Publications by authors named "Habib Emami"

55 Publications

Clinical Significance of Quantitative FDG PET/CT Parameters in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

Tanaffos 2020 Jul;19(3):186-194

Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: An initial evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 18F- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan can modify treatment planning. We investigated the clinical significance of FDG PET/CT quantitative parameters (QPs) in NSCLC patients.

Materials And Methods: We included 125 NSCLC patients for initial staging FDG PET/CT scan. The primary tumor (T), regional lymph node metastases (N), and distant metastases (M) were evaluated on FDG PET/CT images. QPs, including standard uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were calculated separately for each T, N, and M lesion and also for the whole body. Statistical analysis through SPSS version 22 was used to evaluate the clinical significance of PET/CT QPs concerning primary tumor pathology characteristics, initial tumor stage, and patient's prognosis.

Results: We followed the patients for 19.28 (±11.42) months. Considering primary tumor pathology, there was a significant difference in FDG PET/CT QPs, including primary tumor SUVmax (p=0.00), metastases SUVmax (p=0.014), whole-body MTV (p=0.045), and whole-body TLG (p=0.002). There was also a significant difference in QPs, including primary tumor SUVmax (p=0.00) and regional lymph node metastases SUVmax (p=0.048) when accounting for tumor initial stage. There was a significant prognostic value for the whole-body TLG (p=0.01) and a cut-off point of 568 was reached to differentiate better versus worse survival outcome.

Conclusion: We demonstrated a statistically significant difference in FDG PET/CT QPs when accounting for primary NSCLC pathology characteristics and initial stage, as well as patient's prognosis, and recommend incorporating QP values into clinical PET/CT reports.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008410PMC
July 2020

The relationship between QT interval indices with cardiac autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients: a case control study.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2020 Nov 19;12(1):102. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Long QT interval (QT) and abnormal QT dispersion (QTd) are associated with sudden death. The relationship between cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and QT indices in type 2 diabetic patients were investigated.

Methods: Totally 130 diabetic subjects (mean age 50.87 ± 13.9 years) were included (70 individuals with and 60 individuals without CAN). All participants had sinus cardiac rhythm. The patients who had diseases or take drugs that cause orthostatic hypotension (OH), cardiac arrhythmia and QT prolongation were excluded. After interview and examination, standard and continuous ECG was taken in supine position with deep breathing and standing up position. CAN diagnosis was based on Ewing's tests. QT, QT corrected (QTc), minimum QT (QT min), maximum QT (QT max) and mean ± SD of QT (QT mean) and QTd were assessed from standard ECG. QTc was calculated by Bazett's formula from V2 lead. QTc > 440 ms in men and QTc > 460 ms in women and QTd > 80 ms were considered abnormal.

Results: In patients with CAN, 21.5% were symptomatic. The prevalence of abnormal QTc and QTd was 11.3% and 28.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the patients with or without CAN in terms of long QTc and abnormal QTd. However, the mean ± SD of QT max, QT mean and QTd was higher in the patients with CAN (P value < 0.03). The used cut points for QTc and QTd have high specificity (79% for both) and low sensitivity (30% and 37%, respectively). To use QTc and QTd as screening test for CAN in T2DM patients, the cutoff points 380 and 550 ms are suggested, respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic CAN was 3.7 times that of symptomatic CAN. In patients with CAN the QT max, QT mean and QTd were higher than those without CAN. There was no association between CAN and long QTc and abnormal QTd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020-00609-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678155PMC
November 2020

Structural Characteristics of the Iranians Nose: An Anatomical Analysis.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Sep;32(112):295-301

Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Rhinoplasty is one of the most common surgical procedures performed among Iranians. An important issue to be considered by nasal surgeons is anatomical variations between different ethnic groups. Working on Iranians with the existing ethnic variety encourages the need for an analysis of this particular population.

Materials And Methods: The present cross-sectional observational study was conducted on Iranian patients who underwent primary open rhinoplasty at a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. The preoperative evaluations included routine aesthetic analysis as well as the measurement of the subcutaneous fat thickness (using ultrasound imaging) and the angle between the anterior nasal spine and the alveolar process of the maxilla. Intraoperative assessments were performed on the alar rim-inferior border of lateral crus distance, maximal width of lateral crus, connection pattern of upper lateral cartilage, and lower lateral cartilage. Alar cartilage thickness was measured with microscopic evaluation. Moreover, the similar studies conducted on other ethnic groups were reviewed as well.

Results: In total, 66 cases were included in the study (41 females and 25 males) who were within the age range of 18-38 years old (27.82±5.51). According to the results, nasolabial angles were 93.68°±7.82° and 92.25°±6.98° in females and males, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was found between the anterior nasal spine-maxilla angle and nasolabial angle (P<0.05). Moreover, the findings revealed a significant but weak negative correlation between alar subcutaneous fat thickness and alar cartilage thickness (0.0002). Maximal width of lateral crus was found to be 11.44mm±2.02 and 10.41 mm±1.72 in males and females, respectively.

Conclusion: Despite the differences observed between various ethnic groups, drawing a definiteconclusion about these variations needs comparative studies with similar samples (cadaver vs. patients) and measurement techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijorl.2020.42574.2391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7515619PMC
September 2020

Spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise testing and the six-minute walk test results in sarcoidosis patients.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2019 1;36(3):185-194. Epub 2019 May 1.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The 6-minute walking test, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and spirometry are useful tools for evaluation of respiratory impairment and functional capacity in patients with lung disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology.

