Publications by authors named "Habib Ali"

67 Publications

Immune function differences between two color morphs of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at different life stages.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 31;11(10):5702-5712. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University Fuzhou China.

Several studies demonstrated that in insects cuticle melanism is interrelated with pathogen resistance, as melanin-based coloration and innate immunity possess similar physiological pathways. For some insects, higher pathogen resistance was observed in darker individuals than in individuals with lighter cuticular coloration. Here, we investigated the difference in immune response between two color morphs (black and red) and between the life stages (pupa and adult) of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Here in this study, cuticle thickness, microbial test (antimicrobial activity, phenoloxidase activity, and hemocyte density), and immune-related gene expression were evaluated at different stages of RPW. Study results revealed that cuticle thickness of black phenotype was thicker than red phenotype at old-pupa stage, while no significant difference found at adult stage. These results may relate to the development processes of epidermis in different stages of RPW. The results of antimicrobial activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and hemocyte density analyses showed that adults with a red phenotype had stronger pathogen resistance than those with a black phenotype. In addition to antimicrobial activity and PO activity, we tested relative gene expression in the fat body of old pupae. The results of hemolymph antimicrobial analysis showed that old pupae with a red phenotype were significantly different from those with a black phenotype at 12 hr after injection, suggesting that red phenotype pupae were more sensitive to . Examination of gene expression in the fat body also revealed that the red phenotype had a higher immune response than the black phenotype. Our results were inconsistent with the previous conclusion that dark insects had increased immune function, suggesting that the relationship between cuticle pigmentation and immune function in insects was not a direct link. Additional possible factors that are associated with the immune response, such as life-history, developmental, physiological factors also need to be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131810PMC
May 2021

Vitamin D status of children with Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (PIMS-TS).

Br J Nutr 2021 May 12:1-26. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of General Paediatrics, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused mild illness in children, until the emergence of the novel hyperinflammatory condition PIMS-TS: Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). PIMS-TS is thought to be a post- SARS-CoV-2 immune dysregulation with excessive inflammatory cytokine release. We studied 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in children with PIMS-TS, admitted to a tertiary paediatric hospital in the United Kingdom (U.K), due to its postulated role in cytokine regulation and immune response. Eighteen children [median (range) age 8.9 (0.3 to 14.6) years, male=10] met the case definition. Majority were of Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) origin [89%, 16/18]. Positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were present in 94% (17/18) and RNA by PCR in 6% (1/18). 72% of the cohort were vitamin D deficient (<30nmol/L). The mean 25OHD concentration was significantly lower when compared to the population mean from the 2015/16 National Diet and Nutrition Survey (children aged 4-10 years) [24 vs 54nmol/L (95% CI: -38.6, -19.7); p<0.001]. The PICU group had lower mean 25OHD concentrations compared to the non-PICU group, but this was not statistically significant [19.5 vs 31.9 nmol/L; p=0.11]. The higher susceptibility of BAME children to PIMS-TS and also vitamin D deficiency merits contemplation. Whilst any link between vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 and related conditions including PIMS-TS requires further evidence, public health measures to improve vitamin D status of the U.K BAME population has been long overdue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521001562DOI Listing
May 2021

Concurrent adult pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence survey using digital radiography and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra and child interferon-gamma release assay infection survey in Karachi, Pakistan: a study protocol.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 6;5:159. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Assessment of the effectiveness of tuberculosis control strategies requires the periodic measurement of transmission in populations, which is notoriously difficult. One well-established method is to measure the prevalence of infectious pulmonary tuberculosis in the population which is then repeated at a second time point after a period of 'intervention', such as scale up of the Search-Treat-Prevent strategy of the Zero TB Cities initiative, allowing for a 'before and after' comparison.  The concurrent adult pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence survey (using digital radiography and Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra) and child infection survey (using QuantiFERON-TB® Gold Plus) will primarily provide a baseline measure of the burden of adult infectious tuberculosis in Karachi and assess whether a large-scale interferon gamma release assay survey in children aged 2 to 4 years is feasible. The target population for the prevalence survey is comprised of a stratified random sample of all adults aged 15 years and above and all children aged 2 to 4 years resident in four districts in Karachi. The survey procedures and analyses to estimate pulmonary tuberculosis prevalence are based on the World Health Organization methodology for tuberculosis prevalence surveys. The study protocol has been approved by the Interactive Research Development / The Indus Hospital Research Centre Research Ethics Committee in Karachi, Pakistan and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Research Ethics Committee. Due to non-representative sampling in this setting, where a large proportion of the population are illiterate and are reluctant to provide fingerprints due to concerns about personal security, verbal informed consent will be obtained from each eligible participant or guardian. Results will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals, presented at international conferences and shared with participating communities and with the Provincial and National TB programme.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15963.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968470PMC
July 2020

Using a low-cost, real-time electronic immunization registry in Pakistan to demonstrate utility of data for immunization programs and evidence-based decision making to achieve SDG-3: Insights from analysis of Big Data on vaccines.

Int J Med Inform 2021 05 8;149:104413. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

IRD Global, 15 Beach Road #02-01, 189677, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the proliferation of digital interventions such as Electronic Immunization Registries (EIR), currently, there is little evidence regarding the use of EIR data to improve immunization outcomes in resource-constrained settings. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of ensuring healthy lives and well-being for all ages, particularly for newborns and children under the age of 5 (goal 3b), it is essential to generate and use quality data for evidence-based decision making to overcome barriers inherent in immunization systems. In Pakistan, only 66 % of children receive all basic vaccinations, and in Sindh province, the number is even lower at 49 %. In 2012, IRD developed and piloted Zindagi Mehfooz (Safe Life; ZM) ElR, an Android-based platform that records and analyses individual-level child data in real-time. In 2017 in collaboration with Expanded Programme for Immunization (EPI) Sindh, ZM was scaled-up across the entire Sindh province and is currently being used by 2521 government vaccinators in 1539 basic health facilities, serving >48 million population.

