 Deficiency Perturbs Epidermal Differentiation and Skin Barrier Function in Mice.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2019 Nov;27(6):553-561

Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Rab25, a member of the Rab11 small GTPase family, is central to achieving cellular polarity in epithelial tissues. Rab25 is highly expressed in epithelial cells of various tissues including breast, vagina, cervix, the gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Rab25 plays key roles in tumorigenesis, mainly by regulating epithelial differentiation and proliferation. However, its role in skin physiology is relatively unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that Rab25 knock-out (KO) mice show a skin barrier dysfunction with high trans-epidermal water loss and low cutaneous hydration. To examine this observation, we investigated the histology and epidermal differentiation markers of the skin in Rab25 KO mice. Rab25 KO increased cell proliferation at the basal layer of epidermis, whereas the supra-basal layer remained unaffected. Ceramide, which is a critical lipid component for skin barrier function, was not altered by Rab25 KO in its distribution or amount, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Notably, levels of epidermal differentiation markers, including loricrin, involucrin, and keratins (5, 14, 1, and 10) increased prominently in Rab25 KO mice. In line with this, depletion of Rab25 with single hairpin RNA increased the expression of differentiation markers in a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Transcriptomic analysis of the skin revealed increased expression of genes associated with skin development, epidermal development, and keratinocyte differentiation in Rab25 KO mice. Collectively, these results suggested that Rab25 is involved in the regulation of epidermal differentiation and proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2019.125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824620PMC
November 2019

Lysates of a Probiotic, , Can Improve Skin Barrier Function in a Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 2;20(17). Epub 2019 Sep 2.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

The main function of the skin is to protect the body from the external environment. The barrier function of the skin is mainly provided by the stratum corneum, which consists of corneocytes bound with the corneodesmosomes and lamellar lipids. Skin barrier proteins like loricrin and filaggrin also contribute to the skin barrier function. In various skin diseases, skin barrier dysfunction is a common symptom, and skin irritants like detergents or surfactants could also perturb skin barrier function. Many efforts have been made to develop strategies to improve skin barrier function. Here, we investigated whether the microfluidized lysates of (LR), one of the most widely used probiotic species for various health benefits, may improve the skin barrier function in a reconstructed human epidermis, Keraskin™. Application of LR lysate on Keraskin™ increased the expression of tight junction proteins; claudin 1 and occludin as determined by immunofluorescence analysis, and skin barrier proteins; loricrin and filaggrin as determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis and qPCR. Also, the cytotoxicity of a skin irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), was alleviated by the pretreatment of LR lysate. The skin barrier protective effects of LR lysate could be further demonstrated by the attenuation of SLS-enhanced dye-penetration. LR lysate also attenuated the destruction of desmosomes after SLS treatment. Collectively, we demonstrated that LR lysate has protective effects on the skin barrier, which could expand the utility of probiotics to skin-moisturization ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747158PMC
September 2019

Sexually dimorphic leanness and hypermobility in p16/CDKN2A-deficient mice coincides with phenotypic changes in the cerebellum.

Sci Rep 2019 08 1;9(1):11167. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

p16/CDKN2A is a tumor suppressor that critically regulates the cell cycle. Indeed, p16 deficiency promotes tumor formation in various tissues. We now report that p16 deficiency in female mice, but not male mice, induces leanness especially in old age, as indicated by lower body weight and smaller white adipose tissue, although other major organs are unaffected. Unexpectedly, the integrity, number, and sizes of adipocytes in white adipose tissue were unaffected, as was macrophage infiltration. Hence, hypermobility appeared to be accountable for the phenotype, since food consumption was not altered. Histological analysis of the cerebellum and deep cerebellar nuclei, a vital sensorimotor control center, revealed increased proliferation of neuronal cells and improved cerebellum integrity. Expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and PCNA also increased in deep cerebellar nuclei, implying crosstalk between p16 and ERβ. Furthermore, p16 deficiency expands LC3B cells and GFAP astrocytes in response to estrogen. Collectively, the data suggest that loss of p16 induces sexually dimorphic leanness in female mice, which appears to be due to protection against cerebellar senescence by promoting neuronal proliferation and homeostasis via ERβ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47676-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6671985PMC
August 2019