Objectives: Since the pulmonary involvement can affect the quality of life in sarcoidosis patients, this study is aimed to evaluate the tests mentioned above in order to examine the functional capacity of sarcoidosis patients in different stages as well as the cause of exercise intolerance.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 50 Iranian patients with sarcoidosis. Patients were classified into three groups based on the findings of the chest radiography as well as the pulmonary CT scan, reported by an expert radiologist. Pulmonary, cardiac, and activity function have been evaluated in the patients, using cardiopulmonary exercise testing, the 6-minutes walking test, and spirometry.

Results: In cardiopulmonary exercise testing, percent-predicted peak VO (57.75±15.49, p=0.015) and percent-predicted O pulse (70.54±17.37, p=0.013) were significantly lower in the third group, in comparison with the others. Also, VE/CO (AT) (34.99±5.67, p=0.000) was significantly higher in the third group, in comparison with the other ones. Percent-predicted VO showed a strong positive correlation with age (r=0.377, p=0.009), TSH (r= 0.404, p=0.007), and percent-predicted FVC (r=0.443, p=0.002). In addition, O pulse had a positive correlation with BMI (r=0.324, p=0.026), percent-predicted FVC (r=0.557, p= 0.000), and percent-predicted FEV (r=0.316, p=0.032).

Conclusions: According to this study, ventilatory limitation, pulmonary involvement, and deconditioning are the main causes of activity limitations in sarcoidosis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.36141/svdld.v36i3.7663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247088PMC
August 2020

Identification of Sonographic Features for Predicting Benign Versus Malignant Mediastinal or Hilar Lymph Nodes Using Endobronchial Ultrasound.

Oman Med J 2020 Mar 30;35(2):e112. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, such as Iran, the differentiation of malignant from non-malignant tumors is crucial. We attempted to find a reliable model in determining malignant nodes by investigating the sonographic characteristics of lymph nodes (LNs).

Methods: In this prospective study, the morphologic characteristics of LNs, including size, shape, vascular pattern, echogenicity, margin, coagulation necrosis sign, calcification, and central hilar structure, which had been obtained during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, were compared with the final pathology results.

Results: We examined 253 LNs from 93 patients. Round shape, non-hilar vascular pattern, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, distinct margin, and the existence of necrosis signs were significantly higher in malignant nodes. On the other hand, the existence of calcification, as well as the presence of central hilar structure, were highly suggestive of benign nodes ( < 0.050). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that size > 1 cm, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, the existence of necrosis signs, and the lack of central hilar structure are independent predictive factors for malignancy. The accuracy of each of the aforementioned characteristics are 42.3%, 71.5%, 71.9%, 73.5%, and 65.6%, respectively. Of 74 malignant LNs, 100% had at least one of these independent factors.

Conclusions: The morphological features of LNs based on endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration can play a role in predicting malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2020.30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199125PMC
March 2020

The utility of elastography during EBUS-TBNA in a population with a high prevalence of anthracosis.

Clin Respir J 2020 May 19;14(5):488-494. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Ultrasound elastography, is a pioneer sonographic modality that is conducted during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in order to increase the accuracy of sampling location. The current study aims to evaluate the usefulness of elastography during EBUS-TBNA in a population with a high prevalence of anthracosis.

Methods: This prospective single-blinded study was performed on 69 lymph nodes (LNs) of patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy undergoing EBUS-TBNA and EBUS-elastography from October 2017 to July 2018. The stiffness level of the tissue was translated into a color to demonstrate the hardness of tissue. Blue and total areas of each section were measured to calculate the hardness of each LN.

Results: Sixty-nine LNs were evaluated by elastography. Twenty percent of LNs were malignant. There was a statistical difference between malignant and non-malignant nodes based on color dominancy (P = 0.032). However, with the exclusion of anthracosis nodes from the analysis, the difference was more significant (P < 0.001). Moreover, when the blue dominancy was used as the predictor of malignancy or anthracosis, the results showed a significant correlation (P < 001).

Conclusion: The usefulness of elastography in selecting the hardest area of tissue that is appropriate for diagnosing diseases has been proven previously. Since in countries with a high prevalence of anthracosis, blue color achieved using elastography predicts either malignancy or anthracosis so, cases with blue dominancy of LNs in elastography and the white color in the EBUS-TBNA indicate anthracosis-caused calcification should be reconsidered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.13159DOI Listing
May 2020

High sensitivity versus low level of vancomycin needs to be concern for another alternative anti- Staphylococcus aureus as the first- line antibiotic.

Acta Biomed 2019 12 23;90(4):498-503. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Toxicological Research Center, Loghman-Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran..

Background And Aim: Vancomycin has been the first-line therapy for MRSA infection disease for many years. According to standard guidelines, the therapeutic vancomycin trough concentration should be above 10 mg/L and optimally between 15-20 mg/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate vancomycin trough level concentration in patients infected with MRSA.

Methods: This cross- sectional study included a sample of 170 patients admitted to the ICU of Loghman hospital. We used a standard questionnaire, then applied appropriate statistical tests. All collected data had been analyzed and interpreted by IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0.

Results: Among this study population, 71.8% was male. Just 20.8% of the patients can reach the therapeutic level trough even after changing the dose. It should be noted that a significant percentage of toxicity was observed after increasing the dose.

Conclusions: Even though high sensitivity against vancomycin disc has been seen in antibiogram tests, sufficient efficiency has not been distinguished, in the sense that, just a few patients by low trough level concentration, reached to therapeutic level after the dose change. Based on some sources, because of the side effects and limited safe range of vancomycin, we should consider a new approach to the alternative antibiotics. (www.actabiomedica.it).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v90i4.7646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233789PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of Quality of Life in Terms of Sinonasal Symptoms in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

Biomol Concepts 2019 Jun 17;10(1):91-98. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Mycobacteriology Research Center, National, Tehran, Iran.