Objective: The study aims to demonstrate how big immunization data from the ZM-EIR is being leveraged in Sindh, Pakistan for actionable decision making via three use cases (a) improving performance management of vaccinators to increase geographical coverage, (b) quantifying the impact of provincial accelerated outreach activities, and (c) examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization coverage to help devise a tailored approach for future efforts.

Methods: From October 2017 to April 2020, more than 2.9 million children and 0.9 million women have been enrolled, and more than 22 million immunization events have been recorded in the ZM-EIR. We extracted de-identified data from ZM-EIR for January 1, 2019 - April 20, 2020, period. Given the needs of each use case, monthly and daily indicators on vaccinator performance (attendance and compliance), daily immunization visits, and the number of antigens administered were calculated. Geo-coordinate data of antigen administration was extracted and displayed on geographic maps using QGIS. All generated reports were shared at fixed frequency with various stakeholders, such as partners at EPI-Sindh, for utilization in decision making and informing policy.

Result: Our use-cases demonstrate the use of EIR data for data-driven decision making. From January - December 2019, the monthly monitoring of program indicators helped increase the vaccinator attendance from 44% to 88%, while an 85 % increase in geographical coverage was observed in a polio-endemic super high-risk union council (SHRUC) in Karachi. The analysis of daily average antigens administered during accelerated outreach efforts (AOE) as compared to routine activities showed an increase in average daily Pentavalent-3, Measles-1, and Measles-2 vaccines administered by 103%, 154%, and 180% respectively. These findings helped decide to continue the accelerated effort in high-risk areas (compared to the entire province) rather than discontinuing the activity due to high costs. During COVID-19 lockdown, the daily average number of child immunizations reduced from 16,649 to 4335 per day, a decline of 74% compared to 6 months preceding COVID-19 lockdown. ZM-EIR data is currently helping to shape the planning and implementation of critical strategies to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: The big data for vaccines generated through EIRs is a powerful tool to monitor immunization work-force and ensure chronically missed communities are identified and covered through targeted strategies. Geospatial data availability and analysis is changing the way EPI review meetings occur with stakeholders, taking data-driven decisions for better planning and resource allocation. In the fight against COVID-19 pandemic, as governments gradually begin to shift from containing the outbreak to strategizing a plan for sustaining the essential health services, the countries that will emerge most successful are likely the ones who can best use technology and real-time data for targeted efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104413DOI Listing
May 2021

Reldesemtiv in Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy: a Phase 2 Hypothesis-Generating Study.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

This phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, hypothesis-generating study evaluated the effects of oral reldesemtiv, a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, in patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Patients ≥ 12 years of age with type II, III, or IV SMA were randomized into 2 sequential, ascending reldesemtiv dosing cohorts (cohort 1: 150 mg bid or placebo [2:1]; cohort 2: 450 mg bid or placebo [2:1]). The primary objective was to determine potential pharmacodynamic effects of reldesemtiv on 8 outcome measures in SMA, including 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Changes from baseline to weeks 4 and 8 were determined. Pharmacokinetics and safety were also evaluated. Patients were randomized to reldesemtiv 150 mg, 450 mg, or placebo (24, 20, and 26, respectively). The change from baseline in 6MWD was greater for reldesemtiv 450 mg than for placebo at weeks 4 and 8 (least squares [LS] mean difference, 35.6 m [p = 0.0037] and 24.9 m [p = 0.058], respectively). Changes from baseline in MEP at week 8 on reldesemtiv 150 and 450 mg were significantly greater than those on placebo (LS mean differences, 11.7 [p = 0.038] and 13.2 cm HO [p = 0.03], respectively). For 6MWD and MEP, significant changes from placebo were seen in the highest reldesemtiv peak plasma concentration quartile (C > 3.29 μg/mL; LS mean differences, 43.3 m [p = 0.010] and 28.8 cm HO [p = 0.0002], respectively). Both dose levels of reldesemtiv were well tolerated. Results suggest reldesemtiv may offer clinical benefit and support evaluation in larger SMA patient populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-020-01004-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of constant and fluctuating temperature on the circadian foraging rhythm of the red imported fire ant, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 27;28(1):64-72. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of High Technology for Plant Protection, Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 7 Jinying Rd., Tianhe District 510640, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Understanding circadian foraging rhythms activity of the red imported fire ant, Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foragers at different temperatures is an important step towards developing control measures in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. In this study, the circadian foraging rhythm activities of foragersat different temperature were investigated under laboratory and field conditions. Results indicated that the foraging activity increased after sunrise, and maximum foraging occurred at 14:00 (foraging rate was 69.22 ± 0.57 and 72.58 ± 1.15 foragers/min in the first and second year, respectively) in the tea fields of Guangzhou during autumn. Furthermore, foragers demonstrated circadian rhythms and exhibited a unimodal after 24 h. A significant correlation was found between foraging activity and temperature. colonies were active at moderate soil temperatures (approximately 26.65 °C to 29.24 °C). The preferred temperature of the colonies was 26 °C, followed by 22 °C and 18 °C in the laboratory. The individual activity was maximum at 17:00 (18.67 ± 1.66 times /10 min) and minimum at 5:00 (8.33 ± 2.51 times/10 min) at 26 °C. The fluctuating temperature had a significant impact on individual locomotor activity ( = 0.8979,  < 0.01) but did not alter the rhythm activity. Our results demonstrated that temperature might play an important role in circadian foraging rhythms activity of . These results may have implications for the development of more effective fire ant management strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783663PMC
January 2021