Intrinsic expression of viperin regulates thermogenesis in adipose tissues.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 08 24;116(35):17419-17428. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 03722 Seoul, Republic of Korea;

Viperin is an interferon (IFN)-inducible multifunctional protein. Recent evidence from high-throughput analyses indicates that most IFN-inducible proteins, including viperin, are intrinsically expressed in specific tissues; however, the respective intrinsic functions are unknown. Here we show that the intrinsic expression of viperin regulates adipose tissue thermogenesis, which is known to counter metabolic disease and contribute to the febrile response to pathogen invasion. Viperin knockout mice exhibit increased heat production, resulting in a reduction of fat mass, improvement of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose tolerance, and enhancement of cold tolerance. These thermogenic phenotypes are attributed to an adipocyte-autonomous mechanism that regulates fatty acid β-oxidation. Under an HFD, viperin expression is increased, and its function is enhanced. Our findings reveal the intrinsic function of viperin as a novel mechanism regulating thermogenesis in adipose tissues, suggesting that viperin represents a molecular target for thermoregulation in clinical contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1904480116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717265PMC
August 2019

Loss of Rab25 promotes the development of skin squamous cell carcinoma through the dysregulation of integrin trafficking.

J Pathol 2019 10 18;249(2):227-240. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Rab25 can function as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter across different tissues. This study sought to clarify the role of Rab25 as a tumor suppressor in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Rab25 loss was closely associated with neoplastic transition in both humans and mice. Rab25 loss was well correlated with increased cell proliferation and poor differentiation in human SCC. While Rab25 knockout (KO) in mice did not induce spontaneous tumor formation, it did significantly accelerate tumor generation and promote malignant transformation in a mouse two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. Xenografting of a Rab25-deficient human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, also elicited neoplastic transformation. Notably, Rab25 deficiency led to dysregulation of integrins β1, β4, and α6, which matched well with increased epidermal proliferation and impaired desmosome-tight junction formation. Rab25 deficiency induced impairment of integrin recycling, leading to the improper expression of integrins. In line with this, significant attenuation of integrin β1, β4, and α6 expression was identified in human SCCs where Rab25 was deficient. Collectively, these results suggest that loss of Rab25 promotes the development and neoplastic transition of SCC through dysregulation of integrin trafficking. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5311DOI Listing
October 2019

Enrichment of Short-Chain Ceramides and Free Fatty Acids in the Skin Epidermis, Liver, and Kidneys of db/db Mice, a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Model.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2019 02 8;27(5):457-465. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea.

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often suffer from diverse skin disorders, which might be attributable to skin barrier dysfunction. To explore the role of lipid alterations in the epidermis in DM skin disorders, we quantitated 49 lipids (34 ceramides, 14 free fatty acids (FFAs), and cholesterol) in the skin epidermis, liver, and kidneys of db/db mice, a Type 2 DM model, using UPLC-MS/MS. The expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis was also evaluated. With the full establishment of hyperglycemia at the age of 20 weeks, remarkable lipid enrichment was noted in the skin of the db/db mice, especially at the epidermis and subcutaneous fat bed. Prominent increases in the ceramides and FFAs (>3 fold) with short or medium chains (<C26) occurred in the skin epidermis (16NS, 18NS, 24NS, 16NDS, 18NDS, 20NDS, 22NDS, 24NDS, C16:1FA, C18:2FA, and C18:1FA) and the liver (16NS, 18NS, 20NS, 24:1NS, 18NDS, 20NDS, 22NDS, C16:1FA, C18:2FA, C18:1FA), whereas those with very long chains were not affected. In the kidney, only slight increases (<3 fold) were observed for 16NS, 18NS, 20NS, 26NDS, C26FA, and C22:1FA. Consistently, LXRα/β and PPARγ, nuclear receptors promoting lipid synthesis, lipid synthesis enzymes such as elongases 1, 4, and 6, and fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase were highly expressed in the skin and livers of the db/db mice. Collectively, our study demonstrates an extensive alteration in the skin and systemic lipid profiles of db/db mice, which could contribute to the development of skin disorders in DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2018.214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720538PMC
February 2019

Disruption of the gene in mice using CRISPR/Cas9 promotes body weight reduction and gastric tumorigenesis.