Objective Sinusitis is a common complaint in children with cystic fibrosis. However, the actual prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis and its effect on the quality of life of children have not been well considered. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of sinonasal quality of life in children with cystic fibrosis. Materials and methods This study was a diagnostic study performed on 80 children with cystic fibrosis ranging from 2 to 20 years old, who were referred to the cystic fibrosis clinic of Masih Daneshvari Hospital from 2017-2018. The questionnaires used in this study were chronic rhinosinusitis screening questionnaire based on the European task force and the evaluation of the sinonasal quality of life was based on the SN-5 survey. Results Of the 80 patients with fibrosis from 2 to 20 years old who were recruited in the study, 41 patients were female (51.3%) and 39 were male (48.8%). In 61 cases (76.3%), there was no chronic rhinosinusitis and 19 cases (23.8%) had chronic rhinosinusitis. The mean SN-5 score in 19 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis was 3.4105 and the mean score of patients without rhinosinusitis was 1.8426, with a P-value of 0.000. The mean SN-5 score was significant between the two groups. In patients with nasal congestion, there was a significant difference in quality of life factors such as sinus infection, nasal obstruction, and allergy symptoms (P<0.001). In patients with facial pain, there was a significant difference in quality of life factors such as sinus infection, nasal obstruction, allergic symptoms, and physical activity limitation (P <0.001). There was also a significant difference in the quality of life factors such as sinus infection, nasal obstruction, and allergy symptoms in patients with postnasal drip (P <0.001). Conclusion In children with cystic fibrosis, the quality of life of sinonasal has a significant relationship with absence of chronic rhinosinusitis. This study showed that children with chronic renosinusitis have significantly lower quality of sinonasal life than children with chronic rhinosinusitis. The results demonstrated that quality of life scores in sinus infections, nasal obstruction, and allergy symptoms were significantly higher in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis than in those without chronic rhinosinusitis. The findings of this study are important for improving children's health related quality of life, as it leads to promoting communication between the patient and the health care provider, identifying overlooked problems, monitoring the progress of the disease and the burden of treatment, and promoting interventions in the daily life of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2019-0011DOI Listing
June 2019

Renal Disorders in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Patients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2019 Jan;13(1):21-26

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The frequency of kidney disorders varies in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. Since the prevalence of kidney disorders among Iranian sarcoidosis patients is uncertain, this study aimed to evaluate kidney disorders and associated manifestations in Iranian pulmonary sarcoidosis patients.

Materials And Methods: One hundred patients with confirmed granuloma as pulmonary sarcoidosis were studied for renal disorders. Size of urinary tract and the presence of renal stones were checked via clinical examination and urinary organ ultrasonography. Patients' 24-hour urine sample was examined for pH, calcium, protein (over 250 mg) and creatinine (over 1.4 mg).

Results: Thirty-three percent of the patients expressed renal disorders simultaneously.Uric acid in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients could be correlated with the probability of developing renal stone. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels above 30 ng/mL and uric acid levels above 7 mg/dL in urine were directly correlated with renal disorders in sarcoidosis patients.

Conclusions: Urinalysis is an easy and reliable method for assessing renal disorders in sarcoidosis patients. The current study proposes inclusion of urinalysis in routine checkups of sarcoidosis individuals.
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January 2019

Serum Interleukin-27 Level in Different Clinical Stages of Lung Cancer.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Jan 5;7(1):45-49. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Advanced lung cancer is indicated with rapid disease development. Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is regarded as a cytokine with anti-tumour activities.

Aim: Since, the impact of type of lung cancer on the level of IL-27 in patient's serum has not yet been investigated; current study evaluated the clinical stages according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criteria, Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) stage and the lung cancer spread (localized or widespread) and it's correlation with serum IL-27.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty patients with confirmed histopathological lung cancer and 30 cancer-free healthy individuals as the control group were included in the current study. Patients group were assigned to either small cell lung cancer group (SCLC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) according to the clinical features and the results of lung biopsy specimens. Level of IL-27 was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test in serum samples.

Results: A significant increase in serum IL-27 level was noticed in individuals with lung cancer in comparison with the control group. The level of serum IL-27 in the NSCL squamous carcinoma (NSCLC-Sc) type was significantly greater than in the NSCLC adenocarcinoma (NSCLC-Ad) type, and in both groups, this variable was more than the control group. The serum IL-27 content level was greater in stage III versus stage IV.

Conclusion: The current research confirmed the existence of the anti-tumour components in patients with NSCLC. IL-27 can be utilised in diagnosis and screening in early stages of lung cancer along with the management of patients. Different levels of IL-27 in different types of lung cancers in the current study can lead to design more comprehensive studies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352477PMC
January 2019

Serum Procalcitonin Level as a Predictor of Bacterial Infection in Patients with COPD Exacerbation.

Tanaffos 2019 Feb;18(2):112-117

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Although the cause of COPD exacerbations can be bacterial or viral, use of antibiotics in exacerbations remains controversial. Procalcitonin serum level dramatically increases in bacterial infections, but not in viral or noninfectious febrile diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the measurement of procalcitonin can be used to differentiate bacterial from non-bacterial causes of COPD exacerbations.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-eight COPD patients admitted to the emergency department of Masih Daneshvari Hospital due to COPD exacerbation were studied. At admission and before prescribing antibiotics, we obtained sputum and blood samples for sputum gram staining and culture and measured serum C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. All results were analyzed by SPSS software version 22.

