Publications by authors named "Habibollah Dadgar"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Feasibility and Therapeutic Potential of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy for High-Grade Gliomas.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 May;46(5):389-395

The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences.

Purpose: This pilot study tested the principle that 177Lu-DOTATATE may be applied to patients with high-grade gliomas (HGGs) that are either inoperable or refractory to the standard conventional treatments and also assessed whether this approach could be a viable therapeutic plan in this dilemma.

Methods: In this prospective study, 16 subjects experiencing HGGs that were either inoperable or refractory to the standard conventional treatments were included. All the patients checked for somatostatin receptor expression on the tumors. The patients were treated with 1 to 4 cycles of IV 177Lu-DOTATATE. The primary end point was radiological response after peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and the secondary end point was improved quality of life using Karnofsky Performance Score and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score.

Results: In total, 16 subjects (10 males and 6 females) with a mean age of 55.68 ± 13.17 years (26-73 years) participated in the study. Of them, 8 patients were new HGG cases, and 8 patients had recurrent tumors. The participants' responses to treatments were complete remission in 12.5% of (n = 2), partial remission in 31.25% (n = 5), disease stability in 18.7% (n = 3), and disease progression in 37.5% (n = 6). In total, pretreatment and posttreatment Karnofsky Performance Score and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scores did not improved (P > 0.05). The patients were followed up from 1 month to 26 months (median, 3 months).

Conclusions: This preliminary result suggests that peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using 177Lu-DOTATATE may be associated with positive effects in patients with HGGs (grade III-IV). However, this approach should be evaluated in a more homogeneous group of patients with more favorable performance status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003599DOI Listing
May 2021

Feasibility and Therapeutic Potential of Combined Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy With Intensive Chemotherapy for Pediatric Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Metastatic Neuroblastoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

From the Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine Hematology Research Center, Amir Oncology Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr Cancer Research Center, Razavi Hospital, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad Hematology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Westfalen, Dortmund, Germany.

Background: Recent evidence has demonstrated high expression of somatostatin receptors in neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Because of this, we endeavored to evaluate the diagnostic performance and clinical efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using 177Lu-DOTATATE combined with chemotherapy in pediatric NB patients.

Patients And Methods: In total, 14 pediatric patients with histopathologically confirmed NB underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. Among them, the patients who were refractory or relapsed after therapy with 131I-MIBG and had intensive uptake of 68Ga-DOTATATE were referred for PRRT using 177Lu-DOTATATE. Treatment response based on follow-up imaging was classified into complete response, partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease. After each cycle of PRRT, laboratory tests were performed for evaluation of hematological, renal, and hepatic toxicities. The CTCAE (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events; version 4.03) was used for grading adverse event. Curie score and International Society of Pediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma score were used for semiquantitative analysis of scans of patients who underwent PRRT. In addition, overall survival was calculated as the time interval between the date of the first cycle and the end of follow-up or death.

Results: Overall, 14 refractory NB children including 7 boys and 7 girls with a median age of 5.5 years (ranged from 4 to 9) underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT. PET/CT was positive in 10/14 patients (71.4%), and the median number of detected lesions in positive patients was 2 (range, 1-13). Of 14 patients, 5 patients underwent PRRT, including 3 boys and 2 girls. A total of 19 PRRT cycles and 66.4 GBq 177Lu-DOTATATE were given. Among these 5 patients, 2 showed an initial complete response, which relapsed a few months later, 1 showed a partial response, and 2 showed progressive disease. According to the Kaplan-Meier test, the overall survival was estimated at 14.5 months (95% confidence interval, 8.9-20.1). In evaluation of PRRT-related toxicity according to the CTCAE, 4 patients showed grade 1, and 1 showed grade 2 leukopenia. Two patients showed grade 1, and 2 others showed grade 2 anemia. Two patients showed grade 1, and 3 patients showed grade 2 thrombocytopenia. Serum creatinine in 1 patient increased to grade 1.

Conclusions: Combination of 177Lu-DOTATATE with chemotherapeutic agents might achieve worthwhile responses with low toxicity, encouraging survival in NB patients who have relapsed or are refractory to conventional therapy, including 131I-MIBG therapy. Imaging with 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in such patients has a relatively high detection efficacy, demonstrating its potential use as an alternative imaging tool to conventional modalities such as 123I/131I-MIBG. However, further well-designed trials are highly warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003577DOI Listing
March 2021

Feasibility of Deep Learning-Guided Attenuation and Scatter Correction of Whole-Body 68Ga-PSMA PET Studies in the Image Domain.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

From the Department of Radiology Technology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd Cancer Research Center, Razavi Hospital, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva 4 Geneva University Neurocenter, Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Objective: This study evaluates the feasibility of direct scatter and attenuation correction of whole-body 68Ga-PSMA PET images in the image domain using deep learning.

