Publications by authors named "H M Bill"

16 Publications

Feeding high amounts of almond hulls to lactating cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 10;104(8):8846-8856. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis 95616. Electronic address:

California is the leading state for the production of almonds, with more than 400,000 bearing hectares of orchards that produced approximately 1 billion kilograms of shelled nuts in 2017. Almond hulls (AH) are a regional by-product feedstuff fed predominantly to dairy cattle in California. A 2012 study surveyed 40 dairy farms in California and found that 39 out of 104 total mixed rations contained AH, with a mean daily feeding rate of 1.45 kg/cow. In 2017, approximately 2 billion kilograms of AH was produced. At a feeding rate of 1.45 kg/cow daily, even if all 1.7 million lactating cows in California are consuming AH, there will be a surplus of AH on the market as the approximately 130,000 nonbearing hectares come into nut production. Therefore, the potential of feeding varying amounts of AH to lactating dairy cows was investigated using 12 Holstein cows with 4 primiparous and 8 multiparous cows. The dietary treatments were 4 total mixed rations containing 0, 7, 13, or 20% AH. The AH used contained 12.8% crude fiber (as-is basis), which was below the 15% legal limit set by state feed regulations. Diets were formulated so that as the inclusion rate of AH increased, the amount of steam-flaked corn and soyhull pellets decreased and soybean meal inclusion increased. Experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square. Diet had a cubic effect on actual milk yield, energy-corrected milk yield, and dry matter intake, with the 7% AH diet having the highest values and the 13% AH diet having the lowest. The percent and yield of total solids and the yields of lactose and fat did not differ with diet, but percent and yield of protein declined linearly with increased AH inclusion, and fat percent increased linearly. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher with the inclusion of AH in the diet. Total percentage of the day spent ruminating increased linearly with higher amounts of AH. Overall, this work demonstrated that AH can be fed at varying amounts, up to 20% of the diet, to lactating dairy cows to support high levels of milk production and that increasing amounts of AH (up to 20%) in the diet could lead to improved digestibility and milk fat percentage but decreased milk protein production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19109DOI Listing
August 2021

Cat and dog ownership during/after the first year of life and risk for sensitization and reported allergy symptoms at age 13.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2019 12 29;7(4):250-257. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Clinical Science, Paediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Avoidance of pets as a strategy for preventing atopic diseases has been questioned. This study aimed to identify the risk of sensitization and allergic symptoms at age 13 in relation to dog- and cat-keeping during and after the first year of life.

Methods: The study included all children born at Östersund Hospital in Northern Sweden between February 1996 and January 1997 (n = 1231). At inclusion, parents were asked to answer questionnaires about lifestyle, including cat- and dog-keeping. Dog allergy, cat allergy, hay fever, and asthma were diagnosed based on parental reported allergic symptoms at 13 years of age (n = 834). The risks of sensitization or allergy in relation to dog- and cat-keeping during and after the first year of life were analyzed with logistic regression. To adjust for reverse causation, all subjects that had reported avoidance of pets due to allergic symptoms of the child or allergy in the family (n = 177) were excluded.

Results: Dog- or cat-keeping during the first year of life reduced the risk of sensitization to dog or cat allergens, respectively, and to birch and to at least one of the 10 allergens tested. Cat-keeping, both during and after the first year of life, reduced the risk of cat allergy and hay fever. Having a dog at home during the first year of life reduced the risk of dog and cat allergy, whereas dog-keeping after the first year of life did not affect allergic symptoms.

Conclusions: Cat ownership, either during or after the first year of life, may be a strategy for preventing the development of cat allergy and hay fever later in life. Dog ownership reduced the risk of sensitization to dog and birch allergen, and also the risk of cat and dog allergy, but had no effect on hay fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842813PMC
December 2019

Physical Chemistry at the University of Geneva.

Chimia (Aarau) 2009 Dec;63(12):807-815

A brief historical overview of physical chemistry at the University of Geneva as well as a description of the present research activities at the department of physical chemistry are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2533/chimia.2009.807DOI Listing
December 2009

Src, PKCalpha, and PKCdelta are required for alphavbeta3 integrin-mediated metastatic melanoma invasion.

