Publications by authors named "Hadir M Maher"

42 Publications

Development and validation of UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors, alectinib, ceritinib, and crizotinib in Wistar rat plasma with application to bromelain-induced pharmacokinetic interaction.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 22;204:114276. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Bromelain, the aqueous extract of pineapple, has been used as a food supplement with reported nutritional and therapeutic benefits. Bromelain has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic effects. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors, including alectinib (ALC), ceritinib (CER), and crizotinib (CRZ), have been efficiently used in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The solubility of ALC, CER, and CRZ is much higher at low acidic pH (pH 1) and it decreases as the pH increases affecting their absorption with a subsequent decrease in their bioavailability. It was thought that the intake of bromelain could result in a decrease in the bioavailability of ALC, CER, and CRZ due to bromelain-induced alkalizing effect following digestion. On the contrary, bromelain could possibly increase plasma exposure of the cited drugs due to its known muco-permeation enhancing effect. The therapeutic-anticancer effect of bromelain can be possibly increased/enhanced with concomitant intake of other anticancer medications or it can add to the value of food supplements for its known nutritional benefits. Thus, this work aims at studying the possibility of any PK interaction when bromelain was taken while on ALC/CER/CRZ therapy. In this work, a new UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ALC, CER, and CRZ in rat plasma. Further application of the proposed method was performed to test the possibility of the PK interaction between bromelain and the selected ALK inhibitors in Wistar rats. Simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used for sample preparation. Chromatographic analysis was performed on Waters BEH™ C18 column with a mixture of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1 % formic acid (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The method permitted the analysis of ALC, CER, and CRZ in concentration ranges of 2-200, 0.4-200, and 4.0-200 ng/mL, respectively. Bromelain administration caused a significant decrease in plasma levels of CER and CRZ with lowered C, AUC and AUC, along with an increase in the apparent clearance. However, no significant effect was noticed with ALC. Thus, attention should be paid to avoid the intake of bromelain with CER or CRZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114276DOI Listing
September 2021

Determination of tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline residues in seafood products of Saudi Arabia using high performance liquid chromatography-Photo diode array detection.

Saudi Pharm J 2021 Jun 23;29(6):566-575. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Residues of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in seafood products of Saudi Arabia were detected by using a simple, sensitive and rapid method via HPLC-PDA. The protein precipitation method that was used for sample extraction demonstrated high recoveries of OTC, TC and CTC. The limits of detection were 0.015 µg/g and 0.025,0.062 µg/g for all TCs in fish and shellfish, respectively. The limits of quantitation were 0.125 µg/g and 0.175 µg/g for all TCs in fish and shellfish, respectively. The method was precise and accurate since the RSD was less than 2%, while the % recovery was 95-105%. This study determined the occurrence of OTC, TC and CTC in seafood products that are sold in KSA's markets. The overall occurrence of these three medications in 249 seafood products was 24%(n = 60), while 15%(n = 37) exceeded the MRL. Thus, our recommendations are to enhance the monitoring of food production prior to marketing and to educate people regarding the proper disposal of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2021.04.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233539PMC
June 2021

Flavoured water consumption alters pharmacokinetic parameters and increases exposure of erlotinib and gefitinib in a preclinical study using Wistar rats.

PeerJ 2020 22;8:e9881. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Biological Products Evaluation Directorate, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Erlotinib (ERL) and Gefitinib (GEF) are considered first line therapy for the management of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Like other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), ERL and GEF are mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) CYP3A4 isoform and are substrates for transporter proteins with marked inter-/intra-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability. Therefore, ERL and GEF are candidates for drug-drug and food-drug interactions with a consequent effect on drug exposure and/or drug-related toxicities. In recent years, the consumption of flavoured water (FW) has gained in popularity. Among multiple ingredients, fruit extracts, which might constitute bioactive flavonoids, can possess an inhibitory effect on the CYP450 enzymes or transporter proteins. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of different types of FW on the PK parameters of ERL and GEF in Wistar rats.

Methods: ERL and GEF PK parameters in different groups of rats after four weeks consumption of different flavours of FW, namely berry, peach, lime, and pineapple, were determined from plasma drug concentrations using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).

Results: Data indicated that tested FWs altered the PK parameters of both ERL and GEF differently. Lime water had the highest impact on most of ERL and GEF PK parameters, with a significant increase in C (95% for ERL, 58% for GEF), AUC (111% for ERL, 203% for GEF), and AUC (200% for ERL, 203% for GEF), along with a significant decrease in the apparent oral clearance of both drugs (65% for ERL, 67% for GEF). The order by which FW affected the PK parameters for ERL and GEF was as follows: lime > pineapple > berry > peach.

Conclusion: The present study indicates that drinking FW could be of significance in rats receiving ERL or GEF. Our results indicate that the alteration in PKs was mostly recorded with lime, resulting in an enhanced bioavailability, and reduced apparent oral clearance of the drugs. Peach FW had a minimum effect on the PK parameters of ERL and no significant effect on GEF PKs. Accordingly, it might be of clinical importance to evaluate the PK parameters of ERL and GEF in human subjects who consume FW while receiving therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518156PMC
September 2020

Development and validation of UPLC-MS/MS method for studying the pharmacokinetic interaction of dasabuvir and tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen in Wistar rats.

