Publications by authors named "Håkan Olsson"

254 Publications

Birth cohort-specific trends of sun-related behaviors among individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 23;21(1):692. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited.

Methods: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates.

Results: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis.

Conclusions: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10424-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063451PMC
April 2021

Prevalence of germline pathogenic variants in 22 cancer susceptibility genes in Swedish pediatric cancer patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5307. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lasarettsgatan 40, 22185, Lund, Sweden.

Up to 10% of pediatric cancer patients harbor pathogenic germline variants in one or more cancer susceptibility genes. A recent study from the US reported pathogenic variants in 22 out of 60 analyzed autosomal dominant cancer susceptibility genes, implicating 8.5% of pediatric cancer patients. Here we aimed to assess the prevalence of germline pathogenic variants in these 22 genes in a population-based Swedish cohort and to compare the results to those described in other populations. We found pathogenic variants in 10 of the 22 genes covering 3.8% of these patients. The prevalence of TP53 mutations was significantly lower than described in previous studies, which can largely be attributed to differences in tumor diagnosis distributions across the three cohorts. Matched family history for relatives allowed assessment of familial cancer incidence, however, no significant difference in cancer incidence was found in families of children carrying pathogenic variants compared to those who did not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84502-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935871PMC
March 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Improved survival in several cancers with use of H-antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 5;14(4):101029. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Oncology and Pathology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: We have previously shown an association with substantially improved survival in breast cancer and melanoma for desloratadine and loratadine users, and set out to find whether an improved survival can be seen in tumors with and without a known response to immune checkpoint therapy, such as anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1.

Methods: We investigated survival and use of six common H-antihistamines (cetirizine, clemastine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine and loratadine) in a nation-wide cohort of all 429,198 Swedish patients with ten types of immunogenic (gastric, colorectal/anal, pancreatic, lung, breast, prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer, melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma) and six non-immunogenic (liver, uterine, ovarian, brain/CNS, and thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) tumors diagnosed 2006-2017. Follow-up was until 2019-02-24.

Findings: Desloratadine use was associated with an improved survival for all immunogenic tumors, but not for the non-immunogenic ones. Loratadine use was associated with improved survival for some tumors. Use of the other antihistamines could not be shown to be consistently associated with improved survival to a statistically significant degree.

Interpretation: Our hypothesis is that our findings result from immune checkpoint inhibition, and we believe both desloratadine and loratadine should be tested in randomized clinical trials as treatment of immunogenic tumors, with priority given to trials of desloratadine as treatment of tumors with few therapy options and dismal prognoses, such as pancreatic cancer. If our results can be confirmed in a clinical setting, new, potentially curative, therapies could result for several tumors, including ones with dire prognoses and limited treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868613PMC
April 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Apr 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021

CYP3A7*1C allele: linking premenopausal oestrone and progesterone levels with risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

Br J Cancer 2021 Feb 26;124(4):842-854. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry.

Results: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10).

Conclusions: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01185-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884683PMC
February 2021

Oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: an international cohort study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates.

Study Design: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use.

Results: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; P=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size.

Conclusion: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.014DOI Listing
January 2021

Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jan 3;30(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers.

Methods: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data.

Results: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers ( = 0.43, = 2.66 × 10). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers ( < 2.4 × 10). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified ( < 5 × 10). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation.

Conclusions: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis.

Impact: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0739DOI Listing
January 2021

Breast Cancer Polygenic Risk Score and Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 11 5;107(5):837-848. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Pathology, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10 percentile and 20.5% at the 90 percentile of PRS. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675034PMC
November 2020

Increased Cancer Risk in Families with Pediatric Cancer Is Associated with Gender, Age, Diagnosis, and Degree of Relation to the Child.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Nov 20;29(11):2171-2179. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Studies of cancer risk among relatives of children with cancer beyond parents and siblings are limited. We have investigated the cancer risk up to the third degree of relation in families with pediatric cancer to reveal patterns of inheritance.

Methods: A single-center cohort of 757 patients with pediatric cancer was linked to the Swedish National Population Register, resulting in 16,137 relatives up to the third degree of relation. All relatives were matched to the Swedish Cancer Register, and standard incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated to define relatives at risk.

