Publications by authors named "H Yusuf"

172 Publications

The Global Health Security Index is not predictive of vaccine rollout responses among OECD countries.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Objective: We sought to evaluate the utility of the GHS index in predicting the launch of COVID-19 vaccine rollout by OECD member countries.

Methods: We collected country-level data on the preparedness to respond to infectious disease threats through vaccination rollout using the GHS index. OECD member countries were rank-ordered based on the percentage of their populations fully vaccinated against COVID-19. Rank-ordering was done from the lowest to the highest, with each country assigned a score ranging from 1 to 33. Spearman's rank correlation between the GHS index and the percentage of the population that is fully vaccinated was also performed.

Results: Israel, ranked 34 in the world on the GHS index for pandemic preparedness has the highest percentage of the population that was fully vaccinated against COVID-19 within 2 months of the global vaccine rollout. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between GHS index and the percentage of population fully vaccinated was -0.1378, with a p-value of 0.43.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest an absence of correlation between the GHS index rating and the COVID-19 vaccine rollout of OECD countries, indicating that the preparedness of OECD countries for infectious disease threats may not be accurately reflected by the GHS index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450232PMC
September 2021

Causes of Visual Impairment Among the Registered Visually Disabled: A Retrospective Study.

Cureus 2021 Sep 15;13(9):e17988. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ophthalmology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, BHR.

Purpose To study the causes of visual impairment among Bahraini patients registered as visually disabled. Materials and methods A retrospective descriptive study of all patients referred to the Ministry of Social Development for visual disability from January 2014 to December 2019 was performed. Information recorded were age, gender, the cause of the visual impairment, and visual acuity in the better eye. If a patient had multiple ophthalmic diseases, the untreatable disease causing visual impairment was recorded. Patients were considered to have visual impairment according to World Health Organization criteria. Results A total of 484 Bahraini patients were included in the study. The mean age was 57.3 years of age ranging from 3 to 100 years; 63% of the total cases were males. The most common cause of visual impairment was diabetic retinopathy (DR) 201 (41.53%), followed by glaucoma 161 (33.26%). This is followed by hereditary and congenital disorders 34 (7.02%), glaucoma combined with DR 21 (4.34%), other retinal diseases 17 (3.51), retinitis pigmentosa 14 (2.89), optic atrophy 9 (1.86), corneal disorders 8 (1.65%), age-related macular degeneration 8 (1.65%), and others 11 (0.83%). Conclusion DR and glaucoma are the major causes of visual impairment among adults. Complications leading to visual impairment of both disorders are avoidable. Prevention measures to be taken control these diseases and prevent their morbidity. Congenital and hereditary disorders are the most common causes of visual impairment among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445851PMC
September 2021

Effect of lactic acid bacteria and yeast supplementation on anti-nutritional factors and chemical composition of fermented total mixed ration containing cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

Anim Biosci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Feed Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 100193 Beijing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the appropriate supplementation level of lactic acid bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus clausii), yeast (Saccharomyces cariocanus and Wickerhamomyces anomalus) for degrading free gossypol and glucosinolate in the fermented total mixed ration (TMR) containing cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM), to improve the utilization efficiency of these protein sources.

Methods: For LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum or Bacillus clausii was inoculated at 1.0 × 108, 1.0 × 109, 1.0 × 1010, and 1.0 × 1011 CFU/kg DM, respectively. For yeast, Saccharomyces cariocanus or Wickerhamomyces anomalus was inoculated at 5 × 106, 5 × 107, 5 × 108, and 5 × 109 CFU/kg DM, respectively. The TMR had 50% moisture and was incubated at 30°C for 48 h. After fermentation, the chemical compositions, and the contents of free gossypol and glucosinolate were determined.

Results: The results showed that the concentration of free gossypol content was reduced (P<0.05), while that of the crude protein content was increased (P < 0.05) in the TMR containing CSM inoculated by B. clausii (1 × 109 CFU/kg DM) or S. cariocanus (5 × 109 CFU/kg DM). Similarly, the content of glucosinolate was lowered (P < 0.05) and the crude protein content was increased (P < 0.05) in TMR containing RSM inoculated with B. clausii (1 × 1010 CFU/kg DM) or S. cariocanus (5 × 109 CFU/g DM).

Conclusion: This study confirmed that inclusion of B. clausii with 1.0 × 109 or 1.0 × 1010 CFU/kg DM, or S. cariocanus (5 × 109 CFU/kg DM) to TMR containing CSM/RSM improved the nutritional value and decreased the contents of anti-nutritional factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0270DOI Listing
September 2021

Statins use and COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0256899. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies for reversing COVID-19-related lung inflammation. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the cholesterol-lowering agents, statins, are associated with reduced mortality in patients with various respiratory infections. We sought to investigate the relationship between statin use and COVID-19 disease severity in hospitalized patients.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between March 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020 was performed. The outcomes of interest were mortality and severe COVID-19 infection, as defined by prolonged hospital stay (≥ 7 days) and/ or invasive mechanical ventilation. Logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards regression and propensity score matching were used to obtain both univariable and multivariable associations between covariates and outcomes in addition to the average treatment effect of statin use.

Results: Of the 4,447 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 594 (13.4%) patients were exposed to statins on admission, of which 340 (57.2%) were male. The mean age was higher in statin users compared to non-users [64.9 ± 13.4 vs. 45.5 ± 16.6 years, p <0.001]. The average treatment effect of statin use on COVID-19-related mortality was RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.01, p = 0.928), while its effect on severe COVID-19 infection was RR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.11-1.27, p <0.001).

Conclusion: Statin use was not associated with altered mortality, but with an 18% increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256899PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432819PMC
September 2021

Association Between COVID-19 and Myocarditis Using Hospital-Based Administrative Data - United States, March 2020-January 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Sep 3;70(35):1228-1232. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Viral infections are a common cause of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) that can result in hospitalization, heart failure, and sudden death (1). Emerging data suggest an association between COVID-19 and myocarditis (2-5). CDC assessed this association using a large, U.S. hospital-based administrative database of health care encounters from >900 hospitals. Myocarditis inpatient encounters were 42.3% higher in 2020 than in 2019. During March 2020-January 2021, the period that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk for myocarditis was 0.146% among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during an inpatient or hospital-based outpatient encounter and 0.009% among patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, patients with COVID-19 during March 2020-January 2021 had, on average, 15.7 times the risk for myocarditis compared with those without COVID-19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.1-17.2); by age, risk ratios ranged from approximately 7.0 for patients aged 16-39 years to >30.0 for patients aged <16 years or ≥75 years. Overall, myocarditis was uncommon among persons with and without COVID-19; however, COVID-19 was significantly associated with an increased risk for myocarditis, with risk varying by age group. These findings underscore the importance of implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the public health impact of COVID-19 and its associated complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7035e5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422872PMC
September 2021
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