Sci Rep 2020 02 26;10(1):3521. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main cause of chronic hepatitis and probably liver cirrhosis. Dasabuvir (DSV) is a direct-acting antiviral agent with efficiency in managing HCV. The anti-viral activity of the anti-estrogen drug tamoxifen (TAM) suggested the synergistic effect of DSV and TAM for blocking the replication of HCV. However, being substrates and inhibitors of efflux transporters (TAM inhibits P-gp, DSV inhibits P-gp and BCRP), there is a possibility for a pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interaction. In this work, a new UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TAM, its active metabolite 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (TOH), and DSV in rat plasma. The method was applied to investigate the PK interaction between DSV and TAM/TOH following the co-administration of DSV and TAM to Wistar rats. Chromatographic analysis was performed on Waters BEH C18 column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% formic acid (80: 20, v/v). The method allowed the determination of concentration ranges 20-1000, 0.1-500, 0.5-500 ng/mL for DSV, TAM, and TOH, respectively. Unexpectedly, results revealed the absence of PK interactions between DSV and TAM/TOH, compared with their single administration, suggesting the safety of co-administering DSV/TAM as an anti-viral combination without the need of dosage adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60613-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044166PMC
February 2020

A Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study of Sorafenib and Iced Teas in Rats Using UPLC-MS/MS: An Illustration of Beverage-Drug Interaction.

Biomed Res Int 2019 28;2019:2410845. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Saudi Food and Drug Authority, Biologics and Evaluation Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Iced teas (ITs), also known as ready-to-drink teas, have gained much popularity among many nations. The modulatory effect of tea beverages on CYP3A4 increases the possibility of their potential interactions with many coadministered medications. Being a substrate of CYP3A4, sorafenib (SOR), the first-line therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, shows a great probability to exhibit pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction with ITs. For this purpose, different groups of Wistar rats were given oral doses of SOR (40 mg/kg), along with different types of ITs. The concentration of SOR in rat plasma was determined using UPLC-MS/MS. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 analytical column, Acquity UPLC BEH™ (100 × 1.0 mm, i.d., 1.7 m particle size), using erlotinib (ERL) as an internal standard. Isocratic elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of two solvents: solvent A (water with 0.1% formic acid) and solvent B (acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid), in a ratio of 30 : 70, v/v, respectively. Quantitation was performed using MRM of the transitions from protonated precursor ions [M+H] to product ions at 465.12 > 252.02 (SOR) and 394.29 > 278.19 (ERL). The method was fully validated as per the FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation in the concentration range of 2.5-500 ng/mL. Different PK parameters were calculated for SOR in all rat groups and groups administered with ITs and SOR, compared with groups with simply water and SOR. Experimental data revealed that ITs caused a general reduction in SOR bioavailability; an approximate reduction of 30% was recorded for all types of tested ITs. These data indicate that ITs could affect the PK profile of SOR in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2410845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907072PMC
May 2020

UPLC-MS/MS study of the effect of dandelion root extract on the plasma levels of the selected irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors dasatinib, imatinib and nilotinib in rats: Potential risk of pharmacokinetic interactions.

Biomed Chromatogr 2019 Dec 1;33(12):e4674. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments for chronic myeloid leukaemia based on nilotinib (NIL), dasatinib (DAS) and imatinib (IMA) have improved patient quality of life and have turned chronic myeloid leukemia from a fatal disease into a chronic disease. Dandelion is a rich source of phenolic compounds with strong biological properties, and the effects of using this plant in the treatment of different illnesses can be linked to the presence of various polyphenols found in the different parts of the plant. Thus, dandelion can potentially be used as a nutraceutical (dietary antioxidant) to prevent different disorders associated with oxidative stress, i.e. cardiovascular disorders, cancer and inflammatory processes. Mutual interference between a drug and a food constituent may result in altered pharmacokinetics of the drug and undesired or even dangerous clinical situations. In the present study, a bioanalytical ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of DAS, IMA and NIL in rat plasma. Sample preparation was carried out using solid-phase extraction with C cartridges with a good extraction recovery of ≥94.37% for the three drugs. The method was fully validated as per the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4674DOI Listing
December 2019

Physical and chemical screening of honey samples available in the Saudi market: An important aspect in the authentication process and quality assessment.

Saudi Pharm J 2018 Nov 25;26(7):932-942. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia.

Honey is becoming accepted as a reputable and effective therapeutic agent by practitioners of conventional medicine and by the general public. It has many biological activities and has been effectively used in the treatment of many diseases, e.g. gastrointestinal diseases, skin diseases, cancer, heart diseases, and neurological degeneration. Honey is an excellent source of energy containing mainly carbohydrates and water, as well as, small amounts of organic acids, vitamins, minerals, flavonoids, and enzymes. As a natural product with a relatively high price, honey has been for a long time a target for adulteration. The authenticity of honey is of great importance from commercial and health aspects. The study of the physical and chemical properties of honey has been increasingly applied as a certification process for the purpose of qualification of honey samples. The current work focusses on studying the authenticity of various types of honey sold in Riyadh market (24 samples). For this purpose, physical properties (pH, hydroxylmethylfurfural HMF, and pollen test) were measured. Besides, sugar composition was evaluated using Fehling test and an HPLC method. Elemental analysis was carried out using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In addition, the presence of drug additives was assessed by means of GC-MS. The obtained results were compared with the Saudi Arabian standards, Codex Alimentarius Commission (2001), and harmonized methods of the international honey commission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2018.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218329PMC
November 2018

Ultra-performance LC-MS/MS study of the pharmacokinetic interaction of imatinib with selected vitamin preparations in rats.