and management of (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler in cotton using organic's.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 19;28(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Root-knot nematodes (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and (Taub.) Butler, fungus, are very dangerous root damaging pathogens. Present study was planned to establish a chemical control of these root deteriorating pathogens under lab conditions as well as in field. Maximum death rate of nematode juveniles and minimum numbers of nematode eggs hatched were recorded in plates treated with Cadusafos (Rugby® 100G) @12 g/100 ml and Cartap® (4% G) @9g/100 ml. Chemical treatment of with Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole (Nativo®) @0.2 g/100 ml and Mancozeb + Matalaxyl (Axiom) @0.25 g/100 ml significantly controlled the mycelial growth in plates. The best treatments tested in laboratory were applied in field as protective and curative treatments. Results proved that chemical control of root-knot nematode and root rot fungi by tested chemicals at recommended time and dose is a significant management technique under field conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785457PMC
January 2021

The genus Cryptogonus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Pakistan, with description of a new species and a new record.

Zootaxa 2020 Oct 15;4861(1):zootaxa.4861.1.11. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application, Engineering Technology Research Center of Agricultural Pest Biocontrol, Guangdong Province; Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510640, China..

The new species of a ladybird beetle, Cryptogonus bhalwalnensis Azad Wang sp. nov. is described from Pakistan. Cryptogonus nepalensis bhutanensis Bielawski is recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Both species of Cryptogonus from Pakistan are diagnosed and illustrated; a distribution map is also presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4861.1.11DOI Listing
October 2020

Apomixis and strategies to induce apomixis to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations.

GM Crops Food 2021 Jan;12(1):57-70

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Khawaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology , Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

Hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance have been cultivated for decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seeds is that they do not have the ability to produce plants with the same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis, an asexual mode of reproduction by avoiding meiosis, exists naturally in flowering plants, and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis has the potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations in economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production are unclear, and much more effort will be required to determine the genetic architecture of this phenomenon. To fix hybrid vigor, synthetic apomixis has been suggested. The development of (mitosis instead of meiosis) genotypes has been utilized for clonal gamete production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are little known and need further clarification. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs), such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (cas), a reverse genetics tool, have paved the way toward the utilization of emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. Over the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. Disruption in the expression of genes specific to egg cell () through the CRISPR/Cas genome editing system promotes the induction of haploid seed, whereas triple knockout of the () genes , and cause embryo arrest and abortion, which can be fully rescued by male-transmitted . The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering the genotype by genome editing of expression or disruption of leads to clonal seed production and heritability for multiple generations. In the present review, we discuss current developments related to the use of CRISPR/Cas technology in plants and the possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigor. In addition, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications, and strategies for genotype development are discussed in detail.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645698.2020.1808423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553744PMC
January 2021

Update on immune-mediated therapies for myasthenia gravis.

Muscle Nerve 2020 11 28;62(5):579-592. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, California.

With the exception of thymectomy, immune modulatory treatment strategies and clinical trials in myasthenia gravis over the past 50 y were mainly borrowed from experience in other nonneurologic autoimmune disorders. The current experimental therapy paradigm has significantly changed such that treatments directed against the pathological mechanisms specific to myasthenia gravis are being tested, in some cases as the initial disease indication. Key advances have been made in three areas: (i) the expanded role and long-term benefits of thymectomy, (ii) complement inhibition to prevent antibody-mediated postsynaptic membrane damage, and (iii) neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) inhibition as in vivo apheresis, removing pathogenic antibodies. Herein, we discuss these advances and the potential for these newer therapies to significantly influence the current treatment paradigms. While these therapies provide exciting new options with rapid efficacy, there are anticipated challenges to their use, especially in terms of a dramatic increase in cost of care for some patients with myasthenia gravis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26919DOI Listing
November 2020

Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers for Analysis of Population Structure and Invasion Pathway in the Coconut Leaf Beetle (Gestro) Using Restriction Site-Associated DNA (RAD) Genotyping in Southern China.

Insects 2020 Apr 7;11(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control of Fujian-Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

To determine population genomic structure through high-throughput sequencing techniques has revolutionized research on non-model organisms. The coconut leaf beetle, (Gestro), is a widely distributed pest in Southern China. Here, we used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) genotyping to assess the invasion pathway by detecting and estimating the degree of genetic differentiation among 51 accessions collected from Southern China. A total of 10,127 SNPs were obtained, the screened single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information was used to construct the phylogenetic tree, ST analysis, principal component analysis, and population structure analysis. Genetic structure analysis was used to infer the population structure; the result showed that all accessions were divided into Hainan population and non-Hainan population. The Hainan population remained stable, only the Sansha population differentiated, and the non-Hainan populations have gradually differentiated into smaller sub-populations. We concluded that there are two sources of invasion of into mainland China: Taiwan and Hainan. With the increase of the invasion time, the Hainan population was relatively stable, and the Taiwan population was differentiated into three sub-populations. Based on the unrooted phylogenetic tree, we infer that Taiwan and Hainan are the two invasive base points. The Taiwan population invaded Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi, while the Hainan population invaded Yunnan and Sansha. Our results provide strong evidence for the utility of RAD sequencing (RAD-seq) in population genetics studies, and our generated SNP resource could provide a valuable tool for population genomics studies of in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11040230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240469PMC
April 2020

Population genomics of honey bees reveals a selection signature indispensable for royal jelly production.