Results: A total of 68 patients including 51 males and 17 females were studied. From 38.2% of patients a respiratory pathogen was isolated from their sputum and 23.5% of patients had elevated serum procalcitonin values. Using Fisher exact test, we found strong correlation between elevated procalcitonin levels above 0.5 ng/ml and sputum culture results (P < 0.01). We also found strong correlation between elevated procalcitonin levels above 0.5 ng/ml with abnormal C-reactive protein levels in a group of patients with positive sputum culture, using Fisher exact test (P <0.01).

Conclusion: As sputum culture and microbiologic studies are time consuming and sometimes expensive, it seems that procalcitonin could be a reliable marker of bacterial infection in COPD exacerbation, although we recommend a larger study with larger sample to consolidate the finding of this study.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230128PMC
February 2019

Reducing Inappropriate Utilization of Albumin: The Value of Pharmacist-led Intervention Model.

Iran J Pharm Res 2018 ;17(3):1125-1129

Pharmacovigilance Department, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Albumin is known as a human blood product, with high cost and limited availability. Several studies have demonstrated the extent in which albumin is being utilized in controversial indications not supported or weakly supported by the available literature. To rationalize the use of albumin and to decrease the inappropriate cost of this expensive drug` a two phase study, with equal length of 66-days, comprising an observational drug utilization evaluation and a pharmacist-led audit and feedback interventional study, was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. The results of the interventional phase including the introduction of evidence-base guideline for albumin via a pharmacist-led audit and feedback intervention was compared to the ones from the observational phase. A total of 90 and 45 patients were included in the phase one and phase two of the study respectively. During the initial phase, 1870 albumin vials were used, of which 1467 (78.4%) vials were prescribed inappropriately. Inappropriate use of albumin was decreased significantly by 79.3% ( < 0.001) through the interventional phase, leading to 38,800 USD reduction in inappropriate costs of albumin. Introduction of evidence based guideline in conjugation with pharmacist-led audit and feedback can significantly decrease the inappropriate use of albumin. These results also demonstrate shifting towards a more evidence-based practice, which can increase patient's safety and enhance quality of care.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6094441PMC
January 2018

Evaluation of the Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of the Fatigue Assessment Scale in Iranian Sarcoidosis Patients.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Jul 14;6(7):1310-1314. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Fatigue is one of the common symptoms of sarcoidosis, which occurs in about 50-70% of patients.

Aim: Considering that there are no valid Iranian questionnaires for evaluating fatigue in sarcoidosis, in the present study, for the first time, we translated Fatigue Questionnaire into Persean and evaluated its validity and reliability among Iranian patients with sarcoidosis.

Material And Methods: In methodological research, English version of Fatigue assessment scale (FAS) 10 items questionnaire which is designed to assess physical or mental fatigue in chronic disease patients, was translated into Persian and back-translated into English. Its validity and reliability were studied on the one hundred and thirteen confirmed sarcoidosis patients are referring to respiratory referral hospital of Iran. Reliability analysis was performed by estimation of Cronbach`s alpha test.

Results: According to the cut-off point of 22.84 (74%) of the studied patients were suffering from fatigue. The internal consistency calculation revealed that the alpha value of the physical fatigue and mental fatigue was 0.945 and 0.896, respectively.

Conclusion: We concluded that the existence of questions number 4 and 10 in the questionnaire reduces the continuity of the questions, and therefore we suggest applying the FAS questionnaire without the two questions 4 and 10. This study showed that FAS questionnaire was very practical and can routinely be applied to assess the fatigue scale in sarcoidosis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062278PMC
July 2018

Effect of Adding Magnesium Sulphate to Epidural Bupivacaine and Morphine on Post-Thoracotomy Pain Management: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Nov 9;123(5):602-606. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Post-thoracotomy pain is very severe and may cause pulmonary complications. Thoracic epidural analgesia can greatly decrease the pain experience and its consequences. However, finding new methods to decrease the amount of administered opioids is an important issue of research. We aimed to evaluate the effect of adding epidural magnesium sulphate to bupivacaine and morphine on pain control and the amount of opioid consumption after thoracotomy. Eighty patients undergoing thoracotomy at a tertiary cardiothoracic referral centre were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind trial. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups. Bupivacaine (12.5 mg) and morphine (2 mg) were administered epidurally to all patients at the end of operation. Patients in the magnesium (Mg) group received epidural magnesium sulphate (50 mg), and patients in the control (C) group received normal saline as an adjuvant. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the amount of morphine consumption were measured during 24 hr post-operation. Thirty-nine patients in the Mg group and 41 patients in the C group completed the study. Patients in the Mg group had significantly less VAS score at recovery time (p < 0.05), 2 hr (p < 0.01) and 4 hr (p < 0.05) after surgery. The patient-controlled analgesia pump was started earlier in the C group than in the Mg group (p < 0.05). The amount of morphine needed in the Mg group was significantly lower than in the C group (5.64 ± 1.69 mg/24 hr versus 8.44 ± 3.98 mg/24 hr; p < 0.001). Pruritus was seen in the C group (9.7%) and absent in the Mg group (p < 0.05). Co-administration of magnesium sulphate with bupivacaine and morphine for thoracic epidural analgesia after thoracotomy leads to a reduction in post-operative pain score and the need for opioid administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13047DOI Listing
November 2018

An Overview of Asbestos and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: An Iranian Perspective

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 10 26;18(10):2619-2623. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran, Iran. Email:

Asbestos refers to a group of minerals that appears naturally in the environment as bundles of fibers. The incidence rate of asbestos-related diseases has considerably increased as well as the amount of asbestos utilization in few countries. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of aggressive and life threatening neoplasm which arise from various serous surfaces: pleura, peritoneum, tunica vaginalis and pericardium. The first case of MPM was reported in 1947. MPM etiologically is associated to the exposure of asbestos fibers. This form of malignancy is difficult to diagnose in paraclinical work-ups because mesothelioma could occur within 10-20 years of the first-time exposure to asbestos. The burden of MPM is not yet to be wholly understood. The toxic side effects of asbestos on environment and people compelled the European countries to accept the French view upon this matter. However, this approach has not been accepted by some developing countries. This review provides a brief points and facts in relation to MPM and asbestos in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.10.2619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747379PMC
October 2017

Item Selection and Content Validity of the Risk Factors of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis Observation Questionnaire for ICU-Admitted Patients.

Tanaffos 2017 ;16(1):22-33

Tracheal Diseases Research Center (TDRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Laryngotracheal stenosis as a late complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation is a life-threatening event. In order to determine the related risk factors for this complication, which may vary among different countries, designing a valid questionnaire is necessary. The aim of this study was to select the items and evaluate the face and content validities of a questionnaire developed for assessment of risk factors of post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) in patients admitted in the intensive care unit.

Materials And Methods: A mixed method study design was used in four steps in 2015, i.e., 1) a literature review, 2) focus groups with five experts in the field, 3) consultations with intensive care unit (ICU) specialists and thoracic surgeons, and 4) evaluation of content and face validity with 15 experts in a scientific panel using two self-administered questionnaires. Content validity index (CVI) was computed for individual items as well as the overall scale.

Results: We extracted the items from different sources of information. An initial version of the 52-item questionnaire was developed and classified into four domains including patient characteristics, intubation features, equipment-drugs, and complications. The items with an excellent modified kappa were included in the questionnaire. Five questions received more criticism instead of support and were removed (Item-CVI<0.55, fair modified kappa). The ones with an Item-CVI > 0.60 and a good modified kappa were revised, merged, or retained. The new 43-item questionnaire found a scale-level CVI, averaging (Scale-CVI/Ave) of 0.91.

Conclusion: The PITS risk factors questionnaire was developed and validated through item selection, expert opinions, and content validity index.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473379PMC
January 2017

Prevalence of tobacco use and associated factors in Tehran: Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study.

Lung India 2017 May-Jun;34(3):225-231

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of all common types of tobacco use and identify factors associated with tobacco use among adults in Tehran based on information from the population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study in Tehran.

Materials And Methods: This study had a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population was all noninstitutionalized residents of Tehran over 18 years of age in 2013. A total of 1798 individuals were visited in 22 districts of Tehran; 811 (45.1%) men and 987 (54.9%) women participated in structured interviews.

Results: The estimated prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 10.6% overall, 20.9% in men and 2.2% in women. The prevalence of smoking was the highest among respondents between 45 and 54 years in both males and females. The mean age of initiation of tobacco smoking was 21.04 ± 6.42 years. The mean Fagerström test score was 2.87 ± 2.36 among current smokers. The mean number f cigarettes smoked daily by the participants was 11.39 ± 10.92 cigarettes/day (95% confidence interval = 12.58-10.21) (range 1-60 cigarettes).

Conclusions: The 10.6% prevalence of cigarette smoking is alarming in Tehran. We found that male gender, hookah smoking experience, and poor health status were major risk factors in our study population. Hookah smoking can be considered as a reflection of tobacco smoking in the society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.205323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5427748PMC
May 2017

Evaluation of the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking and its related factors in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

East Mediterr Health J 2017 Mar 30;23(2):94-99. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Centre, National Research Institute for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

This study is designed to evaluate the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking and its related factors among Iranian adults. This is a cross-sectional study carried out during 2013/14 in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, among 1830 citizens aged over 15 years. Sampling was through Stratified multistage cluster sampling with proportional allocation within strata. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire for waterpipe consumption was used for data gathering. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. The prevalence of current waterpipe tobacco smoking was 17.6% .Waterpipe use prevalence in men was significantly more than women (24.2% vs. 11.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, cigarette consumption, waterpipe consumption at home and ignorance of safety issues significantly influenced current waterpipe smoking (P = 0.001). Thus, prevalence of waterpipe smoking in Iranian adults is high and significant. Tackling waterpipe smoking should be considered in tobacco control programmes. However, further studies in this field are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/2017.23.2.94DOI Listing
March 2017

Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a High-Risk Population Using the Stop-Bang Questionnaire in Tehran, Iran.

Tanaffos 2017 ;16(3):217-224

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, NRITLD, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder. Despite its significant morbidities and mortality, the majority of patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. The epidemiology of OSA is well studied in Western countries, while there is scarce information on its epidemiology in other countries. We examined the prevalence of high-risk for OSA in a large urban region of Tehran, Iran.

Materials And Methods: We randomly selected 4021 individuals above 18 years in clusters from different districts of Tehran and surveyed them using the Stop-Bang questionnaire. The questionnaire also incorporated the demographic characteristics, education level, history of coronary artery disease and diabetes, and women's menopausal status. A score of 3 or higher on the Stop-Bang questionnaire indicated the high risk of OSA.