Bioanalysis 2018 Jul;10(14):1099-1113

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Aim: The growing interest of cancerous patients in using vitamins, while on imatinib (IMA) therapy, increased the risk of their pharmacokinetic interactions.

Methodology: Ultra-performance LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of IMA following oral administration of selected vitamin preparations (vitamin A, E, D3 and C) in rat plasma using a hybrid sample preparation technique of protein precipitation followed by SPE.

Results: The method showed good linear response for IMA over the concentration range 1-500 ng/ml. Co-administered vitamin preparations could affect IMA pharmacokinetic profiling through either an increase (vitamin A and E) or a decrease (vitamin C) in IMA bioavailability. Vitamin D3 produced no significant effect on IMA bioavailability.

Conclusion: Particular concern should be paid when vitamin preparations are administered with IMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0043DOI Listing
July 2018

Validated UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of dasatinib in plasma: Application to pharmacokinetic interaction studies with nutraceuticals in Wistar rats.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(6):e0199208. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Dasatinib (DAS) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC). Since some nutraceuticals (e.g. curcumin, olive oil, and cocoa extract) could alter the function of ABC transporters and /or CYP450 enzymes, DAS bioavailability could potentially be affected following their co-administration. This work aims at studying the possibility of PK interaction between DAS and the selected nutraceuticals in UC rats using UPLC- MS/MS. Chromatographic analysis was carried out using BEH C 18 column (Waters) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 50% aqueous methanol, 65:35, v/v, each with 0.1% formic acid and using erlotinib (ERL) as an internal standard (IS). DAS quantitation was carried out using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive ionization of the transitions at m/z 488.03 > 400.92 (DAS), and m/z 394.29 > 278.19 (ERL). Method validation was assessed as per the FDA guidelines for bioanalytical methods for DAS determination within the concentration range 1-500 ng/mL. No significant effect on the oral bioavailability of DAS was reported with any of the studied nutraceuticals. Thus, the concomitant administration of these nutraceuticals with DAS could be considered safe with a necessity to perform more detailed clinical investigations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199208PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6002064PMC
December 2018

Micelle-enhanced direct spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of linifanib: Application to stability studies.

Luminescence 2017 Nov 5;32(7):1162-1168. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

A new simple stability-indicating spectrofluorimetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, linifanib (LNF). The proposed method makes use of the native fluorescence characteristics of LNF in a micellar system. Compared with aqueous solutions, the fluorescence intensity of LNF was greatly enhanced upon the addition of Tween-80. The relative fluorescence intensity of LNF was measured in a diluting solvent composed of 2% Tween-80: phosphate buffer pH 8.0 (20: 80, v/v) using excitation and emission wavelengths of 290 and 450 nm, respectively. The proposed method was fully validated as per the ICH guidelines. The recorded fluorescence intensity of LNF was rectilinear over a concentration range of 0.3-2 μg/ml with a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.9990) and low limits of detection (0.091 μg/ml) and quantitation (0.275 μg/ml). The applicability of the method was extended to study the inherent stability of LNF under different stress degradation conditions including, alkaline, acidic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal degradation. Moreover, the method was utilized to study the kinetics of the alkaline and oxidative degradation of LNF. The pseudo-first order rate constants and half-lives were calculated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.3304DOI Listing
November 2017

UPLC-ESI-MS/MS study of the effect of green tea extract on the oral bioavailability of erlotinib and lapatinib in rats: Potential risk of pharmacokinetic interaction.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Apr 27;1049-1050:30-40. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Green tea (GT) is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) belong to the oral targeted therapy that gained much interest in oncology practice, among which are erlotinib (ERL) and lapatinib (LAP). Since green tea polyphenols (GTP) are known to be inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases, GTE could likely potentiate the anticancer effect of TKIs, but with a possibility of pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction with co-administered TKIs. In this study, the effect of GTE on the PK of ERL/LAP in rats was studied. UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of ERL and LAP in rat plasma, using gefitinib (GEF) as the internal standard. Plasma samples were treated extensively by protein precipitation (PPT) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) using octadecyl C 18/14% cartridges. Chromatographic analysis was carried out on Acquity UPLC BEH™ C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of water: acetonitrile (20: 80, v/v), each with 0.15% formic acid. Quantification was performed in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions m/z 394.29→278.19 (ERL), m/z 581.07→365.13 (LAP), and m/z 447.08→128.21 (GEF). The method was fully validated as per the FDA guidelines showing linearity over the range of 0.4-1000 (ERL) and 0.6-1000 (LAP) ng/mL with very low lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.4 and 0.6ng/mL for ERL and LAP, respectively. The applicability of the method was extended to perform a comparative study of the PK of ERL/LAP following short-term and long-term administration of GTE, compared with their single oral administration. The results revealed that a significant reduction in the oral bioavailability was recorded with both ERL and LAP following the ingestion of GTE particularly for short-term administration. A reduction in C (AUC) by 67.60% (69.50%) and 70.20% (73.96%), was recorded with short-term administration of GTE, compared with only 16.03% (21.09%) and 13.53% (22.12%) reduction for ERL and LAP, respectively, with long-term administration. Thus patients taking TKIs should preferably avoid drinking GT or ingesting GTE capsules during the period of treatment with TKIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.02.029DOI Listing
April 2017