Mol Cell Probes 2020 08 24;52:101542. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

College of Animal Sciences (College of Bee Science), Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

In order to interpret the molecular mechanisms that modulating the organism variations and selection signatures to drive adaptive evolutionary changes are indispensable goals in the new evolutionary ecological genetics. Here, we identified the gene locus associated to royal jelly production through whole-genome sequencing of the DNA from eight populations of honeybees. The analysis of the samples was composed of 120 individuals and each pointed extremely opposite trait values for a given phenotype. We identified functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) candidate that might be essential in regulating the phenotypic traits of honeybee populations. Moreover, selection signatures were investigated using pooling sequencing of eight distinct honeybee populations, and the results provided the evidence of signatures of recent selection among populations under different selection objectives. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses indicated that selected genes were potentially involved in several biological processes and molecular functioning, which could directly or indirectly influence the production of royal jelly. Our findings can be used to understand the genomic signatures, as well as implicate a profound glance on genomic regions that control the production trait of royal jelly in honey bees.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2020.101542DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical Effects of the Self-administered Subcutaneous Complement Inhibitor Zilucoplan in Patients With Moderate to Severe Generalized Myasthenia Gravis: Results of a Phase 2 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2020 05;77(5):582-592

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Importance: Many patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) have substantial clinical disability, persistent disease burden, and adverse effects attributable to chronic immunosuppression. Therefore, there is a significant need for targeted, well-tolerated therapies with the potential to improve disease control and enhance quality of life.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of zilucoplan, a subcutaneously (SC) self-administered macrocyclic peptide inhibitor of complement component 5, in a broad population of patients with moderate to severe gMG.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial at 25 study sites across North America recruited participants between December 2017 and August 2018. Fifty-seven patients were screened, of whom 12 did not meet inclusion criteria and 1 was lost to follow-up after randomization but before receiving study drug, resulting in a total of 44 acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (AChR-Ab)-positive patients with gMG with baseline Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) scores of at least 12, regardless of treatment history.

Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to a daily SC self-injection of placebo, 0.1-mg/kg zilucoplan, or 0.3-mg/kg zilucoplan for 12 weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary and key secondary end points were the change from baseline to week 12 in QMG and MG Activities of Daily Living scores, respectively. Significance testing was prespecified at a 1-sided α of .10. Safety and tolerability were also assessed.

Results: The study of 44 patients was well balanced across the 3 treatment arms with respect to key demographic and disease-specific variables. The mean age of patients across all 3 treatment groups ranged from 45.5 to 54.6 years and most patients were white (average proportions across 3 treatment groups: 78.6%-86.7%). Clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in primary and key secondary efficacy end points were observed. Zilucoplan at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg SC daily resulted in a mean reduction from baseline of 6.0 points in the QMG score (placebo-corrected change, -2.8; P = .05) and 3.4 points in the MG Activities of Daily Living score (placebo-corrected change, -2.3; P = .04). Clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements were also observed in other secondary end points, the MG Composite and MG Quality-of-Life scores. Outcomes for the 0.1-mg/kg SC daily dose were also statistically significant but slower in onset and less pronounced than with the 0.3-mg/kg dose. Rescue therapy (intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange) was required in 3 of 15, 1 of 15, and 0 of 14 participants in the placebo, 0.1-mg/kg zilucoplan, and 0.3-mg/kg zilucoplan arms, respectively. Zilucoplan was observed to have a favorable safety and tolerability profile.

Conclusions And Relevance: Zilucoplan yielded rapid, meaningful, and sustained improvements over 12 weeks in a broad population of patients with moderate to severe AChR-Ab-positive gMG. Near-complete complement inhibition appeared superior to submaximal inhibition. The observed safety and tolerability profile of zilucoplan was favorable.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03315130.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.5125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042797PMC
May 2020

The Impact of Funding on Childhood TB Case Detection in Pakistan.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Dec 15;4(4). Epub 2019 Dec 15.

The Indus Hospital, Karachi 75190, Pakistan.

This study is a review of routine programmatically collected data to describe the 5-year trend in childhood case notification in Jamshoro district, Pakistan from January 2013 to June 2018 and review of financial data for the two active case finding projects implemented during this period. The average case notification in the district was 86 per quarter before the start of active case finding project in October 2014. The average case notification rose to 322 per quarter during the implementation period (October 2014 to March 2016) and plateaued at 245 per quarter during the post-implementation period (April 2016 to June 2018). In a specialized chest center located in the district, where active case finding was re-introduced during the post implementation period (October 2016), the average case notification was 218 per quarter in the implementation period and 172 per quarter in the post implementation period. In the rest of the district, the average case notification was 160 per quarter in the implementation period and 78 during the post implementation period. The cost per additional child with TB found ranged from USD 28 to USD 42 during the interventions. A continuous stream of resources is necessary to sustain high notifications of childhood TB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6958435PMC
December 2019

