Publications by authors named "H VanSteenhouse"

7 Publications

Impact of vaccination on new SARS-CoV-2 infections in the United Kingdom.

Nat Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination in preventing new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in the general community is still unclear. Here, we used the Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey-a large community-based survey of individuals living in randomly selected private households across the United Kingdom-to assess the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca; ChAdOx1) vaccines against any new SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive tests, split according to self-reported symptoms, cycle threshold value (<30 versus ≥30; as a surrogate for viral load) and gene positivity pattern (compatible with B.1.1.7 or not). Using 1,945,071 real-time PCR results from nose and throat swabs taken from 383,812 participants between 1 December 2020 and 8 May 2021, we found that vaccination with the ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccines already reduced SARS-CoV-2 infections ≥21 d after the first dose (61% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 54-68%) versus 66% (95% CI = 60-71%), respectively), with greater reductions observed after a second dose (79% (95% CI = 65-88%) versus 80% (95% CI = 73-85%), respectively). The largest reductions were observed for symptomatic infections and/or infections with a higher viral burden. Overall, COVID-19 vaccination reduced the number of new SARS-CoV-2 infections, with the largest benefit received after two vaccinations and against symptomatic and high viral burden infections, and with no evidence of a difference between the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01410-wDOI Listing
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Positivity in Asymptomatic-Screened Dental Patients.

J Dent Res 2021 06 29;100(6):583-590. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.

Enhanced community surveillance is a key pillar of the public health response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Asymptomatic carriage of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a potentially significant source of transmission, yet remains relatively poorly understood. Disruption of dental services continues with significantly reduced capacity. Ongoing precautions include preappointment and/or at appointment COVID-19 symptom screening and use of enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE). This study aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 infection in dental patients to inform community surveillance and improve understanding of risks in the dental setting. Thirty-one dental care centers across Scotland invited asymptomatic-screened patients aged over 5 y to participate. Following verbal consent and completion of sociodemographic and symptom history questionnaire, trained dental teams took a combined oropharyngeal and nasal swab sample using standardized Viral Transport Medium-containing test kits. Samples were processed by the Lighthouse Lab and patients informed of their results by SMS/email with appropriate self-isolation guidance in the event of a positive test. All positive cases were successfully followed up by the national contact tracing program. Over a 13-wk period (from August 3, 2020, to October 31, 2020), 4,032 patients, largely representative of the population, were tested. Of these, 22 (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.5%-0.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The positivity rate increased over the period, commensurate with uptick in community prevalence identified across all national testing monitoring data streams. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a COVID-19 testing survey in asymptomatic-screened patients presenting in a dental setting. The positivity rate in this patient group reflects the underlying prevalence in community at the time. These data are a salient reminder, particularly when community infection levels are rising, of the importance of appropriate ongoing infection prevention control and PPE vigilance, which is relevant as health care team fatigue increases as the pandemic continues. Dental settings are a valuable location for public health surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220345211004849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138329PMC
June 2021

Extraction-free whole transcriptome gene expression analysis of FFPE sections and histology-directed subareas of tissue.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212031. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

BioSpyder Technologies, Inc., Carlsbad, California, United States of America.

We describe the use of a ligation-based targeted whole transcriptome expression profiling assay, TempO-Seq, to profile formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, including H&E stained FFPE tissue, by directly lysing tissue scraped from slides without extracting RNA or converting the RNA to cDNA. The correlation of measured gene expression changes in unfixed and fixed samples using blocks prepared from a pellet of a single cell type was R2 = 0.97, demonstrating that no significant artifacts were introduced by fixation. Fixed and fresh samples prepared in an equivalent manner produced comparable sequencing depth results (+/- 20%), with similar %CV (11.5 and 12.7%, respectively), indicating no significant loss of measurable RNA due to fixation. The sensitivity of the TempO-Seq assay was the same whether the tissue section was fixed or not. The assay performance was equivalent for human, mouse, or rat whole transcriptome. The results from 10 mm2 and 2 mm2 areas of tissue obtained from 5 μm thick sections were equivalent, thus demonstrating high sensitivity and ability to profile focal areas of histology within a section. Replicate reproducibility of separate areas of tissue ranged from R2 = 0.83 (lung) to 0.96 (liver) depending on the tissue type, with an average correlation of R2 = 0.90 across nine tissue types. The average %CVs were 16.8% for genes expressed at greater than 200 counts, and 20.3% for genes greater than 50 counts. Tissue specific differences in gene expression were identified and agreed with the literature. There was negligible impact on assay performance using FFPE tissues that had been archived for up to 30 years. Similarly, there was negligible impact of H&E staining, facilitating accurate visualization for scraping and assay of small focal areas of specific histology within a section.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212031PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386473PMC
November 2019

Comparison of base-line and chemical-induced transcriptomic responses in HepaRG and RPTEC/TERT1 cells using TempO-Seq.