Comparative pharmacokinetic profiles of selected irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors, neratinib and pelitinib, with apigenin in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2017 Apr 31;137:258-267. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Neratinib (NER) and pelitinib (PEL) are irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have been recently employed in cancer treatment. Apigenin (API), among other flavonoids, is known to have antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and carcinogenic effect. API can potentiate the antitumor effect of chemotherapeutic agents and/or alleviate the side effects of many anticancer agents. Since TKIs are mostly metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes and that API could alter the enzymatic activity, potential drug interactions could be expected following their co-aministration. In the present study, a bioanalytical UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of NER and PEL in rat plasma, using domperidone (DOM) as an internal standard. Sample preparation was carried out using solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 cartridges with good extraction recovery of not less than 92.42% (NER) and 89.73% (PEL). Chromatographic analysis was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water, (70:30, v/v), each with 0.1% formic acid. Quantitation was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions from protonated precursor ions [M+H], at m/z 557.30 (NER), m/z 468.21 (PEL), and at m/z 426.27 (DOM), to selected product ions at m/z 112.05 (NER), m/z 395.22 (PEL), and at m/z 175.18 (DOM). The method was fully validated as per the FDA guidelines over the concentration range of 0.5-200ng/mL with very low lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.5ng/mL for both NER and PEL. The intra- and inter-day assay precision and accuracy were evaluated for both drugs and the calculated values of percentage relative standards deviations (%RSD) and relative errors (%E) were within the acceptable limits (<15%) for concentrations other than LLOQ and 20% for LLOQ. The applicability of the method was extended to study the possibility of drug interactions following the oral co-administration of NER/PEL with API. Thus, this study could be readily applied in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of cancerous patients receiving such drug combinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2017.01.039DOI Listing
April 2017

Simultaneous determination of erlotinib and tamoxifen in rat plasma using UPLC-MS/MS: Application to pharmacokinetic interaction studies.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2016 Aug 28;1028:100-110. Epub 2016 May 28.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Tamoxifen (TAM) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor antagonist that enhances erlotinib (ERL)-induced cytotoxicity in the treatment of NSCLC. ERL and TAM are metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes. In addition, both drugs have the potential of altering the enzymatic activity through either inhibition (ERL) or induction (TAM). Thus it was expected that pharmacokinetics (PK) drug-drug interactions (DDIs) could be encountered following their co-administration. In this respect, a bioanalytical UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of ERL and TAM in rat plasma samples, using ondansetron (OND) as an internal standard (IS). Plasma samples were prepared using mixed mode cationic solid phase extraction (SPE) STRATA™ -X-C 33μm cartridges with good extraction recovery of both drugs from rat plasma (Er% from -13.92 to -3.32). The drugs were separated on a Waters BEH™ C18 column with an isocratic elution using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of acetonitrile and water, each with 0.15% formic acid, in the ratio of 80: 20, v/v. Quantitation was carried out using the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) at m/z 394.20>278.04 (ERL), m/z 372.25>72.01 (TAM), and m/z 294.18>170.16 (OND). The method was fully validated as per the FDA guidelines over the concentration range of 0.2-50ng/mL with very low lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.2ng/mL for both ERL and TAM. The intra- and inter-day assay precision (in terms of relative standard deviation, RSD) and accuracy (in terms of percentage relative error, % Er) were evaluated for both drugs and the calculated values evaluated at four different concentration levels were within the acceptable limits (<15%) for concentrations other than LLOQ and 20% for LLOQ. The method was successfully applied to the study of possible PK-DDI following the oral administration of ERL and TAM in a combination, compared to their single administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.05.033DOI Listing
August 2016

Simultaneous determination of selected tyrosine kinase inhibitors with corticosteroids and antiemetics in rat plasma by solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application to pharmacokinetic interaction studies.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 May 5;124:216-227. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

A sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of selected tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)(gefitinib GEF, erlotinib ERL), corticosteroids (dexamethasone DEX, prednisolone PRED), and the antiemetic ondansetron (OND) in rat plasma samples. After the addition of domperidone (DOM) as internal standard (IS), spiked plasma samples were prepared using the solid phase extraction (SPE) C 18 cartridges. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters BEH C18 column with an isocratic elution using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water, each with 0.1% formic acid, (80: 20, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Quantitation of the analytes was performed using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the positive ionization mode at m/z 447.25>128.08 (GEF), m/z 394.20>278.04 (ERL), m/z 393.30>147.04 (DEX), m/z 361.29>147.02 (PRED), m/z 294.18>170.16 (OND), and m/z 426.26>175.07 (DOM). The method was validated over the concentration range of 0.025-100 (GEF, ERL, OND) and 0.05-100 ng/mL plasma (PRED, DEX) with very low lower limit of quantification of 0.025 (GEF, ERL, OND) and 0.05 ng/mL (DEX, PRED). The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) evaluated at four different concentration levels were within the acceptable limits (<15%). The method provided good extraction recovery of all analytes from rat plasma (Er% from -14.05 to -1.08). The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies following the oral administration of selected combinations of the studied drugs. This study can be readily applied in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in patients receiving these drug combinations as well as investigation of possible drug interactions between TKIs and DEX/PRED/OND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2016.03.013DOI Listing
May 2016

Chemometrics-assisted Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Two Co-administered Drugs of Major Interaction, Methotrexate and Aspirin, in Human Urine Following Acid-induced Hydrolysis.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2015 ;18(8):723-34