Insect pollinators diversity and abundance in Mill. (Arugula) and L. (Field mustard) crops.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 17;26(7):1704-1709. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Studies on the insect pollinators diversity and their relative abundance in Mill. (Arugula) and L. (field mustard) was carried out during spring season from February to April consecutively during all the three years of 2016-18. Insect pollinators observed belonged to four orders i.e. Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera. A total of 20 major species of insect pollinators were recorded. The highest abundance of pollinator species belonged to Hymenoptera. The most prominent insect pollinator species were followed by other three honey bee species of , , and respectively. Some species of solitary bees were also recorded. From Diptera, four species of syrphid fly and one species from Muscidae family were also recorded. Insect pollinators recorded from order Lepidoptera were , , and . Lady bird beetle was recorded from Coleoptera order as occasional visitor. It was noticed that attracted more insect pollinators than which may be attributed to different amount and chemical properties of nectar, with number of pollen grains, and flower canopy of both crops. Further studies are needed to confirm the reasons for higher pollinator visitation to than through chemical analysis of nectar, amount of pollens, flower physiology and phenology of both crops.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864147PMC
November 2019

Exploring the Role of Relish on Antimicrobial Peptide Expressions (AMPs) Upon Nematode-Bacteria Complex Challenge in the Nipa Palm Hispid Beetle, Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Front Microbiol 2019 31;10:2466. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Department of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

The humoral immune responses of the nipa palm hispid beetle involves the inducible expression of the genes coding for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are mediated by immune deficiency signaling pathways. In insects, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor, Relish, has been shown to regulate AMP gene expressions upon microbial infections. Here, we dissect the expression patterns of some AMPs in during infections by entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their symbionts, before and after Relish knock down. Our results indicate that, prior to gene silencing, the AMPs attacin C1, attacin C2, and defensin 2B were especially expressed to great extents in the insects challenged with the nematodes and as well as with their respective symbionts and . The study also established the partial sequence of OnRelish/NF-κB p110 subunit in , with an open reading frame coding for a protein with 102 amino acid residues. A typical Death domain-containing protein was detected (as seen in ) at the C-terminus of the protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that in , Relish is clustered with registered Relish/NF-κB p110 proteins from other species of insect especially from the same order Coleoptera. Injection of OnRelish dsRNA remarkably brought down the expression of OnRelish and also reduced the magnitude of transcription of attacin C1 and defensin 2B upon and and their symbionts infections. Altogether, our data unveil the expression pattern of OnRelish as well as that of some AMP genes it influences during immune responses of against EPNs and their symbionts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6834688PMC
October 2019

Structural diversity and functional variability of gut microbial communities associated with honey bees.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jan 15;138:103793. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Hangzhou, 310021, PR China.

Microbial consortia accompanied to all eukaryotes can be inherited from ancestors, environment, and/or from various food source. Gut microbiota study is an emerging discipline of biological sciences that expands our understanding of the ecological and functional dynamics of gut environments. Microorganisms associated with honey bees play an important role in food digestion, colony performance, immunity, pollination, antagonistic effect against different pathogens, amelioration of food and many more. Although, many repots about honey bee gut microbiota are well documented, microbiome with other key components of honey bees such as larvae, adults, their food (pollen, beebread, and honey), honey combs, and floral nectar are poorly understood. Mutual interactions and extent of the roles of microbial communities associated with honey bees are still unclear and demand for more research on the nutritional physiology and health benefits of this ecologically and economically important group. Here in this study, we highlighted all the honey bee microbiome that harbored from different life stages and other relevant components. The anatomical parts of honey bee (larvae, adults), food source (pollen, beebread, and honey), honey combs, and floral nectar were highly flourished by numerous microorganisms like bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Actinomycetes, Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Cocci, Clostridia, Coliforms, Firmicutes, Flavobacteriia, Mollicutes) and fungi (Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Mucormycotina, Saccharomycetes, Zygomycetes, Yeasts, Molds). Some distinctive microbial communities of a taxonomically constrained species have coevolved with social bees. This contribution is to enhance the understanding of honey bee gut microbiota, to accelerate bee microbiota and microbiome research in general and to aid design of future experiments in this growing field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103793DOI Listing
January 2020

Role of primary metabolites in plant defense against pathogens.

Microb Pathog 2019 Dec 6;137:103728. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia; Unit of Bee Research and Honey Production, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia; Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Plants under natural environment facing various pathogens, tend to produce defense to maintain their fitness and minimize pathogenic damage. Plant-pathogens interaction is gaining more importance by researches as, their means of the fight are primary metabolites. The ultimate result of either means of defense is pathogenesis or resistance. Plant defense mechanisms can be grouped either into inducible and constitutive defense or chemical, structural and morphological defense. Majority of defense mechanisms have a passive role, i.e. only defensive against pathogens, but a few are very active. Plant primary metabolites are catching interest in their immunity role. Deep information of molecular mechanisms involved during the plant-pathogen system is need of the day for future disease control. This review will highlight the role of primary metabolites and their mechanism of action in plant defense.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103728DOI Listing
December 2019

Pyrosequencing Uncovers a Shift in Bacterial Communities Across Life Stages of (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Front Microbiol 2019 12;10:466. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Bacterial symbionts of insects affect a wide array of host traits including fitness and immunity. (Maulik), commonly known as hispid leaf beetle is a destructive palm pest around the world. Understanding the dynamics of microbiota is essential to unravel the complex interplay between and its bacterial symbionts. In this study, bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 region was targeted to decipher the diversity and dynamics of bacterial symbionts across different life stages [eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult (male and female)] and reproductive organs (ovaries and testis) of . Clustering analysis at ≥97% similarity threshold produced 3,959 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that belonged to nine different phyla. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes represented the bulk of taxa that underwent notable changes during metamorphosis. Enterobacteriaceae and Dermabacteraceae were the most abundant families in immature stages (eggs, larvae, and pupae), while Anaplasmataceae family was dominated in adults (male and female) and reproductive organs (ovaries and testis). The genus and were most abundant in eggs, whereas and represented the bulk of larvae and pupae microbiota. Interestingly the genus found positive to all tested samples and was recorded extremely high (>64%) in the adults and reproductive organs. The bacteria varied across the developmental stages and responsible for various metabolic activities. Selection choice exerted by the insect host as a result of its age or developmental stage could be the main reason to ascertain the shift in the bacteria populations. Maternally inherited was found to be an obligate endosymbiont infecting all tested life stages, body parts, and tissues. These outcomes foster our understanding of the intricate associations between bacteria and and will incorporate in devising novel pest control strategies against this palm pest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424052PMC
March 2019

Recent progress on gene silencing/suppression by virus-derived small interfering RNAs in rice viruses especially Rice grassy stunt virus.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 19;125:210-218. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Plant Virology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.

