Publications by authors named "H Safi"

384 Publications

Reappraisal of the role of motor and somatosensory evoked potentials during open distal aortic repair.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, Tex. Electronic address:

Objective: Intraoperative motor and somatosensory evoked potentials have been applied to monitor spinal cord ischemia during repair. However, their predictive values remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials on spinal cord ischemia during open distal aortic repair.

Methods: Our group began routine use of both somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials at the end of 2004. This study used a historical cohort design, using risk factor and outcome data from our department's prospective registry. Univariate and multivariable statistics for risk-adjusted effects of motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials on neurologic outcome and model discrimination were assessed with receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: Both somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials were measured in 822 patients undergoing open distal aortic repair between December 2004 and December 2019. Both motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials were intact for the duration of surgery in 348 patients (42%). Isolated motor evoked potential loss was observed in 283 patients (34%), isolated somatosensory evoked potential loss was observed in 18 patients (3%), and both motor evoked potential and somatosensory evoked potential loss were observed in 173 patients (21%). No spinal cord ischemia occurred in the 18 cases with isolated somatosensory evoked potential loss. When both signals were lost, signal loss happened in the order of motor evoked potentials and then somatosensory evoked potentials. Immediate spinal cord ischemia occurred in none of those without signal loss, 4 of 283 (1%) with isolated motor evoked potential loss, and 15 of 173 (9%) with motor evoked potential plus somatosensory evoked potential loss. Delayed spinal cord ischemia occurred in 12 of 348 patients (3%) with intact evoked potentials, 24 of 283 patients (8%) with isolated motor evoked potentials loss, and 27 of 173 patients (15%) with motor evoked potentials + somatosensory evoked potentials loss (P < .001). Motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials loss were each independently associated with spinal cord ischemia. For immediate spinal cord ischemia, no return of motor evoked potential signals at the conclusion of the surgery had the highest odds ratio of 15.87, with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.936, whereas motor evoked potential loss had the highest odds ratio of 3.72 with an area under the curve of 0.638 for delayed spinal cord ischemia.

Conclusions: Somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials are both important monitoring measures to predict and prevent spinal cord ischemia during and after open distal aortic repairs. Intraoperative motor evoked potential loss is a risk for immediate and delayed spinal cord ischemia after open distal aortic repair, and somatosensory evoked potential loss further adds predictive value to the motor evoked potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.08.033DOI Listing
August 2021

Multimodal imaging in pachychoroid spectrum.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Research Institute for Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Diagnostic investigation on pachychoroid spectrum disease (PSD) has been growing along with the rapid advancement of imaging technology. In optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based studies, choroidal thickness profile, luminal and stromal choroidal ratio, and abnormalities in the neurosensory retina have demonstrated various patterns in different clinical entities related to PSD. The emerging role of OCT angiography ()CTA) has been expanded to involve the quantitative analysis of the OCTA parameters in different clinical entities of PSD and to evaluate the choriocapillaris signal void and vessel density as indicators of choriocapillaris ischemia. OCTA has broadened our knowledge in characterization and assessment of both active and quiescent choroidal neovascularization and its association with treatment response. Recent studies using indocyanine green angiography have focused on the evaluation of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability and its relationship with other pachychoroid related features. Ultra-widefield indocyanine green angiography enables observation and characterization of peripheral choroidal pathologies and their associations with macular abnormalities. Multicolor imaging is an emerging modality with the capability to demonstrate early abnormalities in PSD. We summarize all investigations reflecting the new insights into the application of multimodal imaging for PSD and focus on novel findings observed in different clinical entities with each imaging modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2021.07.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Advanced deep learning methodology for accurate, real-time segmentation of high-resolution intravascular ultrasound images.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 18;339:185-191. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Barts Heart Centre, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK; Cardiovascular Devices Hub, Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine and Devices, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, UK; Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Aims: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a deep learning (DL) methodology capable of automated and accurate segmentation of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image sequences in real-time.

Methods And Results: IVUS segmentation was performed by two experts who manually annotated the external elastic membrane (EEM) and lumen borders in the end-diastolic frames of 197 IVUS sequences portraying the native coronary arteries of 65 patients. The IVUS sequences of 177 randomly-selected vessels were used to train and optimise a novel DL model for the segmentation of IVUS images. Validation of the developed methodology was performed in 20 vessels using the estimations of two expert analysts as the reference standard. The mean difference for the EEM, lumen and plaque area between the DL-methodology and the analysts was ≤0.23mm (standard deviation ≤0.85mm), while the Hausdorff and mean distance differences for the EEM and lumen borders was ≤0.19 mm (standard deviation≤0.17 mm). The agreement between DL and experts was similar to experts' agreement (Williams Index ranges: 0.754-1.061) with similar results in frames portraying calcific plaques or side branches.

