Publications by authors named "H Carlo Maurer"

1,175 Publications

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To ventilate or not to ventilate during bystander CPR - A EuReCa TWO analysis.

Resuscitation 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Servicio de Urgencias y Emergencias 061 de La Rioja, Spain; European Resuscitation Council, Niel, Belgium.

Background: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still low. For every minute without resuscitation the likelihood of survival decreases. One critical step is initiation of immediate, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this subgroup analysis of data collected for the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest Study number 2 (EuReCa TWO) was to investigate the association between OHCA survival and two types of bystander CPR namely: chest compression only CPR (CConly) and CPR with chest compressions and ventilations (FullCPR).

Method: In this subgroup analysis of EuReCa TWO, all patients who received bystander CPR were included. Outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation and survival to 30-days or hospital discharge. A multilevel binary logistic regression analysis with survival as the dependent variable was performed.

Results: A total of 5,884 patients were included in the analysis, varying between countries from 21 to 1,444. Survival was 320 (8%) in the CConly group and 174 (13%) in the FullCPR group. After adjustment for age, sex, location, rhythm, cause, time to scene, witnessed collapse and country, patients who received FullCPR had a significantly higher survival rate when compared to those who received CConly (adjusted odds ration 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.83).

Conclusion: In this analysis, FullCPR was associated with higher survival compared to CConly. Guidelines should continue to emphasise the importance of compressions and ventilations during resuscitation for patients who suffer OHCA and CPR courses should continue to teach both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.06.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Relevance of Predictive and Postdictive Error Information in the Course of Motor Learning.

Neuroscience 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Neuromotor Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychology and Sport Science, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Kugelberg 62, 35394 Giessen, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior (CMBB), Universities of Marburg and Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:

The prediction of the sensory consequences of physical movements is a fundamental feature of the human brain. This function is attributed to a forward model, which generates predictions based on sensory and efferent information. The neural processes underlying such predictions have been studied using the error-related negativity (ERN) as a fronto-central event-related potential in electroencephalogram (EEG) tracings. In this experiment, 16 participants practiced a novel motor task for 4000 trials over ten sessions. Neural correlates of error processing were recorded in sessions one, five, and ten. Along with significant improvements in task performance, the ERN amplitude increased over the sessions. Simultaneously, the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a neural marker corresponding to the processing of movement-outcome feedback, attenuated with learning. The findings suggest that early in learning, the motor control system relies more on information from external feedback about terminal outcome. With increasing task performance, the forward model is able to generate more accurate outcome predictions, which, as a result, increasingly contributes to error processing. The data also suggests a complementary relationship between the ERN and the FRN over motor learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.05.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Measuring metacognition of direct and indirect parameters of voluntary movement.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.

We can make exquisitely precise movements without the apparent need for conscious monitoring. But can we monitor the low-level movement parameters when prompted? And what are the mechanisms that allow us to monitor our movements? To answer these questions, we designed a semivirtual ball throwing task. On each trial, participants first threw a virtual ball by moving their arm (with or without visual feedback, or replayed from a previous trial) and then made a two-alternative forced choice on the resulting ball trajectory. They then rated their confidence in their decision. We measured metacognitive efficiency using meta-d'/d' and compared it between different informational domains of the first-order task (motor, visuomotor or visual information alone), as well as between two different versions of the task based on different parameters of the movement: proximal (position of the arm) or distal (resulting trajectory of the ball thrown). We found that participants were able to monitor their performance based on distal motor information as well as when proximal information was available. Their metacognitive efficiency was also equally high in conditions with different sources of information available. The analysis of correlations across participants revealed an unexpected result: While metacognitive efficiency correlated between informational domains (which would indicate domain-generality of metacognition), it did not correlate across the different parameters of movement. We discuss possible sources of this discrepancy and argue that specific first-order task demands may play a crucial role in our metacognitive ability and should be considered when making inferences about domain-generality based on correlations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000892DOI Listing
April 2021

Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 Expression Increases during Pancreatic Cancer Development and Shortens the Survival of a Spontaneous Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer & Allied Diseases and the Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

In the United States, pancreatic cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths. Although substantial efforts have been made to understand pancreatic cancer biology and improve therapeutic efficacy, patients still face a bleak chance of survival. A greater understanding of pancreatic cancer development and the identification of novel treatment targets are desperately needed. Our analysis of gene expression data from patient samples showed an increase in amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) expression within primary tumor epithelium relative to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) epithelial cells. Augmented expression of APLP2 in primary tumors compared to adjacent stroma was also observed. Genetically engineered mouse models of spontaneous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were used to investigate APLP2's role in cancer development. We found that APLP2 expression intensifies significantly during pancreatic cancer initiation and progression in the ; ; (KPC) mouse model, as shown by immunohistochemistry analysis. In studies utilizing pancreas-specific heterozygous and homozygous knockout of APLP2 in the KPC mouse model background, we observed significantly prolonged survival and reduced metastatic progression of pancreatic cancer. These results demonstrate the importance of APLP2 in pancreatic cancer initiation and metastasis and indicate that APLP2 should be considered a potential therapeutic target for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036577PMC
March 2021

PALLD mutation in a European family conveys a stromal predisposition for familial pancreatic cancer.

JCI Insight 2021 Mar 25;6(8). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

BACKGROUNDPancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with low long-term survival rates. Despite recent advances in treatment, it is important to identify and screen high-risk individuals for cancer prevention. Familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) accounts for 4%-10% of pancreatic cancers. Several germline mutations are related to an increased risk and might offer screening and therapy options. In this study, we aimed to identity of a susceptibility gene in a family with FPC.METHODSWhole exome sequencing and PCR confirmation was performed on the surgical specimen and peripheral blood of an index patient and her sister in a family with high incidence of pancreatic cancer, to identify somatic and germline mutations associated with familial pancreatic cancer. Compartment-specific gene expression data and immunohistochemistry were also queried.RESULTSThe identical germline mutation of the PALLD gene (NM_001166108.1:c.G154A:p.D52N) was detected in the index patient with pancreatic cancer and the tumor tissue of her sister. Whole genome sequencing showed similar somatic mutation patterns between the 2 sisters. Apart from the PALLD mutation, commonly mutated genes that characterize pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were found in both tumor samples. However, the 2 patients harbored different somatic KRAS mutations (G12D and G12V). Healthy siblings did not have the PALLD mutation, indicating a disease-specific impact. Compartment-specific gene expression data and IHC showed expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs).CONCLUSIONWe identified a germline mutation of the palladin (PALLD) gene in 2 siblings in Europe, affected by familial pancreatic cancer, with a significant overexpression in CAFs, suggesting that stromal palladin could play a role in the development, maintenance, and/or progression of pancreatic cancer.FUNDINGDFG SFB 1321.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.141532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119201PMC
March 2021