Noncoding RNAs play essential functions during epigenetic regulation of gene expression and development in numerous organisms. Three type of small noncoding RNAs found in eukaryotes, which are small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Small RNAs (sRNAs) originated from infecting viruses are known as virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs), are responsible for RNA silencing in plants. However, Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is mainly dependent on RNA silencing (RNAi). Interestingly, RNA silencing happens in plants and insects during viral infections. VsiRNAs originate from dsRNA molecules which further require hosts Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) proteins, and Argonaute (AGO) proteins. RdRP uses ssRNA for complete RNA amplification process as well as DCL dependent secondary vsiRNA formation. Viral Suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) interfere with the movement of signals during silencing mechanism. Moreover, intercellular movement of viruses is facilitated by virus-encoded movement proteins. Proteomic and Transcriptomic mechanisms regulated by specific factors like microRNAs, which has become an essential factor of gene regulation. RNAi is also involved in gene suppression by regulating the transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression in many eukaryotes. Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a member of genus Tenuivirus. Although, there is no much work done on RGSV, but this virus has become very potent and destructive, and effects rice crop in many Asian countries, particularly in China. In this review, we have highlighted the rice viruses' biology and silencing suppressors. This work will be helpful for plant virologists in understanding the role of vsiRNAs mechanism in rice viruses especially RGSV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.09.021DOI Listing
December 2018

Using Predictive Analytics to Identify Children at High Risk of Defaulting From a Routine Immunization Program: Feasibility Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2018 Sep 4;4(3):e63. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Interactive Research and Development, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Despite the availability of free routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries, many children are not completely vaccinated, vaccinated late for age, or drop out from the course of the immunization schedule. Without the technology to model and visualize risk of large datasets, vaccinators and policy makers are unable to identify target groups and individuals at high risk of dropping out; thus default rates remain high, preventing universal immunization coverage. Predictive analytics algorithm leverages artificial intelligence and uses statistical modeling, machine learning, and multidimensional data mining to accurately identify children who are most likely to delay or miss their follow-up immunization visits.

Objective: This study aimed to conduct feasibility testing and validation of a predictive analytics algorithm to identify the children who are likely to default on subsequent immunization visits for any vaccine included in the routine immunization schedule.

Methods: The algorithm was developed using 47,554 longitudinal immunization records, which were classified into the training and validation cohorts. Four machine learning models (random forest; recursive partitioning; support vector machines, SVMs; and C-forest) were used to generate the algorithm that predicts the likelihood of each child defaulting from the follow-up immunization visit. The following variables were used in the models as predictors of defaulting: gender of the child, language spoken at the child's house, place of residence of the child (town or city), enrollment vaccine, timeliness of vaccination, enrolling staff (vaccinator or others), date of birth (accurate or estimated), and age group of the child. The models were encapsulated in the predictive engine, which identified the most appropriate method to use in a given case. Each of the models was assessed in terms of accuracy, precision (positive predictive value), sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value, and area under the curve (AUC).

Results: Out of 11,889 cases in the validation dataset, the random forest model correctly predicted 8994 cases, yielding 94.9% sensitivity and 54.9% specificity. The C-forest model, SVMs, and recursive partitioning models improved prediction by achieving 352, 376, and 389 correctly predicted cases, respectively, above the predictions made by the random forest model. All models had a C-statistic of 0.750 or above, whereas the highest statistic (AUC 0.791, 95% CI 0.784-0.798) was observed in the recursive partitioning algorithm.

Conclusions: This feasibility study demonstrates that predictive analytics can accurately identify children who are at a higher risk for defaulting on follow-up immunization visits. Correct identification of potential defaulters opens a window for evidence-based targeted interventions in resource limited settings to achieve optimal immunization coverage and timeliness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/publichealth.9681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231754PMC
September 2018

Entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae surpasses the cellular immune responses of the hispid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Microb Pathog 2018 Nov 31;124:337-345. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Insect Ecology, Department of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

The Nipa palm hispid, Octodonta nipae (Maulik) is an important invasive pest of palm trees particularly in Southern China. How this beetle interacts with invading pathogens via its immune system remains to be dissected. Steinernema carpocapsae is a pathogenic nematode that attacks a number of insects of economic importance. The present study systematically investigates the cellular immune responses of O. nipae against S. carpocapsae infection using combined immunological, biochemical and transcriptomics approaches. Our data reveal that S. carpocapsae efficiently resists being encapsulated and melanized within the host's hemolymph and most of the nematodes were observed moving freely in the hemolymph even at 24 h post incubation. Consistently, isolated cuticles from the parasite also withstand encapsulation by the O. nipae hemocytes at all-time points. However, significant encapsulation and melanization of the isolated cuticles were recorded following heat treatment of the cuticles. The host's phenoloxidase activity was found to be slightly suppressed due to S. carpocapsae infection. Furthermore, the expression levels of some antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes were significantly up-regulated in the S. carpocapsae-challenged O. nipae. Taken together, our data suggest that S. carpocapsae modulates and surpasses the O. nipae immune responses and hence can serve as an excellent biological control agent of the pest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.08.063DOI Listing
November 2018

The Endosymbiotic Wolbachia and Host COI Gene Enables to Distinguish Between Two Invasive Palm Pests; Coconut Leaf Beetle, Brontispa longissima and Hispid Leaf Beetle, Octodonta nipae.