Conclusions: The developed DL-methodology appears accurate and capable of segmenting high-resolution real-world IVUS datasets. These features are expected to facilitate its broad adoption and enhance the applications of IVUS in clinical practice and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.06.030DOI Listing
September 2021

In-hospital outcomes and long-term survival of women of childbearing age with aortic dissection: results from a single-center database.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Houston, Tex. Electronic address:

Objective: In the present study, we defined the outcomes and effects of pregnancy in a cohort of women of childbearing age with acute aortic dissection (AAD).

Methods: We reviewed our database of AAD to identify all eligible female patients. Women aged <45 years were included. Data on pregnancy timing with respect to the occurrence of dissection, the demographic data, dissection extent, dissection treatment, dissection-related outcomes, overall maternal and fetal mortality, and genetic testing results were analyzed.

Results: A total of 62 women aged <45 years had presented to us with AAD from 1999 to 2017. Of the 62 women, 37 (60%) had had a history of pregnancy at AAD. Of these 37 patients, 10 (27%) had had a peripartum aortic dissection, defined as dissection during pregnancy or within 12 months postpartum. Of the 10 AADs, 5 were type A and 5 were type B. Three patients had presented with AAD during pregnancy (one in the second and two in the third trimester). Five patients (50%) had developed AAD in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months) and two (20%) in the late postpartum period. For the immediate postpartum AADs (<3 months), four of the five patients delivered via cesarean section. Of these 10 peripartum AADs, 3 (30%) had occurred in patients with known Marfan syndrome. In-hospital mortality for those with peripartum AAD was 10% (1 of 10). Fetal mortality was 20% (2 of 10).

Conclusions: The frequency of aortic dissection in women of childbearing age at our institution was low. However, pregnancy might increase the risk of those young women genetically predisposed to dissection events. From these data, this risk appears to be greatest in the immediate postpartum period, even for those who undergo cesarean section. Close clinical and radiographic surveillance is required for all women with suspected aortopathy, especially in the third trimester and early postpartum period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.03.028DOI Listing
April 2021

Wall shear stress estimated by 3D-QCA can predict cardiovascular events in lesions with borderline negative fractional flow reserve.

Atherosclerosis 2021 04 24;322:24-30. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Cardiology, Barts Heart Centre, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK; Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine and Devices, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: There is some evidence of the implications of wall shear stress (WSS) derived from three-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) models in predicting adverse cardiovascular events. This study investigates the efficacy of 3D-QCA-derived WSS in detecting lesions with a borderline negative fractional flow reserve (FFR: 0.81-0.85) that progressed and caused events.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we identified 548 patients who had at least one lesion with an FFR 0.81-0.85 and complete follow-up data; 293 lesions (286 patients) with suitable angiographic characteristics were reconstructed using a dedicated 3D-QCA software and included in the analysis. In the reconstructed models blood flow simulation was performed and the value of 3D-QCA variables and WSS distribution in predicting events was examined. The primary endpoint of the study was the composite of cardiac death, target lesion related myocardial infarction or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization.

Results: During a median follow-up of 49.4 months, 37 events were reported. Culprit lesions had a greater area stenosis [(AS), 66.1% (59.5-72.3) vs 54.8% (46.5-63.2), p<0.001], smaller minimum lumen area [(MLA), 1.66 mm (1.45-2.30) vs 2.10 mm (1.69-2.70), p=0.011] and higher maximum WSS [9.0 Pa (5.10-12.46) vs 5.0 Pa (3.37-7.54), p < 0.001] than those that remained quiescent. In multivariable analysis, AS [hazard ratio (HR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.10, p=0.001] and maximum WSS (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.14, p=0.012) were the only independent predictors of the primary endpoint. Lesions with an increased AS (≥58.6%) that were exposed to high WSS (≥7.69Pa) were more likely to progress and cause events (27.8%) than those with a low AS exposed to high WSS (7.4%) or those exposed to low WSS that had increased (12.8%) or low AS (2.7%, p<0.001).

Conclusions: This study for the first time highlights the potential value of 3D-QCA-derived WSS in detecting, among lesions with a borderline negative FFR, those that cause cardiovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.02.018DOI Listing
April 2021
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