Publications by authors named "H Fred Downey"

170 Publications

A solution scan of societal options to reduce transmission and spread of respiratory viruses: SARS-CoV-2 as a case study.

J Biosaf Biosecur 2021 Dec 15;3(2):84-90. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, The David Attenborough Building, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.

Societal biosecurity - measures built into everyday society to minimize risks from pests and diseases - is an important aspect of managing epidemics and pandemics. We aimed to identify societal options for reducing the transmission and spread of respiratory viruses. We used SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) as a case study to meet the immediate need to manage the COVID-19 pandemic and eventually transition to more normal societal conditions, and to catalog options for managing similar pandemics in the future. We used a 'solution scanning' approach. We read the literature; consulted psychology, public health, medical, and solution scanning experts; crowd-sourced options using social media; and collated comments on a preprint. Here, we present a list of 519 possible measures to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and spread. We provide a long list of options for policymakers and businesses to consider when designing biosecurity plans to combat SARS-CoV-2 and similar pathogens in the future. We also developed an online application to help with this process. We encourage testing of actions, documentation of outcomes, revisions to the current list, and the addition of further options.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobb.2021.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440234PMC
December 2021

Erratum to: "Anxiety and neurometabolite levels in the hippocampus and amygdala after prolonged exposure to predator-scent stress".

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii 2020 Feb;24(1):108

Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii = Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 2019;23(5):582-587 (in Russian) Page 587, in Acknowledgements instead of The animals and behavioral testing are supported by the budget project (No. 0324-2019-0041). The MRI study is supported by the budget project (No. 0259-2019-0004). All studies are implemented using the equipment of Center for Genetic Resources of Laboratory Animals at ICG SB RAS, supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia (Unique ID# of the project: RFMEFI62117X0015). should read The animals and behavioral testing are supported by the budget project (No. 0324-2019-0041). The MRI study is supported by the budget project (No. 0259-2019-0004). All studies are implemented using the equipment of Center for Genetic Resources of Laboratory Animals at ICG SB RAS, supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia (Unique ID# of the project: RFMEFI62117X0015). The study was conducted within the basic part of the state task of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (No. 17.7255.2017/8.9). The original article can be found under DOI 10.18699/VJ19.528.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18699/VJ20.601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716532PMC
February 2020

Сardiac injury in rats with experimental posttraumatic stress disorder and mechanisms of its limitation in experimental posttraumatic stress disorder-resistant rats.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 03 7;130(3):759-771. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Medical Biology, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation.

Traumatic stress causes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is associated with cardiovascular diseases and risk of sudden cardiac death in some subjects. We compared effects of predator stress (PS, cat urine scent, 10 days) on mechanisms of cardiac injury and protection in experimental PTSD-vulnerable (PTSD) and -resistant (PTSDr) rats. Fourteen days post-stress, rats were evaluated with an elevated plus-maze test, and assigned to PTSD and PTSDr groups according to an anxiety index calculated from the test results. Cardiac injury was evaluated by: ) exercise tolerance; ) ECG; ) myocardial histomorphology; ) oxidative stress; ) pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Myocardial heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was also measured. Experimental PTSD developed in 40% of rats exposed to PS. Exercise tolerance of PTSD rats was 25% less than control rats and 21% less than PTSDr rats. ECG QRS, QT, and OTc intervals were significantly longer in PTSD rats than in control and PTSDr rats. Only cardiomyocytes of PTSD rats had histomorphological signs of metabolic and hypoxic injury and impaired contractility. Oxidative stress markers were higher in PTSD than in PTSDr rats. Pro-inflammatory IL-6 was higher in PTSD rats than in control and PTSDr rats, and anti-inflammatory IL-4 was lower in PTSD than in control and PTSDr rats. Myocardial HSP70 was lower in PTSD rats than in PTSDr and control rats. Our conclusion was that rats with PTSD developed multiple signs of cardiac injury. PTSDr rats were resistant also to cardiac injury. Factors that limit cardiac damage in PS rats include reduced inflammation and oxidative stress and increased protective HSP70. For the first time, rats exposed to stress were segregated into experimental PTSD (ePTSD)-susceptible and ePTSD-resistant rats. Cardiac injury, ECG changes, and impaired exercise tolerance were more pronounced in ePTSD-susceptible rats. Resistance to ePTSD was associated with decreased inflammation and oxidative stress and with increased protective heat shock protein 70. Results may help identify individuals at high risk of PTSD and also provide a foundation for developing preventive and therapeutic means to restrict PTSD-associated cardiac morbidity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00694.2019DOI Listing
March 2021

Hexobarbital Sleep Test for Predicting the Susceptibility or Resistance to Experimental Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 17;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 17.

School of Medical Biology, South Ural State University, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia.

Hexobarbital sleep test (HST) was performed in male Wistar rats (hexobarbital 60 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 days prior to stress exposure. Based on the duration of hexobarbital-induced sleep, rats were divided into two groups, animals with high intensity (fast metabolizers (FM), sleep duration <15 min) or low intensity of hexobarbital metabolism (slow metabolizers (SM), sleep duration ≥15 min). The SM and FM groups were then divided into two subgroups: unstressed and stressed groups. The stressed subgroups were exposed to predator scent stress for 10 days followed by 15 days of rest. SM and FM rats from the unstressed group exhibited different behavioral and endocrinological patterns. SM showed greater anxiety and higher corticosterone levels. In stressed animals, anxiety-like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) behavior was aggravated only in SM. Corticosterone levels in the stressed FM, PTSD-resistant rats, were lower than in unstressed SM. Thus, HST was able to predict the susceptibility or resistance to experimental PTSD, which was consistent with the changes in glucocorticoid metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460591PMC
August 2020

High and low anxiety phenotypes in a rat model of complex post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with different alterations in regional brain monoamine neurotransmission.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 07 23;117:104691. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

School of Medical Biology, South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia; Institute of Molecular Physiology and Genetics, Center for Biosciences, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: Repeated exposure to predator scent stress (PSS) has been used as an animal model of complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). The aim of the current study was to assess brain monoamines and their primary metabolites concentrations in male Wistar rats (16 control, 19 exposed to chronic PSS).

Methods: Rats were exposed to PSS for ten days. Fourteen days later, the rats' anxiety index (AI) was assessed with an elevated plus maze test; based on differences in AI, the rats were segregated into low- (AI ≤ 0.8, n = 9) and high- (AI > 0.8, n = 10) anxiety phenotypes. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Brain monoamines and their metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector.

Results: PSS exposure led to a significant increase in average rats' AI and a reduction in plasma corticosterone levels. Medullar catecholamines and hippocampal and neocortical norepinephrine levels were increased, and pontine norepinephrine and cerebellar dopamine decreased in PSS-exposed rats. Cerebellar norepinephrine levels were increased, and midbrain, hippocampal, and neocortical 5-HT and hypothalamic and hippocampal dopamine levels-decreased in high-, but not in low-anxiety rats. The decrease in hippocampal dopamine levels was accompanied by an increase of DOPAC levels, suggesting and abnormal metabolism of this transmitter.

Conclusion: Reductions in 5-HT and dopamine in mid- and forebrain brain areas are associated with stress susceptibility in rodents and perhaps also with PTSD vulnerability in humans. Dopamine and 5-HT metabolism and its modulation by glucocorticoids appear to play a role in stress susceptibility and in CPTSD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104691DOI Listing
July 2020
-->