Results: The study population consisted of 2075 (51.6%) females and 1946 (48.4%) males, with the mean age of 40.88 years (SD, 15.4) and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.18 kg/m (SD, 4.43). Overall, 51.4% of males and 26.5% of females (total, 1513; 38.6%) were classified in the high-risk group, according to the Stop-Bang questionnaire. The risk of OSA was directly correlated with BMI, advanced age, and history of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

Conclusion: According to the Stop-Bang questionnaire, almost 1 out of every 3 individuals was classified in the high-risk group for OSA. Considering the significant morbidity and mortality of this disorder, it is considered a major health problem. Therefore, further detailed studies with confirmatory tests are recommended in order to plan strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of these patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960226PMC
January 2017

Normothermic Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in Brain-dead Donors Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-like Receptor Expression.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2016 Oct;15(5):340-354

Lung Transplant Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Directors of Organ Transplantation and Special Diseases Office, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Inflammatory responses and innate immunologic reactions play an important role in the respiratory system. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is considered a novel method in the evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs prior to transplantation. However, EVLP's effect on inflammatory and metabolic markers of human lung tissue is unknown.  This study investigated how the performance of EVLP on brain-dead (BD) donor lungs affects the production and release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a), inflammatory cells and toll-like receptors (TLR) -2, 4. This study was conducted with an animal subject for qualification of EVLP team and then EVLP was performed on 4 human cases referred to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Tehran,Iran), from May 2013 to July 2015. Two of these cases, who had acceptable lung function parameters, were enrolled in this study for immunologic investigations. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were taken before and after EVLP. Cytokines were quantitatively measured before lung retrieval, at the end of the lung removal, at the start of EVLP, and at the end of the each hour of EVLP. TLR expression was measured on the cells obtained by flow cytometry. TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 decreased in each stage of washing perfusate in both cases, and the level of cytokines in serum was in the normal range. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a decreasing expression of CD3, CD4/8, CD19, and CD16+56, as well as TLR-2 and TLR-4 in both cases. Intra-capillary pools of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a) were determined to contribute to the lung injury during prolonged lung perfusion. This raises the possibility that EVLP donor lungs could be less immunogenic than standard lungs. However, to assess EVLP's effects on lung grafts and optimize recipient outcomes, further studies with a sufficient number of lungs are required.
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October 2016

Association of Mycobacterium infections in patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease with venous thromboembolism.

Microbiol Immunol 2016 Oct;60(10):678-686

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases.

An association between a hypercoagulable state and Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) has been established in a few studies; resultant thrombosis is considered rare. In a case-control study, the prevalence of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C mutations were investigated in mycobacterium-infected patients. The study comprised 30 patients with mycobacterial infections (invasive, disseminated and/or recurrent infections with Bacille Calmette-Guerin or non-tuberculosis mycobacteria and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis with positive results for acid-fast bacilli and tuberculin skin tests) and 30 normal healthy controls. Forty female (66.7%) and 20 male subjects (33.3%) aged from 3 to 70 years were recruited into this study. Genotyping of targeted genes was performed by RT-PCR and cytokine TNF-α concentrations were quantified using a commercially available ELISA kit. Significant associations between mycobacterial infection and TNF-α production after stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with LPS alone and with IFN-γ plus LPS were identified. Moreover, genotyping analysis in the studied population revealed a significant association between MTHFR c.677C>T (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.35-7.92; P < 0.05), MTHFR c.1298A>C (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.10-4.93; P < 0.05) and mycobacterial infection in affected patients, indicating susceptibility to venous thromboembolism according to previous studies. Additionally, mycobacterium-infected patients had a significantly greater prevalence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations than controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12442DOI Listing
October 2016

Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion: Establishment and Operationalization in Iran.

Exp Clin Transplant 2017 Feb 14;15(1):82-88. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

From the Lung Transplant Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital. All organ donations from brain dead donors were evaluated according to lung transplant or ex vivo lung perfusion criteria from May 2013 to July 2015 in Tehran, Iran. If a donor did not have any sign of severe chest trauma or pneumonia but had poor oxygenation due to possible atelectasis or neurogenic pulmonary edema, their lungs were included for ex vivo lung perfusion.

Results: A successful trend in the difference between the pulmonary arterial Po2 and the left atrial Po2 was observed, as well as an increasing pattern in other functional parameters, including dynamic lung compliance and a decreasing trend in pulmonary vascular resistance.

Conclusions: These initial trials indicate that ex vivo lung perfusion can lead to remarkable progress in lung transplant in Iran. They also provide several important pieces of guidance for successful ex vivo lung perfusion, including the necessity of following standard lung retrieval procedures and monitoring temperature and pressure precisely. The development of novel methods can provide opportunities for further research studies on lungs of deceased donors and lead to undiscovered findings. By keeping this science up to date in Iran and developing such new and creative methods, we can reveal effective strategies to promote the quality of donor lungs to support patients on transplant wait lists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2015.0354DOI Listing
February 2017

Clinicopathological Characteristics of Iranian Patients with Lung Cancer: a Single Institute Experience.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(8):3817-22

Medical Oncology, Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail :

Background: Lung cancer has long been a leading cause of cancer related death in both women and men worldwide. The focus of this study was to review clinicopathological features of Iranian patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

Materials And Methods: Clinicopathological data of 1353 primary lung cancer patients diagnosed during 17 years (1997-2014) in the "National Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease" (NRITLD), Tehran, Iran, were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: The median age of patients was 60 (mean: 58.95 years, range: 16- 99) and adenocarcinoma was the most prevalent pathology (45.2%). Male/female ratio was 3.22 and 57.2% of patients were smokers (men 70.3%, women 15%). The majority (85.3%) were referred in advanced stages (stage IIIB and IV).