Methods: Whole-body 68Ga-PSMA PET images of 399 subjects were used to train a residual deep learning model, taking PET non-attenuation-corrected images (PET-nonAC) as input and CT-based attenuation-corrected PET images (PET-CTAC) as target (reference). Forty-six whole-body 68Ga-PSMA PET images were used as an independent validation dataset. For validation, synthetic deep learning-based attenuation-corrected PET images were assessed considering the corresponding PET-CTAC images as reference. The evaluation metrics included the mean absolute error (MAE) of the SUV, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity index (SSIM) in the whole body, as well as in different regions of the body, namely, head and neck, chest, and abdomen and pelvis.

Results: The deep learning-guided direct attenuation and scatter correction produced images of comparable visual quality to PET-CTAC images. It achieved an MAE, relative error (RE%), SSIM, and peak signal-to-noise ratio of 0.91 ± 0.29 (SUV), -2.46% ± 10.10%, 0.973 ± 0.034, and 48.171 ± 2.964, respectively, within whole-body images of the independent external validation dataset. The largest RE% was observed in the head and neck region (-5.62% ± 11.73%), although this region exhibited the highest value of SSIM metric (0.982 ± 0.024). The MAE (SUV) and RE% within the different regions of the body were less than 2.0% and 6%, respectively, indicating acceptable performance of the deep learning model.

Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of direct attenuation and scatter correction of whole-body 68Ga-PSMA PET images in the image domain using deep learning with clinically tolerable errors. The technique has the potential of performing attenuation correction on stand-alone PET or PET/MRI systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003585DOI Listing
March 2021

Dual-phase 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT may increase the rate of detected lesions in prostate cancer patients.

Urologia 2021 Feb 24:391560321993544. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to compare the early static (3-6 min post-injection (p.i.)) and standard whole body (1 h, p.i.) 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging for detection of lesions in prostate cancer (PC) patients.

Materials And Methods: In this study, PC patients suspected of recurrence underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. Early static images were acquired from the pelvis and the lower abdomen 3-5 minutes after radiotracer injection and, a routine whole body scan was performed from the skull to the mid-thigh 1 h after injection. Quantitative analysis (SUVmax) was evaluated in suspicious lesions.

Results: Of 19 evaluated PC patients with a median age of 72 ± 1.66 years (range: 55-85 years) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 1.72 ± 6.11 ng/ml (range: 0.1-100 ng/ml) (median ± SE), 16 showed positive in the whole body PET/CT. All of the patients with positive whole body scans due to pelvic involvement had positive early scan results. Totally, 22 lesions were detected in both early and delay scans in the pelvic which 16 were related to prostate involvement, 4 were related to lymph node involvement, and 2 were related to bone involvement. Moreover, in addition to the mentioned 22 lesions, early PET imaging successfully detected local recurrence in a patient who was negative on WB PET/ CT; this lesion was masked in the delay scan due to bladder activity. The median SUVmax values of the early and delay scans were 3.69 ± 1.07 (median ± SE) (range: 1.2-14.5) and 5.85 ± 1.69 (range: 3.1-23.4), respectively. ( = 0.005).

Conclusion: Early static 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging might discriminate metastases from urinary bladder activity. Therefore, early static imaging in combination with whole body 60-min p.i. imaging can improve the detection of local involvement pelvic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0391560321993544DOI Listing
February 2021

COVID-19 Zufallsbefund bei asymptomatischen Patienten mit 68Ga-DOTATATE und 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT-Untersuchung aufgrund onkologischer Indikation.

Nuklearmedizin 2021 Apr 9;60(2):109. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1379-4070DOI Listing
April 2021

An overview on prostate-specific membrane antigen uptake in malignancies other than prostate cancer: A pictorial essay.

World J Nucl Med 2020 Jul-Sep;19(3):260-265. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a Type II transmembrane glycoprotein which is extremely overexpressed in prostate cancer epithelial cells. Recently, PSMA-targeted small molecule labeled with Ga and Tc allowed precise molecular imaging of prostate cancer and PSMA-targeted small molecule labeled with 177Lu leads to the development of radionuclide-targeted therapy of prostate cancer. Despite its name, it has been shown that PSMA has been expressed in several malignancies which can be due to significant neovascularization. Present pictorial assay reports the nonspecific tracer uptake in some malignancies during Ga-PSMA positron-emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and Tc-PSMA scintigraphy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_78_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745855PMC
July 2020

Incidental Detections Suggestive of COVID-19 in Asymptomatic Patients Undergoing 68Ga-DOTATATE and 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT Scan for Oncological Indications.