Results: Children and adults up to the third degree of relation had increased cancer risk, with SIRs of 1.48 ( = 0.01) and 1.07 ( < 0.01), respectively. The SIRs for first- and third-degree adult relatives were 1.22 and 1.10, respectively, but no increased risk was observed in second-degree relatives. Male relatives had a higher risk than females, especially when related to a girl and when the child had leukemia. The risk was mainly increased for lung, prostate, and gastrointestinal cancer. When excluding 29 families of children with known pathogenic germline variants, the increased risk remained.

Conclusions: Relatives to children with cancer up to third degree of relation have an increased cancer risk. Known pathogenic germline variants do not explain this increased risk.

Impact: The overall increased cancer risk among relatives of children with cancer in this population-based cohort strengthens the importance of surveillance programs for families with pediatric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0322DOI Listing
November 2020

Common Susceptibility Loci for Male Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr;113(4):453-461

Division of Oncology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: The etiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study of MBC identified 2 predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC.

Methods: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls in 3 stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1380 cases and 3620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1026 controls was used to validate variants with P values less than 1 × 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using linkage disequilibrium score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score and MBC. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: The genome-wide association study identified 3 novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide statistical significance (P < 5 × 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen receptor-positive FBC. Men in the top quintile of genetic risk had a fourfold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 × 10-30).

Conclusions: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic etiology with FBC and identifying a fourfold high-risk group of susceptible men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023850PMC
April 2021

Variations in the Referral Pattern for Genetic Counseling of Patients with Early-Onset Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study in Southern Sweden.

Public Health Genomics 2020 8;23(3-4):100-109. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine in Lund, Clinical Genetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Swedish national breast cancer guidelines recommend that all women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) at the age of 35 years or younger should be referred to their regional oncogenetic clinic for genetic counseling and testing, regardless of family history of cancer. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether place of residence at BC diagnosis and treating hospital were associated with the fact that not all BC patients diagnosed at ≤35 years in the southern part of Sweden have attended genetic counseling and testing. Between 2000 and 2013, 279 women in the South Swedish Health Care Region were diagnosed with BC at ≤35 years. Information regarding place of residence at BC diagnosis, treating hospital, time of registration and first meeting at the Oncogenetic Clinic in Lund, and genetic testing was collected. With a follow-up period until August 2018, 64% were registered at the clinic (60% underwent genetic testing) and 36% were not. BC patients from 2 counties and from rural settings with a population of <10,000 inhabitants were significantly less likely to be registered at the clinic. Our results suggest that place of residence at BC diagnosis and treating hospital were associated with the probability of referral for genetic counseling and testing for women diagnosed with BC at ≤35 years in the South Swedish Health Care Region. We propose, as a generalizable finding, that further educational and outreach activities within the health care system and the community may be needed to ensure that all women diagnosed with early-onset BC receive proper genetic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592930PMC
February 2021

Multiple Primary Melanoma Incidence Trends Over Five Decades: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):318-328

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Over the past decades, many regions have experienced a steady increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Here, we report on incidence trends for subsequent primary melanoma.

Methods: In this nationwide population-based study, patients diagnosed with a first primary cutaneous melanoma reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry were followed for up to 10 years for a diagnosis of subsequent primary melanoma. Patients were grouped with patients diagnosed with first melanoma in the same decade (1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, respectively). Frequencies, incidence rates (IRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for second melanomas were calculated. All tests of statistical significance were 2-sided.

Results: Of patients with melanoma, 54 884 were included and 2469 were diagnosed, within 10 years, with subsequent melanomas. Over the 5 decades, there was a statistically significant steady increase in the frequency, IR, and SIR for second primary melanoma. For example, in the 1960s cohort, less than 1% (IR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.7, and IR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.9 per 1000 person-years in women and men, respectively) had second primary melanoma, and this rose to 6.4% (IR = 7.5, 95% CI = 6.8 to 8.3, per 1000 person-years) in the women and 7.9% (IR = 10.3, 95% CI = 9.3 to 11.2, per 1000 person-years) in the men in the 2000s cohort. This rise was seen independent of age, sex, invasiveness, or site of the melanoma. Further, in patients diagnosed with a second melanoma, the frequency of those having more than 2 melanomas increased statistically significantly and was 0.0% in the 1960s and rose to 18.0% in the 2000s (P < .001).

Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate and report on a rising trend for subsequent primary melanoma. Additional primary melanomas worsen the patients' survival, and precautions are needed to turn this steep upgoing trend.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936055PMC
March 2021

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Desloratadine and loratadine stand out among common H-antihistamines for association with improved breast cancer survival.

Acta Oncol 2020 Sep 27;59(9):1103-1109. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: As tumors maintain an inflammatory microenvironment, anti-inflammatory medication can be useful in cancer therapy. We have previously shown an association with improved survival in melanoma for use of the H-antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine, and here we examine use of H-antihistamines and breast cancer mortality.

Material And Methods: We investigated use of the six major H-antihistamines (cetirizine, clemastine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine and loratadine) and breast cancer-specific and overall mortality in a nation-wide register-based study of all 61,627 Swedish women diagnosed with breast cancer 2006-2013. Both peri- and post-diagnostic antihistamine use was analyzed using Cox regression models. Analyses were stratified for age and subgroup analyses based on estrogen receptor status and menopausal status were performed.

Results: We found a consistently improved survival of desloratadine users (HR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81,  < .001), as well as of loratadine users (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.95,  = .012), relative to nonusers, regardless of patient age, menopause, estrogen receptor status or stage of the tumor, or whether breast cancer-specific or overall survival was analyzed. The survival of users of other antihistamines varied relative to non-users.

Conclusion: Based on their safety and current use within the patient population, together with our observations, we suggest the initiation of trials of desloratadine and loratadine as treatment of breast cancer as well as studies of the mechanism behind their possible effect. Further studies on any effects of other H-antihistamines may also be merited, as well as of H-antihistamine use and survival in other malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1769185DOI Listing
September 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

Combined Associations of a Polygenic Risk Score and Classical Risk Factors With Breast Cancer Risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):329-337

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72 284 cases and 80 354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression and a newly developed case-only method for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history) and, on average, 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936056PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide association meta-analyses combining multiple risk phenotypes provide insights into the genetic architecture of cutaneous melanoma susceptibility.

Nat Genet 2020 05 27;52(5):494-504. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Dermatology, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain.

Most genetic susceptibility to cutaneous melanoma remains to be discovered. Meta-analysis genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36,760 cases of melanoma (67% newly genotyped) and 375,188 controls identified 54 significant (P < 5 × 10) loci with 68 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms. Analysis of risk estimates across geographical regions and host factors suggests the acral melanoma subtype is uniquely unrelated to pigmentation. Combining this meta-analysis with GWAS of nevus count and hair color, and transcriptome association approaches, uncovered 31 potential secondary loci for a total of 85 cutaneous melanoma susceptibility loci. These findings provide insights into cutaneous melanoma genetic architecture, reinforcing the importance of nevogenesis, pigmentation and telomere maintenance, together with identifying potential new pathways for cutaneous melanoma pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0611-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255059PMC
May 2020

The Role of PTEN Loss in Immune Escape, Melanoma Prognosis and Therapy Response.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 21;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Division of Oncology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 22381 Lund, Sweden.

Checkpoint blockade therapies have changed the clinical management of metastatic melanoma patients considerably, showing survival benefits. Despite the clinical success, not all patients respond to treatment or they develop resistance. Although there are several treatment predictive biomarkers, understanding therapy resistance and the mechanisms of tumor immune evasion is crucial to increase the frequency of patients benefiting from treatment. The gene is thought to promote immune evasion and is frequently mutated in cancer and melanoma. Another feature of melanoma tumors that may affect the capacity of escaping T-cell recognition is melanoma cell dedifferentiation characterized by decreased expression of the microphtalmia-associated transcription factor () gene. In this study, we have explored the role of PTEN in prognosis, therapy response, and immune escape in the context of expression using immunostaining and genomic data from a large cohort of metastatic melanoma. We confirmed in our cohort that PTEN alterations promote immune evasion highlighted by decreased frequency of T-cell infiltration in such tumors, resulting in a worse patient survival. More importantly, our results suggest that dedifferentiated PTEN negative melanoma tumors have poor patient outcome, no T-cell infiltration, and transcriptional properties rendering them resistant to targeted- and immuno-therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140048PMC
March 2020