J Econ Entomol 2018 12;111(6):2894-2902

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

To elucidate taxonomic eminence of identical pest species is essential for many ecological and conservation studies. Without proficient skills, accurate molecular identification and characterization are laborious and time-consuming. The coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is biologically and morphologically identical to hispid leaf beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and is known as the most harming nuisances of palm cultivation worldwide. The present examination was to establish Wolbachia genotyping analysis along with host cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for accurate identification between these individuals of the same family (Chrysomelidae). Here, we have cloned and sequenced a gene coding Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) and COI gene regions amplified from both species by polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequences were directly determined (≈600 bp for wsp and ≈804 bp for COI) and aligned using the multiple alignment algorithms in the ESPript3 package and the MEGA5 program. Comparative sequence analysis indicated that the representative of wsp and COI sequences from these two beetles were highly variable. To ensure this bacterial variation, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of bacterial genes was conducted, and the results vindicated the same trend of variations. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis also indicates that B. longissima and O. nipae being the two different species harbors two distinct Wolbachia Hertig and Burt (Rickettsiales: Anaplamataceae) supergroups B and A, respectively. The present outcomes quickly discriminate between these two species. Considering its simplicity and cost-effectiveness, it can be used as a diagnostic tool for discriminating such invasive species particularly B. longissima and O. nipae which has overlapping morphologic characters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294240PMC
December 2018

Genomic evaluations of Wolbachia and mtDNA in the population of coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 10 6;127:1000-1009. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Ecology, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Wolbachia pipientis is a diverse, ubiquitous and most prevalent intracellular bacterial group of alpha-Proteobacteria that is concerned with many biological processes in arthropods. The coconut hispine beetle (CHB), Brontispa longissima (Gestro) is an economically important pest of palm cultivation worldwide. In the present study, we comprehensively surveyed the Wolbachia-infection prevalence and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism in CHB from five different geographical locations, including China's Mainland and Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. A total of 540 sequences were screened in this study through three different genes, i.e., cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), Wolbachia outer surface protein (wsp) and multilocus sequencing type (MLST) genes. The COI genetic divergence ranges from 0.08% to 0.67%, and likewise, a significant genetic diversity (π = 0.00082; P = 0.049) was noted within and between all analyzed samples. In the meantime, ten different haplotypes (H) were characterized (haplotype diversity = 0.4379) from 21 different locations, and among them, H6 (46 individuals) have shown a maximum number of population clusters than others. Subsequently, Wolbachia-prevalence results indicated that all tested specimens of CHB were found positive (100%), which suggested that CHB was naturally infected with Wolbachia. Wolbachia sequence results (wsp gene) revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00047) under Tajima's D test (P = 0.049). Meanwhile, the same trend of nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00041) was observed in Wolbachia concatenated MLST locus. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis (wsp and concatenated MLST genes) revealed that all collected samples of CHB attributed to same Wolbachia B-supergroup. Our results strongly suggest that Wolbachia bacteria and mtDNA were highly concordant with each other and Wolbachia can affect the genetic structure and diversity within the CHB populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.07.003DOI Listing
October 2018

Genetic diversity of the families Aeshnidae, Gomphidae and Libellulidae through COI gene from South China.

Acta Trop 2018 Sep 8;185:273-279. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fuzhou, China; Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Plant Virology, Plant Protection College, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

Adult dragonflies (Anisoptera) were collected from different localities of South China covering eight provinces. Representative sequences were sixty-one, including 16 species, 11 genera and three families (Aeshnidae, Gomphidae and Libellulidae), under cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. After alignment of sequences by BioEdit v6, genetic interaction and divergence were computed by MEGA 7 whereas all the indices of genetic diversity were calculated by DnaSP v5 software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed through Neighbor-Joining method under Jukes-Cantor model, and all species of respective families were assembled with each other into individual groups. Maximum divergence was observed by Trithemis genus (18.69%), followed by Orthetrum genus (18.16%), whereas a minimum value of divergence was noted for Pantala genus (0.31%). On the other hand, maximum genetic diversity was recorded for Orthetrum genus up to 142 mutations, followed by Trithemis genus (126 mutations), while the minimum value (two mutations) was observed for Pantala genus. Genetic diversity for overall and Libellulidae family sequences was much higher, up to 404 mutations and 344 mutations, respectively. Current results suggest a high diversity of odonates in the South China region and results are valuable in gaining a total obligation of the diversity of Asian odonates and conservation measures of this insect group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.06.004DOI Listing
September 2018

Infection Density Dynamics and Phylogeny of Associated with Coconut Hispine Beetle, (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), by Multilocus Sequence Type (MLST) Genotyping.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 May;28(5):796-808

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, P.R. China.