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mostly along with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most common of which is aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Since NSAIDs impair MTX clearance and increase its toxicity, it was necessary to develop a simple and reliable method for the monitoring of MTX levels in urine samples, when coadministered with ASA. The method was based on the spectrofluorimetric measurement of the acid-induced hydrolysis product of MTX, 4-amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroic acid (AMP), along with the strongly fluorescent salicylic acid (SA), a product of acid-induced hydrolysis of aspirin and its metabolites in urine. The overlapping emission spectra were resolved using the derivative method (D method). In addition, the corresponding derivative emission spectra were convoluted using discrete Fourier functions, 8-points sin xi polynomials, (D/FF method) for better elimination of interferences. Validation of the developed methods was carried out according to the ICH guidelines. Moreover, the data obtained using derivative and convoluted derivative spectra were treated using the non-parametric Theil's method (NP), compared with the least-squares parametric regression method (LSP). The results treated with Theil's method were more accurate and precise compared with LSP since the former is less affected by the outliers. This work offers the potential of both derivative and convolution using discrete Fourier functions in addition to the effectiveness of using the NP regression analysis of data. The high sensitivity obtained by the proposed methods was promising for measuring low concentration levels of the two drugs in urine samples. These methods were efficiently used to measure the drugs in human urine samples following their co-administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207318666150803140749DOI Listing
June 2016

Derivative emission spectrofluorimetry for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin and phenylephrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical tablets.

Luminescence 2015 May 10;30(3):330-6. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh, 11495, Saudi Arabia; Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, University of Alexandria, El-Messalah, Alexandria, 21521, Egypt.

Rapid, simple and sensitive derivative emission spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed for the simultaneous analysis of binary mixtures of guaifenesin (GUA) and phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE). The methods are based upon measurement of the native fluorescence intensity of the two drugs at λex = 275 nm in methanolic solutions, followed by differentiation using first (D1) and second (D2) derivative techniques. The derivative fluorescence intensity-concentration plots were rectilinear over a range of 0.1-2 µg/mL for both GUA and PHE. The limits of detection were 0.027 (D1, GUA), 0.025 (D2, GUA), 0.031 (D1, PHE) and 0.033 (D2, PHE) µg/mL and limits of quantitation were 0.089 (D1, GUA), 0.083 (D2, GUA), 0.095 (D1, PHE) and 0.097 (D2, PHE) µg/mL. The proposed derivative emission spectrofluorimetric methods (D1 and D2) were successfully applied for the determination of the two compounds in binary mixtures and tablets with high precision and accuracy. The proposed methods were fully validated as per ICH guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.2735DOI Listing
May 2015

Novel stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of guaifenesin and ketorolac enantiomers in human plasma.

Chirality 2014 Oct 8;26(10):629-39. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

A novel method was developed for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin (GUA) and ketorolac tromethamine (KET) enantiomers in plasma samples. Since GUA probably increases the absorption of coadministered drugs (e.g., KET), it would be extremely important to monitor KET plasma levels for the purpose of dose adjustment with a subsequent decrease in the side effects. Enantiomeric resolution was achieved on a polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase, amylose-2, as a chiral selector under the normal phase (NP) mode and using ornidazole (ORN) as internal standard. This innovative method has the advantage of the ease and reliability of sample preparation for plasma samples. Sample clean-up was based on simply using methanol for protein precipitation followed by direct extraction of drug residues using ethanol. Both GUA and KET enantiomers were separated using an isocratic mobile phase composed of hexane/isopropanol/trifluoroacetic acid, 85:15:0.05 v/v/v. Peak area ratios were linear over the range 0.05-20 µg/mL for the four enantiomers S (+) GUA, R (-) GUA, R (+) KET, and S (-) KET. The method was fully validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of system suitability, specificity, accuracy, precision, robustness, and solution stability. Finally, this procedure was innovative to apply the rationale of developing a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of drug isomers in clinical samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chir.22354DOI Listing
October 2014

Development and optimization of a capillary zone electrophoresis technique for simultaneous determination of miconazole nitrate and hydrocortisone acetate in a cream pharmaceutical formulation.

J AOAC Int 2013 Nov-Dec;96(6):1295-301

A simple, fast, inexpensive, and reliable capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of a mixture of miconazole nitrate (MCZ) and hydrocortisone acetate (HCZ) in a cream formulation has been developed and validated. Optimum conditions were sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 4) and 30 kV applied voltage in a 85 cm x 75 pm id capillary. Direct UV detection at 230 nm led to adequate sensitivity without interference from the sample excipients. MCZ and HCZ migrated in approximately 165 and 415 s, respectively. The analytical curves had a coefficient of correlation, r, of 0.9999 and 0.9996 for MCZ and HCZ, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 0.28 and 0.93 microg/mL for MCZ and 0.38 and 1.27 microg/mL for HCZ, respectively. Thus, excellent accuracy and precision were obtained. Recoveries varied from 98 to 102%, and intraday and interday precision, calculated as the RSD, were less than 2.0% for each drug. The proposed CZE method displayed advantageous performance characteristics and can be considered suitable for QC of the MCZ and HCZ cream formulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.11-343DOI Listing
April 2014

Validated stability-indicating capillary electrophoresis method for the separation and determination of a fixed-dose combination of carvedilol and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets.