Cell Commun Signal 2009 Apr 28;7:10. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Integrin Signaling and Tumorigenesis, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503, USA.

Background: Integrins, cell-surface receptors that mediate adhesive interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), play an important role in cancer progression. Expression of the vitronectin receptor alphavbeta3 integrin correlates with increased invasive and metastatic capacity of malignant melanomas, yet it remains unclear how expression of this integrin triggers melanoma invasion and metastasis.

Results: Two melanoma cell lines C8161.9 and M14 both express high levels of alphavbeta3 integrin and adhere to vitronectin. However, only the highly metastatic C8161.9 cells are capable of invading vitronectin-enriched Matrigel in an alphavbeta3-depenent manner. Elevated levels of PKCalpha and PKCdelta, and activated Src were detected specifically in the highly metastatic melanoma cells, but not in the low metastatic M14 cells. Inhibition of Src or PKC activity suppressed alphavbeta3-dependent invasion. Furthermore, over expression of Src or PKCalpha and PKCdelta was sufficient to confer alphavbeta3-dependent invasiveness to M14 cells. Stress fiber formation and focal adhesion formation were almost completely absent in C8161.9 cells compared to M14 cells. Inhibition of Src signaling was sufficient to restore normal actin architecture, and resulted in decreased p190RhoGAP phosphorylation and enhanced RhoA activity. Src had no effect on Rac activity. Loss of PKCalpha expression, but not PKCdelta, by siRNA inhibited Rac and PAK activity as well as invasiveness. Loss of PKCalpha restored focal adhesion formation and partially restored stress fiber formation, while loss of PKCdelta primarily restored stress fibers.

Conclusion: The misregulated expression of PKCalpha and PKCdelta and elevated Src activity in metastatic melanoma cells is required for efficient alphavbeta3-mediated invasion. PKCalpha and Src enhance alphavbeta3-mediated invasion in part by increasing the GTPase activity of Rac relative to RhoA. PKCalpha influences focal adhesion formation, while PKCdelta controls stress fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1478-811X-7-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2683837PMC
April 2009

Epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent regulation of integrin-mediated signaling and cell cycle entry in epithelial cells.

Mol Cell Biol 2004 Oct;24(19):8586-99

Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Ave., SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.

Integrin-mediated adhesion of epithelial cells to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins induces prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and partial activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in an integrin-dependent and EGFR ligand-independent manner. Integrin-mediated activation of EGFR in epithelial cells is required for multiple signal transduction events previously shown to be induced by cell adhesion to matrix proteins, including tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, Cbl, and phospholipase Cgamma, and activation of the Ras/Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. In contrast, activation of focal adhesion kinase, Src, and protein kinase C, adhesion to matrix proteins, cell spreading, migration, and actin cytoskeletal rearrangements are induced independently of EGFR kinase activity. The ability of integrins to induce the activation of EGFR and its subsequent regulation of Erk and Akt activation permitted adhesion-dependent induction of cyclin D1 and p21, Rb phosphorylation, and activation of cdk4 in epithelial cells in the absence of exogenous growth factors. Adhesion of epithelial cells to the ECM failed to efficiently induce degradation of p27, to induce cdk2 activity, or to induce Myc and cyclin A synthesis; subsequently, cells did not progress into S phase. Treatment of ECM-adherent cells with EGF, or overexpression of EGFR or Myc, resulted in restoration of late-G(1) cell cycle events and progression into S phase. These results indicate that partial activation of EGFR by integrin receptors plays an important role in mediating events triggered by epithelial cell attachment to ECM; EGFR is necessary for activation of multiple integrin-induced signaling enzymes and sufficient for early events in G(1) cell cycle progression. Furthermore, these findings suggest that EGFR or Myc overexpression may provoke ligand-independent proliferation in matrix-attached cells in vivo and could contribute to carcinoma development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.24.19.8586-8599.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC516761PMC
October 2004
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