Arch Toxicol 2018 08 14;92(8):2517-2531. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

Division of Molecular and Computational Toxicology, Amsterdam Institute for Molecules, Medicines and Systems, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The utilisation of genome-wide transcriptomics has played a pivotal role in advancing the field of toxicology, allowing the mapping of transcriptional signatures to chemical exposures. These activities have uncovered several transcriptionally regulated pathways that can be utilised for assessing the perturbation impact of a chemical and also the identification of toxic mode of action. However, current transcriptomic platforms are not very amenable to high-throughput workflows due to, high cost, complexities in sample preparation and relatively complex bioinformatic analysis. Thus, transcriptomic investigations are usually limited in dose and time dimensions and are, therefore, not optimal for implementation in risk assessment workflows. In this study, we investigated a new cost-effective, transcriptomic assay, TempO-Seq, which alleviates the aforementioned limitations. This technique was evaluated in a 6-compound screen, utilising differentiated kidney (RPTEC/TERT1) and liver (HepaRG) cells and compared to non-transcriptomic label-free sensitive endpoints of chemical-induced disturbances, namely phase contrast morphology, xCELLigence and glycolysis. Non-proliferating cell monolayers were exposed to six sub-lethal concentrations of each compound for 24 h. The results show that utilising a 2839 gene panel, it is possible to discriminate basal tissue-specific signatures, generate dose-response relationships and to discriminate compound-specific and cell type-specific responses. This study also reiterates previous findings that chemical-induced transcriptomic alterations occur prior to cytotoxicity and that transcriptomics provides in depth mechanistic information of the effects of chemicals on cellular transcriptional responses. TempO-Seq is a robust transcriptomic platform that is well suited for in vitro toxicity experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2256-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6063331PMC
August 2018

A trichostatin A expression signature identified by TempO-Seq targeted whole transcriptome profiling.

PLoS One 2017 25;12(5):e0178302. Epub 2017 May 25.

BioSpyder Technologies, Incorporated, Carlsbad, California, United States of America.

The use of gene expression signatures to classify compounds, identify efficacy or toxicity, and differentiate close analogs relies on the sensitivity of the method to identify modulated genes. We used a novel ligation-based targeted whole transcriptome expression profiling assay, TempO-Seq®, to determine whether previously unreported compound-responsive genes could be identified and incorporated into a broad but specific compound signature. TempO-Seq exhibits 99.6% specificity, single cell sensitivity, and excellent correlation with fold differences measured by RNA-Seq (R2 = 0.9) for 20,629 targets. Unlike many expression assays, TempO-Seq does not require RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, or capture of targeted RNA, and lacks a 3' end bias. To investigate the sensitivity of the TempO-Seq assay to identify significantly modulated compound-responsive genes, we derived whole transcriptome profiles from MCF-7 cells treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and identified more than 9,000 differentially expressed genes. The TSA profile for MCF-7 cells overlapped those for HL-60 and PC-3 cells in the Connectivity Map (cMAP) database, suggesting a common TSA-specific expression profile independent of baseline gene expression. A 43-gene cell-independent TSA signature was extracted from cMAP and confirmed in TempO-Seq MCF-7 data. Additional genes that were not previously reported to be TSA responsive in the cMAP database were also identified. TSA treatment of 5 cell types revealed 1,136 differentially expressed genes in common, including 785 genes not previously reported to be TSA responsive. We conclude that TSA induces a specific expression signature that is consistent across widely different cell types, that this signature contains genes not previously associated with TSA responses, and that TempO-Seq provides the sensitive differential expression detection needed to define such compound-specific, cell-independent, changes in expression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178302PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444820PMC
September 2017