J AOAC Int 2013 Sep-Oct;96(5):951-9

King Saud University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Riyadh 11495, PO Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

A novel, fast, sensitive, and specific capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique coupled to a diode array detector has been developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of carvedilol (CRV) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in two combination formulations. The proposed method utilized a fused silica capillary (55 cm x75 microm id) and the background electrolyte solution phosphate buffer (12.5 mM, pH 7.4)-methanol (95+5, v/v). The separation was achieved at 30 kV applied voltage and 24 degree C. Atorvastatin (80 microg/mL) was chosen as the internal standard. The described method was linear over the range of 1-200 and 0.2-150 microg/mL for CRV and HCT, respectively. Intraday and interday RSD (n = 6) was < or =1.4%. The LOD values of CRV and HCT were 0.26 and 0.07 microg/mL, respectively. The validated CE method was successfully applied to the analysis of two commercial tablet dosage forms. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk samples of the two drugs using thermal, photolytic, hydrolytic, and oxidative stress conditions, and the stressed samples were analyzed by the proposed method. Degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the determination of CRV and HCT; the assay could, therefore, be considered stability-indicating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.11-245DOI Listing
January 2014

Analytical study for the charge-transfer complexes of rosuvastatin calcium with π-acceptors.

Molecules 2013 Jul 3;18(7):7711-25. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Studies were carried out to investigate the charge-transfer (CT) reaction of ROS-Ca, as a n-electron donor with various p-acceptors: tetracyanoethylene, p-chloranilic acid, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane, and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone. Different colored CT complexes were obtained. The reaction mechanism and site of interaction were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric techniques and computational molecular modeling. The formation of the colored complexes was utilized in the development of simple, rapid and accurate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ROS-Ca. Under the optimum reaction conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9984-0.9995) were found between the absorbances and the concentrations of ROS-Ca in the range of 2-200 mg mL⁻¹. The limits of detection ranged from 0.41 to 12.24 mg mL⁻¹. No interference could be observed from the additives commonly present in the tablets or from the drugs that are co-formulated with ROS-Ca in its combined formulations. The methods were successfully applied to the analysis of tablets with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentages ranged from 99.54-100.46 ± 1.58-1.82%. The results were compared favorably with the reported method. The proposed methods are practical and valuable for routine application in quality control laboratories for determination of ROS-Ca in its bulk form and tablets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules18077711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269705PMC
July 2013

Validated stability-indicating methods for the simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, and chlorthalidone using HPTLC and HPLC with photodiode array detector.

J AOAC Int 2013 Mar-Apr;96(2):313-23

University of Alexandria, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, El-Messalah, Alexandria 21521, Egypt.

Two stability-indicating chromatographic methods are described for simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride (AMI), atenolol (ATE), and chlorthalidone (CHL) in combined dosage forms. The first method was based on HPTLC separation of the three drugs followed by densitometric measurements of their bands at 274 nm. The separation was carried out on Merck HPTLC silica gel 60F254 aluminum sheets using chloroform-methanol-ammonia 27%, w/w (9 + 2 + 0.3, v/v/v) mobile phase. Analysis data was used for the linear regression graph in the range of 0.1-0.5, 0.8-5.0, and 0.3-1.5 microg/band for AMI, ATE, and CHL, respectively. The second method was based on an RP-HPLC separation of the cited drugs performed on an RP stainless steel C18 analytical column (250 x 4.6 mm id) with a gradient elution system of methanol and 0.05 M aqueous phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 4 as the mobile phase, at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with photodiode array detection at 275 nm for AMI and 225 nm for ATE and CHL. The calibration graphs for each drug were rectilinear in the range of 2-50, 25-150, and 2-100 microg/mL for AMI, ATE, and CHL, respectively. The proposed chromatographic methods were successfully applied for determination of the investigated drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. Both methods were validated in compliance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, LOD, and LOQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.11-347DOI Listing
July 2013

Comparative study of some robust statistical methods: weighted, parametric, and nonparametric linear regression of HPLC convoluted peak responses using internal standard method in drug bioavailability studies.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2013 May 10;405(14):4835-48. Epub 2013 Mar 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, El-Messalah, Alexandria, Egypt.

This manuscript discusses the application and the comparison between three statistical regression methods for handling data: parametric, nonparametric, and weighted regression (WR). These data were obtained from different chemometric methods applied to the high-performance liquid chromatography response data using the internal standard method. This was performed on a model drug Acyclovir which was analyzed in human plasma with the use of ganciclovir as internal standard. In vivo study was also performed. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response ratio data was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x i polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). This work studies and also compares the application of WR method and Theil's method, a nonparametric regression (NPR) method with the least squares parametric regression (LSPR) method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. When the assumption of homoscedasticity is not met for analytical data, a simple and effective way to counteract the great influence of the high concentrations on the fitted regression line is to use WR method. WR was found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that the y-direction error in the calibration curve will increase as x increases. Theil's NPR method was also found to be superior to the method of LSPR as the former assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and that might not be normally distributed. Most of the results showed a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy on applying WR and NPR methods relative to LSPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-6859-4DOI Listing
May 2013

Capillary electrophoretic determination of antimigraine formulations containing caffeine, ergotamine, paracetamol and domperidone or metoclopramide.

J Chromatogr Sci 2013 Jul 23;51(6):502-10. Epub 2012 Nov 23.