Protein Expression in Metastatic Melanoma and the Link to Disease Presentation in a Range of Tumor Phenotypes.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 24;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Clinical Protein Science & Imaging, Biomedical Centre, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.

Malignant melanoma is among the most aggressive skin cancers and it has among the highest metastatic potentials. Although surgery to remove the primary tumor is the gold standard treatment, once melanoma progresses and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distal organs, i.e., metastatic melanoma (MM), the usual outcome is decreased survival. To improve survival rates and life span, advanced treatments have focused on the success of targeted therapies in the MAPK pathway that are based on BRAF (BRAF V600E) and MEK. The majority of patients with tumors that have higher expression of BRAF V600E show poorer prognosis than patients with a lower level of the mutated protein. Based on the molecular basis of melanoma, these findings are supported by distinct tumor phenotypes determined from differences in tumor heterogeneity and protein expression profiles. With these aspects in mind, continued challenges are to: (1) deconvolute the complexity and heterogeneity of MM; (2) identify the signaling pathways involved; and (3) determine protein expression to develop targeted therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the results from protein expression in MM and the link to disease presentation in a variety of tumor phenotypes and how these will overcome the challenges of clinical problems and suggest new promising approaches in metastatic melanoma and cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140007PMC
March 2020

Desloratadine and loratadine use associated with improved melanoma survival.

Allergy 2020 08 16;75(8):2096-2099. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14273DOI Listing
August 2020

Analysis of DNA methylation patterns in the tumor immune microenvironment of metastatic melanoma.

Mol Oncol 2020 05 21;14(5):933-950. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

The presence of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment has been associated with response to immunotherapies across several cancer types, including melanoma. Despite its therapeutic relevance, characterization of the melanoma immune microenvironments remains insufficiently explored. To distinguish the immune microenvironment in a cohort of 180 metastatic melanoma clinical specimens, we developed a method using promoter CpG methylation of immune cell type-specific genes extracted from genome-wide methylation arrays. Unsupervised clustering identified three immune methylation clusters with varying levels of immune CpG methylation that are related to patient survival. Matching protein and gene expression data further corroborated the identified epigenetic characterization. Exploration of the possible immune exclusion mechanisms at play revealed likely dependency on MITF protein level and PTEN loss-of-function events for melanomas unresponsive to immunotherapies (immune-low). To understand whether melanoma tumors resemble other solid tumors in terms of immune methylation characteristics, we explored 15 different solid tumor cohorts from TCGA. Low-dimensional projection based on immune cell type-specific methylation revealed grouping of the solid tumors in line with melanoma immune methylation clusters rather than tumor types. Association of survival outcome with immune cell type-specific methylation differed across tumor and cell types. However, in melanomas immune cell type-specific methylation was associated with inferior patient survival. Exploration of the immune methylation patterns in a pan-cancer context suggested that specific immune microenvironments might occur across the cancer spectrum. Together, our findings underscore the existence of diverse immune microenvironments, which may be informative for future immunotherapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191190PMC
May 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Correction to: Women with a predisposition for diabetes have an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially in combination with pregestational overweight.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 02 19;20(1):116. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Endocrinology, Lasarettsgatan 15, Skane University Hospital, S-221 85, Lund, Sweden.

Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified by the author that the age of women from the Result section was incorrectly tagged as references.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2803-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029578PMC
February 2020

The Menstrual Cycle and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Review.

