Publications by authors named "H J Carson"

205 Publications

Clinical endpoints to inform vaccine policy: A systematic review of outcome measures from pediatric influenza vaccine efficacy trials.

Vaccine 2022 Jul 16;40(32):4339-4347. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Center for Vaccine Development & Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: We conducted a systematic review of pediatric influenza vaccine efficacy trials to assess clinical outcome measures and whether the trials defined important public health endpoints.

Material And Methods: We systematically identified phase 3 or 4 influenza vaccine randomized controlled trials among children ≤18 years of age with laboratory-confirmed influenza outcomes since 1980. We recorded countries, age groups, vaccine formulations, specimen collection criteria, laboratory diagnostics, primary and secondary outcome measures, and funders, and we determined income category for study countries. We used descriptive statistics to summarize study characteristics. We analyzed the studies overall and a subset of studies conducted in at least one low- and middle-income country (LMIC).

Results: From 6455 potentially relevant articles, we identified 41 eligible studies. Twenty-one studies (51%) were conducted in at least one LMIC, while the remaining studies (49%) were conducted in high-income countries only. Thirty-one studies (76%) included children younger than six years. We found 40 different primary outcome measures among the 41 eligible studies. Thirty-three studies (80%) reported standardized symptoms or findings which defined a primary outcome or triggered specimen collection. One study defined a primary outcome which captured more severe illness; however, cases were mostly due to high body temperature without other severity criteria. Of the 21 studies from at least one LMIC, 15 (71%) were published since 2010 and 17 (81%) enrolled children younger than six years. Eighteen (86%) studies from at least one LMIC reported standardized symptoms or findings which defined a primary outcome or triggered specimen collection.

Conclusions: Among pediatric influenza vaccine efficacy trials, primary outcome measures and clinical specimen collection criteria were highly variable and, with one exception, focused on capturing any influenza illness. As most LMICs do not have influenza vaccination programs, our study highlights a potential data limitation affecting policy and implementation decisions in these settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.06.028DOI Listing
July 2022

Show Me, Tell Me: An Investigation Into Learning Processes Within Skateboarding as an Informal Coaching Environment.

Front Psychol 2022 10;13:812068. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Human Performance Science Research Group, Institute for Sport, Physical Education and Health Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Coach education is a learner-centred process, which often fails to consider the preferences of the consumer. Historically, research into performers' experiences of coaching have been influenced by the social constructivism of learning: in short, an expressed preference for what the performer has experienced as determined by their coach, rather than their own personal preferences. Therefore, this research used skateboarding as a natural laboratory in order to explore the current practices and preferences of performers in a coach-free environment. Ninety-one skateboarders from parks in the United Kingdom and New Zealand offered information relating to their current learning practices, how they learnt about learning, and how the top-level performers in their environment were differentiated. Findings suggest that a number of learning tools are used by performers, which are closely aligned with a more traditional, cognitive view of coaching (e.g., demonstration, drills, and error usage). Results also suggest that performers deployed a number of cognitive skills (e.g., imagery, analogy, and understanding) to enhance storage of a movement as an internal representation. Finally, in the absence of formal coaching, performers use their knowledge of learning to appoint informal leaders. Implications for practice are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.812068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965649PMC
March 2022

A Dinuclear Osmium(II) Complex Near-Infrared Nanoscopy Probe for Nuclear DNA.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 12 22;143(48):20442-20453. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena, Germany; Institute of Photonic Technology Jena e.V., Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07749 Jena, Germany.

With the aim of developing photostable near-infrared cell imaging probes, a convenient route to the synthesis of heteroleptic Os complexes containing the Os(TAP) fragment is reported. This method was used to synthesize the dinuclear Os complex, [{Os(TAP)}tpphz] (where tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3″,2''-h:2‴,3'''-j]phenazine and TAP = 1,4,5,8- tetraazaphenanthrene). Using a combination of resonance Raman and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy, as well as computational studies, the excited state dynamics of the new complex were dissected. These studies revealed that, although the complex has several close lying excited states, its near-infrared, NIR, emission (λ = 780 nm) is due to a low-lying Os → TAP based MCLT state. Cell-based studies revealed that unlike its Ru analogue, the new complex is neither cytotoxic nor photocytotoxic. However, as it is highly photostable as well as live-cell permeant and displays NIR luminescence within the biological optical window, its properties make it an ideal probe for optical microscopy, demonstrated by its use as a super-resolution NIR STED probe for nuclear DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c10325DOI Listing
December 2021

The Role of Siblings in Talent Development: Implications for Sport Psychologists and Coaches.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 16;3:626327. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Institute for Sport, Physical Education and Health Sciences, Moray House School of Education and Sport, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Developing talent requires consideration of social networks that can facilitate or inhibit progression. Of fundamental influence in this regard is the family, with recent investigation extending its focus from parents to the role of siblings. As such, the purpose of this article is to, firstly, review the characteristics of the sibling relationship that may support or inhibit talent development. Secondly, the analysis then provides empirically derived practical examples to emphasize the holistic and complex role that siblings can play in talent development. Thirdly, strategies are proposed to support practitioners identify specific sibling characteristics, alongside recommendations for how the relationship can be utilized within both the formal and informal environments by coaches and psychologists. Finally, and crucially, important implications of these characteristics are considered to support effective coach and sport psychologist decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.626327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921481PMC
February 2021

Could knee joint mechanics during the golf swing be contributing to chronic knee injuries in professional golfers?

J Sports Sci 2020 Jul 6;38(13):1575-1584. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Institute for Sport, Physical Education and Health Sciences, Moray House School of Education and Sport, The University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, UK.

Full three-dimensional movements and external moments in golfers' knees and the possible involvement in injuries have not been evaluated using motion capture at high sample frequencies. This study measured joint angles and external moments around the three anatomical axes in both knees of 10 professional golfers performing golf drives whilst standing on two force plates in a motion capture laboratory. Significant differences were found in the knee joint moments between the lead and trail limbs for the peak values and throughout all stages during the swing phase. A significantly higher net abduction moment impulse was seen in the trail limb compared with the lead limb (-0.518 vs. -0.135 Nms.kg), indicating greater loading over the whole swing, which could contribute to knee lateral compartment or anterior cruciate ligament injuries. A significant correlation (= -0.85) between clubhead speed at ball contact and maximum joint moment was found, with the largest correlations being found for joint moments at the top of the backswing event and at the end of the follow-through. Therefore, although knee moments can contribute to high clubhead speeds, the large moments and impulses suggest that they may also contribute to chronic knee injuries or exacerbate existing conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1748956DOI Listing
July 2020
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