College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kinge Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P.O. Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

A novel, fast, sensitive and specific technique using capillary electrophoresis coupled to a diode array detector has been developed for the separation and simultaneous determination of two antimigraine mixtures in tablet formulation. The two combinations are ergotamine tartrate (ERG), caffeine (CAF) and paracetamol (PAR) with either domperidone (DOM), combination (I) or metoclopramide (MET), combination (II). The proposed method utilized a fused silica capillary (55 cm × 75 µm i.d.) and background electrolyte composed of phosphate buffer (25 mM, pH 9.8). The separation was achieved at 20 KV applied voltage and at 25°C. The described method was linear over the range of 1-80 and 2-100 µg/mL for CAF and MET, respectively, and 1-80 µg/mL for DOM, ERG and PAR. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (n = 5) was ≤1.10%. The limits of detection of CAF and PAR were 0.20 and 0.10 µg/mL, respectively, and 0.50 µg/mL for MET, DOM and ERG. Other aspects of analytical validation were also evaluated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the two combinations in their tablets. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for the routine control of these ingredients in multicomponent dosage forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bms175DOI Listing
July 2013

Studies on the formation of N-methylperfluoroalkylnitrile cations from perfluoroacylphenethylamines in electron ionisation mass spectrometry: unique marker ion fragments in methamphetamine analysis.

Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) 2012 ;18(3):287-99

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849, USA.

The mass spectra of the perfluoroacyl derivatives of methamphetamine show a unique and characteristic fragment ion identified as the N-methylperfluoroalkylnitrile cation (C(n)F(2n+1)CNCH(3))(+). This ion appears at various m/z values depending on the nature of the perfluoroacyl species and is generated via rearrangement of the perfluoroacyl immonium fragment formed by loss of the benzyl-radical from the molecular ion. Analogous ions have been described in the mass spectra of other methamphetamine-like side chain substances regardless of the aromatic ring substitution pattern. The scope and limitation of this rearrangement pathway were evaluated in this study by preparing a set of substituted phenethylamines and related compounds of varying structure. The perfluoroacyl moiety leads to the formation of the highest abundance of the N-methyl nitrile cation fragment while hydrocarbon acyl groups do not show the N-methylnitrile cation as a significant peak. The N-methyl group is required for the formation of the N-methyl nitrile cation and higher N-alkyl homologues eliminate the corresponding alkene species from the acyl immonium fragment. The loss of benzaldehyde and acetone from the perfluoroacylimmonium species produces the highest relative abundance of the unique N- methylperfluoroalkylnitrile cation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1255/ejms.1185DOI Listing
September 2012

GC-MS and GC-IRD studies on brominated dimethoxyamphetamines: regioisomers related to 4-Br-2,5-DMA (DOB).

Drug Test Anal 2012 Jul-Aug;4(7-8):591-600. Epub 2012 Mar 2.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

A series of regioisomeric bromodimethoxyamphetamines have mass spectra essentially equivalent to the controlled drug substance 4-Br-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (4-Br-2,5-DMA; DOB); all have molecular weight of 274 and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 44 and m/z 230/232. The trifluoroacetyl, pentafluoropropionyl and heptafluorobutryl derivatives of the primary regioisomeric amines were prepared and evaluated in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies. The mass spectra for these derivatives did not show unique fragment ions for specific identification of individual isomers. However, the mass spectra do serve to divide the compounds into three groups, depending on their base peak. Gas chromatography with infrared detection (GC-IRD) provides direct confirmatory data for the identification of the designer drug 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine from the other regioisomers involved in the study. The perfluoroacylated derivatives of the six regioisomeric bromodimethoxyamphetamines were successfully resolved on non-polar stationary phases such as a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-1) and 50% phenyl - 50% methyl polysiloxane (Rxi-50).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.409DOI Listing
December 2012

GC-MS and GC-IRD studies on dimethoxyphenethylamines (DMPEA): regioisomers related to 2,5-DMPEA.

J Chromatogr Sci 2012 Jan;50(1):1-9

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21521, Egypt.

A series of regioisomeric dimethoxyphenethylamines have a mass spectra essentially equivalent to the drug substance 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2,5-DMPEA). These substances have a molecular weight of 181, and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 151/152. The trifluoroacetyl, pentafluoropropionyl, and heptafluorobutryl derivatives of these primary amines were prepared and evaluated by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). The mass spectra for these derivatives do not show unique fragment ions to allow the specific identification of a particular isomer. Thus, GC-MS does not provide for the confirmation of identity of any one of the six isomers to the exclusion of the other five compounds. However, GC-MS does divide the compounds into two groups depending on the mass of the base peak. GC with infrared detection provides direct confirmatory data for the identification of 2,5-DMPEA from the other regioisomers involved in the study. Perfluoroacylated derivatives of the six regioisomeric dimethoxyphenethylamines were successfully resolved via capillary GC on a non-polar stationary phase consisting of 50% phenyl and 50% methyl polysiloxane (Rxi-50).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmr013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252128PMC
January 2012

Bioavailability study of triamterene and xipamide using urinary pharmacokinetic data following single oral dose of each drug or their combination.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2012 Mar 6;61:78-85. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, University of Alexandria, El-Messalah, Alexandria 21521, Egypt.