Lab Anim Res 2018 Dec 31;34(4):257-263. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology and Yonsei Laboratory Animal Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Trefoil factor 1 (, also known as pS2) is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal mucosa and plays a critical role in the differentiation of gastric glands. Since approximately 50% of all human gastric cancers are associated with decreased expression, it is considered a tumor suppressor gene. deficiency in mice results in histological changes in the antral and pyloric gastric mucosa, with severe hyperplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells, resulting in the development of antropyloric adenoma. Here, we generated -knockout (KO) mice, without a neomycin resistant (Neo) cassette, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease 9 (CRSIPR/Cas9) system. Though our -KO mice showed phenotypes very similar to the previous embryonic stem (ES)-cell-based KO mice, they differed from the previous reports in that a reduction in body weight was observed in males. These results demonstrate that these newly established -KO mice are useful tools for investigating genetic and environmental factors influencing gastric cancer, without the effects of artificial gene insertion. Furthermore, these findings suggest a novel hypothesis that expression influences gender differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5625/lar.2018.34.4.257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333602PMC
December 2018

In vivo near-infrared imaging and phototherapy of tumors using a cathepsin B-activated fluorescent probe.

Biomaterials 2017 04 16;122:130-140. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, South Korea. Electronic address:

The development of multifunctional reagents for simultaneous specific near-infrared (NIR) imaging and phototherapy of tumors is of great significance. This work describes the design of a cathepsin B-activated fluorescent probe (CyA-P-CyB) and its applications as an NIR imaging probe for tumor cells and as a phototherapy reagent for tumors. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CyA-P-CyB was activated via the cleavage of a peptide linker by cathepsin B in tumor cells to produce fluorescence in the NIR region based on a FRET mechanism. MTT assays showed that the phototoxicity of CyA-P-CyB toward cells depended on the activity of cathepsin B, and the probe exhibited specific phototoxicity toward tumor cells. CyA-P-CyB was also successfully applied to the in vivo imaging and phototherapy of tumors. Histological analysis indicated that CyA-P-CyB had no cytotoxic effects on seven mouse tissues (lung, liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen and brain) after the CyA-P-CyB treatment and laser irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.01.020DOI Listing
April 2017

Ezetimibe, an NPC1L1 inhibitor, is a potent Nrf2 activator that protects mice from diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2016 10 12;99:520-532. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is important for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a chronic disease that ranges from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) pathway is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative stress. In this study, we found that oxidative stress or inflammatory biomarkers and TUNEL positive cells were markedly increased in NASH patients compared to normal or simple steatosis. In addition, we identified that the hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2 target genes such as Nqo-1 and GSTA-1 were significantly increased in NASH patients. Ezetimibe, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, improves NAFLD and alleviates oxidative stress. However, the precise mechanism of its antioxidant function remains largely unknown. We now demonstrate that ezetimibe activates Nrf2-Keap1 pathway which was dependent of autophagy adaptor protein p62, without causing cytotoxicity. Ezetimibe activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn phosphorylates p62 (p-S351) via their direct interaction. Correspondingly, Ezetimibe protected liver cells from saturated fatty acid-induced apoptotic cell death through p62-dependent Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, its role as an Nrf2 activator was supported by methione- and choline- deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH mouse model, showing that ezetimibe decreased the susceptibility of the liver to oxidative injury. These data demonstrate that the molecular mechanisms underlying ezetimibe's antioxidant role in the pathogenesis of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.09.009DOI Listing
October 2016