Nuklearmedizin 2021 04 16;60(2):106-108. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1311-2856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043668PMC
April 2021

Imaging of COVID-19: CT, MRI, and PET.

Semin Nucl Med 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States of America; Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, United States of America. Electronic address:

Soon after reports of a novel coronavirus capable of causing severe pneumonia surfaced in late 2019, expeditious global spread of the Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) forced the World Health Organization to declare an international state of emergency. Although best known for causing symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in mild cases and fulminant pneumonia in severe disease, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has also been associated with gastrointestinal, neurologic, cardiac, and hematologic presentations. Despite concerns over poor specificity and undue radiation exposure, chest imaging nonetheless remains central to the initial diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 progression, as well as to the evaluation of complications. Classic features on chest CT include ground-glass and reticular opacities with or without superimposed consolidations, frequently presenting in a bilateral, peripheral, and posterior distribution. More recently, studies conducted with MRI have shown excellent concordance with chest CT in visualizing typical features of COVID-19 pneumonia. For patients in whom exposure to ionizing radiation should be avoided, particularly pregnant patients and children, pulmonary MRI may represent a suitable alternative to chest CT. Although PET imaging is not typically considered among first-line investigative modalities for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections, numerous reports have noted incidental localization of radiotracer in parenchymal regions of COVID-19-associated pulmonary lesions. These findings are consistent with data from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV cohorts which suggested an ability for F-FDG PET to detect subclinical infection and lymphadenitis in subjects without overt clinical signs of infection. Though highly sensitive, use of PET/CT for primary detection of COVID-19 is constrained by poor specificity, as well as considerations of cost, radiation burden, and prolonged exposure times for imaging staff. Even still, decontamination of scanner bays is a time-consuming process, and proper ventilation of scanner suites may additionally require up to an hour of downtime to allow for sufficient air exchange. Yet, in patients who require nuclear medicine investigations for other clinical indications, PET imaging may yield the earliest detection of nascent infection in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. Especially for patients with concomitant malignancies and other states of immunocompromise, prompt recognition of infection and early initiation of supportive care is crucial to maximizing outcomes and improving survivability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2020.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703471PMC
November 2020

68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the Management of Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Sphenoclival Region.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Aug;45(8):e363-e364

The Persian Gulf Nuclear Medicine Research Center, Department of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy, Bushehr Medical University Hospital, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran.

We present a 48-year-old woman with an olfactory neuroblastoma who was referred for accurate staging using PET/CT. The Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT showed a 51 × 32-mm mass with an SUVmax of 7.59 in the sphenoidal sinuses, whereas radiotracer uptake on F-FDG PET/CT was similar to that of brain tissue. Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT might be especially useful in regions with difficult tumor visualization resulting from high background, such as brain tissue. The results of this case may suggest that somatostatin receptor imaging in patients with esthesioneuroblastoma may facilitate the potential application of radiotheranostic agents for the treatment of this aggressive subtype of tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003133DOI Listing
August 2020

Potential application of lutetium-177-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen-617 radioligand therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a limited resource environment: Initial clinical experience after 2 years.

World J Nucl Med 2020 Jan-Mar;19(1):15-20. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

In recent years, lutetium-177 (Lu)-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-617 has become a promising new therapeutic agent in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In this study, we report on an early experience of Lu-PSMA therapy with an evaluation of its efficacy and safety in mCRPC patients. Twenty-one mCRPC patients with a mean age of 70.3 ± 9.6 (54-88)-year-old were treated with one to four therapy cycles (median two cycles) and administered activity of 3.7-29.6 GBq (mean of 15.4 GBq). A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline ≥ 50% was considered to be a biochemical response (BCR). To evaluate the clinical response, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status was used. Within 2 weeks before and 1 and 2 months after each therapy cycle, hematology, renal function, liver status, alkaline phosphatase, and PSA were checked. The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events was used for grading adverse events induced by Lu-PSMA. Furthermore, overall survival (OS) was calculated and analyzed. During the treatment, a BCR was seen in 62% of patients; 19% of patients showed progression and 19% of patients showed stable disease. ECOG status was improved after treatment, and OS was 62.7 weeks. After the treatment, two patients showed Grade II toxicity of white blood cells, Grade I thrombocytopenia was observed in two patients, one patient showed Grade II toxicity in serum creatinine and transient Grade I toxicity in creatinine was seen in two patients. In total, our initial experience demonstrates that Lu-PSMA therapy has the potential to positively affect the development and maturation of radioligand practices in selected mCRPC patients, even in resource limited, developing country environments. However, some challenges, such as practitioner training, poor initial acceptance by colleagues and financial concerns, particularly in developing nations, still exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_20_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067127PMC
February 2020

Advanced modalities of molecular imaging in precision medicine for musculoskeletal malignancies.