An efficient chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of triamterene (TRI) and xipamide (XIP) in urine samples, based on high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been developed. The HPLC separation was performed on a RP stainless-steel C-18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a gradient elution system of 0.05 M phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 4.0 and methanol as the mobile phase. The method was used to determine the urinary excretion profile and to calculate different urinary pharmacokinetic parameters following oral dose of their combination compared with single oral doses of each drug and hence comparing their bioavailability. Quantitation was performed using chlorthalidone as internal standard. The calibration graphs of each drug were rectilinear in the range of 0.2-40 μg/mL urine for TRI and 0.2-15 μg/mL urine for XIP. An HPLC-DAD method was also successfully developed for the simultaneous determination of the investigated drugs in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, limits of detection and quantitation and other aspects of analytical validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2011.11.032DOI Listing
March 2012

Development of validated stability-indicating chromatographic method for the determination of fexofenadine hydrochloride and its related impurities in pharmaceutical tablets.

Chem Cent J 2011 Dec 3;5(1):76. Epub 2011 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, P,O, Box 22452, Saudi Arabia.

A simple reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been developed and subsequently validated for the determination of fexofenadine hydrochloride (FEX) and its related compounds; keto fexofenadine (Impurity A), meta isomer of fexofenadine (Impurity B), methyl ester of fexofenadine (Impurity C) in addition to the methyl ester of ketofexofenadine (Impurity D). The separation was based on the use of a Hypersil BDS C-18 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of phosphate buffer containing 0.1 gm% of 1-octane sulphonic acid sodium salt monohydrate and 1% (v/v) of triethylamine, pH 2.7 and methanol (60:40, v/v). The separation was carried out at ambient temperature with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 215 nm using lisinopril as internal standard, with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 0.1-50 μg/ml for FEX and its related compounds. The optimized conditions were used to develop a stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative determination of FEX and its related compounds in tablet dosage forms. The drugs were subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and heat to apply stress conditions. Complete separation was achieved for the parent compounds and all degradation products. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines in terms of accuracy, precision, robustness, limits of detection and quantitation and other aspects of analytical validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-5-76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276448PMC
December 2011

GC-MS and GC-IRD studies on the ring isomers of N-methyl-2-methoxyphenyl-3-butanamines (MPBA) related to 3,4-MDMA.

J Chromatogr Sci 2011 May;49(5):345-52

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36832, USA.

The mass spectra of the controlled substance 3,4-MDMA and its regioisomer 2,3-MDMA are characterized by an imine fragment base peak at m/z 58 and additional fragments at m/z 135/136 for the methylenedioxybenzyl cation and radical cation, respectively. Three positional ring methoxy isomers of N-methyl-2-(methoxyphenyl)-3-butanamine (MPBA) have an isobaric relationship to 2,3- and 3,4-MDMA. All five compounds have the same molecular weight and produce similar EI mass spectra. This lack of mass spectral specificity for the isomers in addition to the possibility of chromatographic co-elution could result in misidentification. The lack of reference materials for the potential imposter molecules constitutes a significant analytical challenge. Perfluoroacylation of the amine group reduced the nitrogen basicity and provided individual fragmentation pathways for discrimination among these compounds based on unique fragment ions and the relative abundance of common ions. Studies using gas chromatography with infrared detection provided additional structure-IR spectra relationships. The underivatized amines and the perfluoroacylated derivatives (PFPA and HFBA) were resolved by capillary gas chromatography on a 100% dimethylpolysiloxane stationary phase. The perfluoroacylated derivatives showed better resolution on a cyclodextrin modified stationary phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/49.5.345DOI Listing
May 2011

Non-parametric linear regression of discrete Fourier transform convoluted chromatographic peak responses under non-ideal conditions of internal standard method.

Talanta 2010 Nov 29;83(1):93-109. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, El-Messalah, Alexandria 21521, Egypt.

This manuscript discusses the application of chemometrics to the handling of HPLC response data using the internal standard method (ISM). This was performed on a model mixture containing terbutaline sulphate, guaiphenesin, bromhexine HCl, sodium benzoate and propylparaben as an internal standard. Derivative treatment of chromatographic response data of analyte and internal standard was followed by convolution of the resulting derivative curves using 8-points sin x(i) polynomials (discrete Fourier functions). The response of each analyte signal, its corresponding derivative and convoluted derivative data were divided by that of the internal standard to obtain the corresponding ratio data. This was found beneficial in eliminating different types of interferences. It was successfully applied to handle some of the most common chromatographic problems and non-ideal conditions, namely: overlapping chromatographic peaks and very low analyte concentrations. For example, a significant change in the correlation coefficient of sodium benzoate, in case of overlapping peaks, went from 0.9975 to 0.9998 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. Also a significant improvement in the precision and accuracy for the determination of synthetic mixtures and dosage forms in non-ideal cases was achieved. For example, in the case of overlapping peaks guaiphenesin mean recovery% and RSD% went from 91.57, 9.83 to 100.04, 0.78 on applying normal conventional peak area and first derivative under Fourier functions methods, respectively. This work also compares the application of Theil's method, a non-parametric regression method, in handling the response ratio data, with the least squares parametric regression method, which is considered the de facto standard method used for regression. Theil's method was found to be superior to the method of least squares as it assumes that errors could occur in both x- and y-directions and they might not be normally distributed. In addition, it could effectively circumvent any outlier data points. For the purpose of comparison, the results obtained using the above described internal standard method were compared with the external standard method for all types of linearity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2010.08.046DOI Listing
November 2010
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