The intracellular bacterium is widespread in arthropods. Recently, possibilities of novel -mediated hosts, their distribution, and natural rate have been anticipated, and the coconut leaf beetle (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), which has garnered attention as a serious pest of palms, was subjected to this interrogation. By adopting surface protein () and multilocus sequence type (MLST) genotypic systems, we determined the infection density within host developmental stages, body parts, and tissues, and the results revealed that all the tested samples of were infected with the same strain (wLog), suggesting complete vertical transmission. The MLST profile elucidated two new alleles (-234 and coxA-266) that define a new sequence type (ST-483), which indicates the particular genotypic association of and . The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a higher infection density in the eggs and adult stage, followed by the abdomen and reproductive tissues, respectively. However, no significant differences were observed in the infection density between sexes. Moreover, the and concatenated MLST alignment analysis of this study with other known Wolbachia-mediated arthropods revealed similar clustering with distinct monophyletic supergroup B. This is the first comprehensive report on the prevalence, infection dynamics, and phylogeny of the endosymbiont in , which demonstrated that is ubiquitous across all developmental stages and distributed in the entire body of . Understanding the infection dynamics would provide useful insight to build a framework for future investigations, understand its impacts on host physiology, and exploit it as a potential biocontrol agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1712.12019DOI Listing
May 2018

Temperature-dependent development of Asian citrus psyllid on various hosts, and mortality by two strains of Isaria.

Microb Pathog 2018 Jun 13;119:109-118. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China; Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management for Fujian-Taiwan Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Fuzhou, 350002, China; Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, Fuzhou, 350002, China; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a devastating pest of Citrus spp. The aim of present study was to investigate the development and mortality of ACP on citrus (Citrus sinensis) (healthy and Huánglóngbìng- (HLB) diseased) and jasmine (Murraya paniculata) plants at various temperatures. Two new Isaria strains were collected from citrus orchards of Fuzhou (China), and HLB-diseased plants were verified by running PCR for 16S gene of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Development observations were recorded for egg, nymph and adult stages on all plants and three different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C) whereas mortality observations were recorded for the nymph (fifth instar) and adults on all plants at 25 °C. Field collected Isaria strains were belonged to previously reported Chinese strains under Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Maximum Likelihood methods, as well as, CLas isolates were belonged to previously reported Chinese isolates under MP and Neighbor-Joining methods. The fastest development and mortality was observed on HLB-diseased plants whereas longest time was taken by development and mortality completion on jasmine plants at all temperatures. The fastest developmental times of egg, nymph (first to fourth and fifth instar) and adult stages were ranged from 3.02 to 3.72 d, to 7.63-9.3 d, 5.35-5.65 d and 24.46-28.47 d on HLB-diseased plants at 30-20 °C, respectively. On the other hand, I. javanica caused the fastest mortality of nymphs and adults (32.21 ± 4.47% and 19.33 ± 4.51%) on HLB-diseased plants with the concentration of 1 × 10 conidia.mL after 3 d and 7 d, respectively. It is concluded that there is a need for extensive molecular work to understand the extra-development and mortality of ACP on diseased plants, because, CLas bacterium can be supportive to uptake more sap from plant phloem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.04.019DOI Listing
June 2018

A nation-wide genetic survey revealed a complex population structure of Bemisia tabaci in Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2018 Jul 10;183:119-125. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fuzhou 350002, China; College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China. Electronic address:

The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex distributed worldwide. In Pakistan, B. tabaci poses a serious threat to agriculture production. To understand its diversity in Pakistan, a large-scale sampling was conducted from various locations of all four provinces of the country and Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene sequencing was used to determine the whiteflies genetically. The study revealed the presence of five different cryptic species in Pakistan namely Asia II-1, Asia II-5, Asia II-7, Asia II-8 and MEAM-1, respectively. Among them, Asia II-1, which was previously reported from a few areas in the country, had been found now to be prevalent all over the country covering 88.7% of all the sequenced samples. Based on the mtCOI sequences and genetic distance analyses, the diversity of Asia II-1 was much greater than all other cryptic species, which exist only in small patches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.015DOI Listing
July 2018

A novel bacterial symbiont association in the hispid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), their dynamics and phylogeny.

Microb Pathog 2018 May 27;118:378-386. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Ecology, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

The hispid leaf beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a devastating pest of palm cultivation worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are arguably one of the most abundant bacterial group associated with arthropods. Owing to its critical effects on host reproduction, Wolbachia has garnered much attention as a prospective future tool for insect pest management. However, their association, infection dynamics, and functionality remain unknown in this insect pest. Here, we diagnosis for the first time, the infection prevalence, and occurrence of Wolbachia in O. nipae. Experimental evidence by the exploration of wsp gene vindicate that O. nipae is naturally infected with bacterial symbiont of genus Wolbachia, showing a complete maternal inheritance with shared a common Wolbachia strain (wNip). Moreover, MLST (gatB, fbpA, coxA, ftsZ, and hcpA) analysis enabled the detections of new sequence type (ST-484), suggesting a particular genotypic association of O. nipae and Wolbachia. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay demonstrated variable infection density across different life stages (eggs, larvae, pupae and adult male and female), body parts (head, thorax, abdomen), and tissues (ovaries, testes, and guts). Infection density was higher in egg and female adult stage, as well as abdomen and reproductive tissues as compared to other samples. Interestingly, Wolbachia harbored dominantly in a female than the male adult, while, no significant differences were observed between male and female body parts and tissues. Phylogeny of Wolbachia infection associated with O. nipae rectified from all tested life stages were unique and fall within the same monophyletic supergroup-A of Wolbachia clades. The infection density of symbiont is among the valuable tool to understand their biological influence on hosts, and this latest discovery would facilitate the future investigations to understand the host-symbiont complications and its prospective role as a microbiological agent to reduce pest populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.03.046DOI Listing
May 2018