Conclusions: Although some of our findings are in concordance with other studies in lung cancer there are some discrepancies particularly in terms of smoking status and median age of Iranian patients. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are warranted to elucidate etiologic and factors other than smoking contributing to development of lung cancer, such as environmental exposures or genetic predisposition.
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February 2017

A randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation methods in patients newly-diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2016 08 5;16:369. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and tobacco use are two major alarming global health issues that tend to be co-prevalent in many developing countries and various surveys have provided evidence on their entangled associations. Accordingly, it is strongly suggested that smoking cessation be incorporated in TB control programs. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of two smoking cessation methods among newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB patients.

Methods: A total of 210 newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB patients from Tehran, Iran with smoking habits were included in this randomized clinical trial during 2012-2013. Patients were assigned to three groups of control (just TB medical treatment), brief advice (TB medical treatment plus individualized counseling sessions of quitting behavioral therapy) and combined intervention (TB medical treatment plus individualized counseling sessions of quitting behavioral therapy plus medical treatment with slow release bupropion). Patients' abstinence was followed at six time point during six months. Data were analyzed by SPSS v.22 using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model.

Results: Abstinance rate at the end of six months were 71.7 % for combined intervention group, 33.9 % for brief advice group and 9.8 % for the control group (p < 0.001). Combined intervention group and brief advice group respectively had 35 times (p < 0.001, OR = 35.26, 95 % CI = 13.77-90.32) and 7 times (p < 0.001, OR = 7.14, 95 % CI = 2.72-18.72) more odds of not being an active smoker at each time point, compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Considering the prevalence and importance of TB and the substantial influence of these preventive measures on controlling tobacco use, application of such programs is recommended.

Trial Registration: The survey was registered in the Iranian registry of clinical trials website (irct.ir) in August 31, 2013 with IRCT ID: IRCT2013062613783N1 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1727-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4974814PMC
August 2016

Intention to Quit Smoking and Associated Factors in Smokers Newly Diagnosed with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

Tanaffos 2016 ;15(1):17-24

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several studies have shown that smoking, as a modifiable risk factor, can affect tuberculosis (TB) in different aspects such as enhancing development of TB infection, activation of latent TB and its related mortality. Since willingness to quit smoking is a critical stage, which may lead to quit attempts, being aware of smokers' intention to quit and the related predictors can provide considerable advantages.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects were recruited via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Sampling was performed during 2012-2014 among pulmonary TB (PTB) patients referred to health centers in Tehran implementing the directly observed treatment short course (DOTS) strategy and a TB referral center. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22 and the factors influencing quit intention were assessed using bivariate regression and multiple logistic regression models.

Results: In this study 1,127 newly diagnosed PTB patients were studied; from which 284 patients (22%) were current smokers. When diagnosed with TB, 59 (23.8%) smokers quit smoking. Among the remaining 189 (76.2%) patients who continued smoking, 52.4% had intention to quit. In the final multiple logistic regression model, living in urban areas (OR=8.81, P=0.003), having an office job (OR= 7.34, P=0.001), being single (OR=4.89, P=0.016) and a one unit increase in the motivation degree (OR=2.60, P<0.001) were found to increase the intention to quit smoking.

Conclusion: The study found that PTB patients who continued smoking had remarkable intention to quit. Thus, it is recommended that smoking cessation interventions should be started at the time of TB diagnosis. Understanding the associated factors can guide the consultants to predict patients' intention to quit and select the most proper management to facilitate smoking cessation for each patient.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937757PMC
July 2016

Psychological Symptoms Before and After a 14-Day Initial Inpatient Treatment in Tuberculosis Patients Compared with Their Primary Caregivers and Healthy Controls.

Tanaffos 2015 ;14(3):182-92

Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most challenging public health burdens in the world. Recent research demonstrated high prevalence of mental disorders in TB patients and their caregivers. The purpose of this study was to assess mental health of TB patients and their caregivers in Iran before and after a two-week inpatient treatment and to determine the prevalence of psychological problems in these groups.

Materials And Methods: A standardized questionnaire (SCL-90) was used to assess psychological symptoms in 146 hospitalized TB patients and their caregivers (n=89). Furthermore, the scores of both target groups were compared with those of a group of healthy individuals (n=85).

Results: The mean scores before the start of the initial treatment of the patients were significantly lower for paranoid ideation (P=0.038) and hostility (P= 0.046), and the scores of depression (P=0.046) and somatization (P=0.001) were significantly higher than those of the healthy individuals. The patients scored significantly higher than the caregivers on depression (0.047) and somatization (P< 0.001), whereas the caregivers scored higher than the healthy individuals on paranoid ideation (P= 0.044) and hostility (P= 0.034). Multiple linear regression showed that age, educational level and marital status were factors affecting the mental health of TB patients and their caregivers. The variance in psychological symptoms of the patients was between 10% (paranoid ideation) and 27% (hostility) of the variance in the symptoms of their caregivers.

Conclusion: Tuberculosis control and treatment programs should not only address issues like continued respiratory symptoms, but should also focus on mental health in TB patients and their caregivers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4745187PMC
February 2016

Prevalence and Geographic Distribution Pattern of Asthma in Tehran by ECRHS.

Tanaffos 2016 ;15(4):236-242

Tobacco Control Research Center, Iranian Anti Tobacco Association, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Asthma, involving 5-10% of global population, has a heterogeneous distribution in the community regardless of age and its prevalence and incidence tend to grow worldwide as reported by many recent epidemiologic surveys.

Materials And Methods: The present study aimed to survey the prevalence of asthma symptoms in Tehran as the first attempt in terms of situation analysis of the disease in the Iranian society by using relevant parts of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire.