Front Oncol 2020 24;10:21. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Cyclic hormonal stimulation of the breast tissue plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Current risk factor models do not include direct measures of cycle characteristics although the effects of possible surrogates of cycle activity such as age at menarche and menopause, parity, and nursing time have been investigated. Future risk models should also include menstrual cycle length, regularity, number of cycles before first full-term pregnancy, and life-time number of cycles. New risk factor models for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer are proposed here. Furthermore, there is a need for more long-term, prospective studies investigating menstrual cycle characteristics as data currently available are primarily retrospective and collected at one time-point only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993118PMC
January 2020

Women with a predisposition for diabetes have an increased risk of pregnancy complications, especially in combination with pregestational overweight.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Feb 3;20(1):74. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Lasarettsgatan 15, Skane University Hospital, S-221 85, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Overweight and gestational diabetes are risk factors for pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that the metabolic impact of overweight on pregnancy outcome, would be different if it was combined with a predisposition for diabetes. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of pregnancies in women with diabetes diagnosed later in life, to the outcome of pregnancies of women who did not develop diabetes.

Methods: Women in a population-based cohort who also were registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (n = 4738) were included. A predisposition for diabetes (GDM or diabetes after pregnancy) was found in 455 pregnancies. The number of pregnancies with maternal BMI ≥ 25 kg/m and without diabetes were 2466, and in 10,405 pregnancies the mother had a BMI < 25 kg/m without diabetes at any time. Maternal BMI, gestational length, gestational weight gain, frequency of caesarean section, infant birth weight, frequency of large for gestational age (LGA) and Apgar score were retrospectively compared.

Results: Pregnancies with normal maternal BMI ≤25 kg/m with predisposition for diabetes had a higher frequency of LGA (11.6% vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001), a higher frequency of macrosomia (28.6% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), and a shorter gestational length (39.7 vs. 40 weeks; p = 0.08) when compared to pregnancies in women without a predisposition for diabetes. In addition, pregnancies with both maternal predisposition for diabetes and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m there was a higher frequency of LGA (23.3% vs. 7.1%; p < 0.001), caesarean section (24.0% vs. 14.9%, p = 0.031) compared to pregnancies in women who were only overweight. A predisposition for diabetes significantly increases the risk of macrosomia (OR1.5; 95% CI 1.07-2.15; p = 0.02).

Conclusions: In pregnancy, there is an increased frequency of LGA, macrosomia and caesarean section if the woman has a predisposition for diabetes. The frequency of overweight young women is increasing, and it is urgent to identify pregnant women with a predisposition to diabetes. How to distinguish the women with the highest risk for adverse pregnancy outcome and the highest risk of future disease, remains to be studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2741-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6998083PMC
February 2020

Women with fair phenotypes seem to confer a survival advantage in a low UV milieu. A nested matched case control study.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(1):e0228582. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Departments of Oncology and Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Sun exposure in combination with skin pigmentation is the main determinant for vitamin D status. Human skin color seems to be adapted and optimized for regional sun ultraviolet (UV) intensity. However, we do not know if fair, UV-sensitive skin is a survival advantage in regions with low UV radiation.

Methods: A population-based nested case-control study of 29,518 Caucasian women, ages 25 to 64 years from Southern Sweden who responded to a questionnaire regarding risk-factors for malignant melanoma in 1990 and followed for 25 years. For each fair woman, defined as having red hair or freckles (n = 11,993), a control was randomly selected from all non-fair women from within the cohort of similar age, smoking habits, education, marital status, income, and comorbidity, i.e., 11,993 pairs. The main outcome was the difference in all-cause mortality between fair and non-fair women in a low UV milieu, defined as living in Sweden and having low-to-moderate sun exposure habits. Secondary outcomes were mortality by sun exposure, and among those non-overweight.

Results: In a low UV milieu, fair women were at a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk as compared to non-fair women (log rank test p = 0.04) with an 8% lower all-cause mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.92, 95% CI 0.84‒1.0), including a 59% greater risk of dying from skin cancer among fair women (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26‒2.0). Thus, it seem that the beneficial health effect from low skin coloration outweigh the risk of skin cancer at high latitudes.

Conclusion: In a region with low UV milieu, evolution seems to improve all-cause survival by selecting a fair skin phenotype, i.e., comprising fair women with a survival advantage.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228582PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992199PMC
April 2020