World J Nucl Med 2019 Oct-Dec;18(4):345-350. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Musculoskeletal malignancies consist of a heterogenous group of mesenchymal tumors, often with high inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity. The early and accurate diagnosis of these malignancies can have a substantial impact on optimal treatment and quality of life for these patients. Several new applications and techniques have emerged in molecular imaging, including advances in multimodality imaging, the development of novel radiotracers, and advances in image analysis with radiomics and artificial intelligence. This review highlights the recent advances in molecular imaging modalities and the role of non-invasive imaging in evaluating tumor biology in the era of precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_119_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945365PMC
December 2019

Application of [Ga]PSMA PET/CT in Diagnosis and Management of Prostate Cancer Patients.

Mol Imaging Biol 2020 08;22(4):1062-1069

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: The early and accurate diagnosis of locoregional recurrence or metastasis in prostate cancer (PC) has a significant impact on treatment options. Prostatic-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomograph (CT) imaging has recently been introduced as a novel procedure in managing PC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of [Ga]PSMA PET/CT in managing PC patients and to compare the detection rate of PET/CT and bone scans (BSs) in detecting bone metastasis.

Procedures: We evaluated 415 patients with PC who underwent [Ga]PSMA PET/CT between March 2015 and September 2018. The patients were classified into three groups: staging, biomedical recurrence (BCR), and follow-up or monitoring, based on the intent to perform PET/CT.

Results: We evaluated 415 patients aged 41-99 (68.25 ± 9.59). Of these patients, 344 (82.9 %) had at least one localized lesion. The detection rates were 48.3 %, 52.6 %, 74.4 %, 79.6 %, and 93.9 % for a PSA value of < 0.2 ng/ml, ≥ 0.2-< 0.5 ng/ml, ≥ 0.5-< 1 ng/ml, ≥ 1-< 2 ng/ml, and ≥ 2 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.05). The detection rates increased significantly with higher GSs; the rates were 68.3 % (28/41), 74.5 % (73/98), 93.9 % (46/49), and 91 % (61/67) for a GS of < 7, 7, 8, and > 8, respectively (p < 0.05). An ideal cut-off value of > 1.16 ng/ml was obtained for PSA value, which equates to specificity of 75 % and sensitivity of 77 %. In comparing BSs and PET/CT, a region-based analysis showed the superiority of PET/CT over BSs for all regions expect the skull (p < 0.05). PET/CT detected 258 suspicious regions, 255 of which were metastatic and three of which were equivocal. BSs detected only 223 suspicious regions, 203 of which were metastatic and 20 of which were equivocal.

Conclusions: [Ga]PSMA PET/CT showed a high detection rate for lesions in PC patients. PSA level, GS, and a PSA doubling time of less than 6 months were shown to be the affective variables. In addition, Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed better performance in detecting bone lesions than BSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-019-01445-zDOI Listing
August 2020

An update on PET-based molecular imaging in neuro-oncology: challenges and implementation for a precision medicine approach in cancer care.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2019 Sep;9(9):1597-1610

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

PET imaging using novel radiotracers show promises for tumor grading and molecular characterization through visualizing molecular and functional properties of the tumors. Application of PET tracers in brain neoplasm depends on both type of the neoplasm and the research or clinical significance required to be addressed. In clinical neuro-oncology, F-FDG is used mainly to differentiate tumor recurrence from radiation-induced necrosis, and novel PET agents show attractive imaging properties. Novel PET tracers can offer biologic information not visible via contrast-enhanced MRI or F-FDG PET. This review aims to provide an update on the complementary role of PET imaging in neuro-oncology both in research and clinical settings along with presenting interesting cases in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2019.08.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785513PMC
September 2019

Quality control and GMP synthesis of Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen-11 for detection of low- and high-grade prostate cancer.

World J Nucl Med 2020 Apr-Jun;19(2):93-98. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Cancer Research Center, Razavi Hospital, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) labeled with Ga routinely used with higher sensibility and specificity than other radiotracers for detection of low and high grades of prostate cancer using positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography. Ge/Ga generators are generally used with automated modules for the syntheses of Ga radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of the current study is to describe the procedures for labeling PSMA with radiotracers and their standard QC tests. The automated synthesis method for Ga-PSMA-11 was taken and set of a quality control based on chromatographic and spectrometric methods used to determine radiochemical and radionuclide purity of the radiolabeled compound. Meanwhile, high-performance liquid chromatography and rainbow trail Lutheran camp are the best choices after stability tests for assessment of radiochemical purity at the optimized conditions. The clinical utility of the synthesized radiopharmaceuticals was ascertained by performing PET scans in human patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_82_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478300PMC
July 2019