Results: Wheezing was reported in 48% of males and 34% of females in the age range of 20-44 years, around 50% of which was associated with breathlessness or cold., the people who answered "yes" to the questions 1 (wheezing), 4 (coughing), 5 (asthma history) or 7 (nasal allergy) were totally 211 among whom 124 (58.8%) were males and the rest (41.2%) were females.

Conclusion: Asthma symptoms decrease the quality of life and impose high costs on the healthcare system in many countries. A low rate of participants had been informed about their asthma by physicians and not all of them were taking medications. Risk factor analysis and control is strongly advised in order to lessen the prevalence of the disease and symptoms. Air pollution, smoking, unhealthy life style and many personal and social factors need to be assessed and eliminated. It seems that a- second phase- ECRH survey should be conducted to assess the situation of asthma through population of Tehran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5410120PMC
January 2016

Burden of obstructive lung disease study in Tehran: Prevalence and risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Lung India 2015 Nov-Dec;32(6):572-7

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was ranked the sixth-most common cause of death worldwide in 1990, but now it is the third-most common cause. The goal of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determine the causes and risk factors of COPD in Tehran.

Materials And Methods: This study followed a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population was all non-institutionalized inhabitants, aged 18 to 40 in one group and over 40 in another who resided in Tehran in 2013. The core questionnaire was developed from pre-existing validated questionnaires that had already been used in multi-national studies. The single most important outcome measure obtained as part of this protocol was spirometry before and after the administration of 200 mg (two puffs) of salbutamol.

Results: The most commonly reported respiratory symptoms were: sputum production in 291 patients (16.2%) [95% confidence interval (CI): 14.5-17.9%], chronic cough in 171 (9.5%) (95% CI: 8.2-10.9%), wheezing in 377 (21.0%) (95%CI: 19.1-22.9%) and dyspnea in 388 patients (21.6%) (95% CI: 19.7-23.5%). The overall COPD prevalence defined by the post-bronchodilator spirometric functional criteria was 9.2%. This value in men (10.1%) was higher than in women (8.5%); the prevalence was significantly higher in subjects aged over 55 years (P ≤ 0.002). The prevalence of COPD was strongly dependent on smoking status, especially in ex-smokers, and increased considerably with age. 69% of patients with COPD were non-smoker.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of verified COPD, a great deal of which was undiagnosed before by a physician, highlights the necessity of raising awareness of this disease among health professionals, and use of spirometry in the primary care setting. A future cross-sectional and prospective cohort study should be performed to explore all risk factors and their impact on decline in lung function and worsening of respiratory symptoms especially in non-smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.168129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4663859PMC
December 2015

Interim Report from Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD Study) in Tehran: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Tanaffos 2014 ;13(3):6-13

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) is estimated to rank fifth in burden of disease and third in terms of mortality by 2020 worldwide. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and non-fully reversible airflow obstruction, causing structural changes in the lungs that can be demonstrated by a post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio <70%.

Materials And Methods: The sampling frame of the current study was the population of Tehran, the capital of Iran with the current population of nearly 8.1 million. A stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata was used in this study. The target population was all Tehran residents, aged 18 to 40 in one group and over 40 in another, in the year 2013. The stratification process of the sample according to the 22 municipal districts of Tehran city has been incorporated in the sampling process. Proportional to the number of households in the 22 districts, the appropriate number of clusters is weighted according to each district. The decision about the number of clusters is based on total sample size; mean household members; and logistical facilities for subject enumeration, transport, and examination.

Results: The overall COPD prevalence defined by the spirometric functional criteria was 10%, higher in men 12 (11.9%) than in women 15 (8.8%); the prevalence was significantly higher in subjects aged over 55 years (P =0.001). Only 10(3.7%) of these COPD patients had already been diagnosed by a physician. Of all subjects fulfilling the criteria for COPD according to the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) guidelines (post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC<70%), 90(33.3%) had chronic productive cough, and 262(96.7%) had either long-standing cough, sputum production, recurrent wheeze, dyspnea, or attacks of shortness of breath.

Conclusion: Due to the small sample size at this stage of project, conclusions should be drawn with caution. In this first epidemiological report in Tehran about COPD, a moderate prevalence of the disease was determined, and a high percentage of this figure had not been diagnosed before by a physician.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338047PMC
February 2015

Burden of obstructive lung disease study in tehran: research design and lung spirometry protocol.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Nov;5(11):1439-45

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are planned to rank fifth in burden of disease and third with respect to mortality by 2020. Carrying out research regarding different aspects of COPD is mentioned as important health priorities by academic institutions and governments. The burden of lung disease (BOLD) Initiative was designed a decade ago to develop robust models that can be used to estimate the prevalence and current and future economic burden of COPD. The goal of the present project is to describe the prevalence and determining the causes and risk factors of COPD in the population of Tehran city.

Methods: This cross-sectional study follows a stratified cluster sampling strategy with proportional allocation within strata. The target population is all noninstitutionalized inhabitants, aged 18-40 in one group and over 40 in another, who inhabit in Tehran city. The stratification of the sample according to the 22 municipal districts of Tehran is incorporated in the sampling process. Proportional to the number of households in the 22 districts, the appropriate number of clusters is weighted according to each district. For each cluster, a team of three members approaches the index household, which is specified through the aforementioned random selection of clusters, and continues the enumeration in 10 neighbor households in a systematic manner.

Results: As a study protocol, there are no specific results to present; our purpose is to share our design with the scientific body.

Conclusions: We expect that findings from the BOLD study in Tehran will show the status of COPD and its causes in the community.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4274551PMC
November 2014