Publications by authors named "Gyoung Nyoun Kim"

8 Publications

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Bioreactor production of rVSV-based vectors in Vero cell suspension cultures.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0C3, Canada.

The Vero cell line is the most used continuous cell line in viral vaccine manufacturing. This adherent cell culture platform requires the use of surfaces to support cell growth, typically roller bottles or microcarriers. We have recently compared the production of rVSV-ZEBOV on Vero cells between microcarrier and fixed-bed bioreactors. However, suspension cultures are considered superior with regard to process scalability. Therefore, we further explore the Vero suspension system for rVSV-vectored vaccine production. Previously, this suspension cell line was only able to be cultivated in a proprietary medium. Here, we expand the adaptation and bioreactor cultivation to a serum-free commercial medium. Following small scale optimization and screening studies, we demonstrate bioreactor productions of highly relevant vaccines and vaccine candidates against Ebola virus disease, HIV and COVID-19 in the Vero suspension system. rVSV-ZEBOV, rVSV-HIV and rVSV -msp-S -Gtc can replicate to high titers in the bioreactor, reaching 3.87 × 10 TCID /mL, 2.12 × 10 TCID /mL and 3.59 × 10 TCID /mL, respectively. Further, we compare cell specific productivities, and the quality of the produced viruses by determining the ratio of total viral particles to infectious viral particles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27785DOI Listing
April 2021

First Phase I human clinical trial of a killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine: demonstration of its safety and enhancement of anti-HIV antibody responses.

Retrovirology 2016 Nov 28;13(1):82. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1400 Western Road, London, ON, N6G 2V4, Canada.

Background: Vaccination with inactivated (killed) whole-virus particles has been used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases. However, for an HIV vaccine this approach has been largely negated due to inherent safety concerns, despite the ability of killed whole-virus vaccines to generate a strong, predominantly antibody-mediated immune response in vivo. HIV-1 Clade B NL4-3 was genetically modified by deleting the nef and vpu genes and substituting the coding sequence for the Env signal peptide with that of honeybee melittin signal peptide to produce a less virulent and more replication efficient virus. This genetically modified virus (gmHIV-1) was inactivated and formulated as a killed whole-HIV vaccine, and then used for a Phase I human clinical trial (Trial Registration: Clinical Trials NCT01546818). The gmHIV-1 was propagated in the A3.01 human T cell line followed by virus purification and inactivation with aldrithiol-2 and γ-irradiation. Thirty-three HIV-1 positive volunteers receiving cART were recruited for this observer-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase I human clinical trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity.

Results: Genetically modified and killed whole-HIV-1 vaccine, SAV001, was well tolerated with no serious adverse events. HIV-1-specific PCR showed neither evidence of vaccine virus replication in the vaccine virus-infected human T lymphocytes in vitro nor in the participating volunteers receiving SAV001 vaccine. Furthermore, SAV001 with adjuvant significantly increased the pre-existing antibody response to HIV-1 proteins. Antibodies in the plasma of vaccinees were also found to recognize HIV-1 envelope protein on the surface of infected cells as well as showing an enhancement of broadly neutralizing antibodies inhibiting tier I and II of HIV-1 B, D, and A subtypes.

Conclusion: The killed whole-HIV vaccine, SAV001, is safe and triggers anti-HIV immune responses. It remains to be determined through an appropriate trial whether this immune response prevents HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-016-0317-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126836PMC
November 2016

Creation of matrix protein gene variants of two serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus as prime-boost vaccine vectors.

J Virol 2015 Jun 8;89(12):6338-51. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Unlabelled: To take advantage of live recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) as vaccine vectors for their high yield and for their induction of strong and long-lasting immune responses, it is necessary to make live vaccine vectors safe for use without losing their immunogenicity. We have generated safer and highly efficient recombinant VSV vaccine vectors by combining the M51R mutation in the M gene of serotype VSV-Indiana (VSVInd) with a temperature-sensitive mutation (tsO23) of the VSVInd Orsay strain. In addition, we have generated two new serotype VSV-New Jersey (VSVNJ) vaccine vectors by combining M48R and M51R mutations with G22E and L110F mutations in the M gene, rVSVNJ(G22E M48R M51R) [rVSVNJ(GMM)] and VSVNJ(G22E M48R M51R L110F) [rVSVNJ(GMML)]. The combined mutations G21E, M51R, and L111F in the M protein of VSVInd significantly reduced the burst size of the virus by up to 10,000-fold at 37°C without affecting the level of protein expression. BHK21 cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells infected with rVSVInd(GML), rVSVNJ(GMM), and rVSVNJ(GMML) showed significantly reduced cytopathic effects in vitro at 37°C, and mice injected with 1 million infectious virus particles of these mutants into the brain showed no neurological dysfunctions or any other adverse effects. In order to increase the stability of the temperature-sensitive mutant, we have replaced the phenylalanine with alanine. This will change all three nucleotides from UUG (leucine) to GCA (alanine). The resulting L111A mutant showed the temperature-sensitive phenotype of rVSVInd(GML) and increased stability. Twenty consecutive passages of rVSVInd(GML) with an L111A mutation did not convert back to leucine (UUG) at position 111 in the M protein gene.

Importance: Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses as live vaccine vectors are very effective in expressing foreign genes and inducing adaptive T cell and B cell immune responses. As with any other live viruses in humans or animals, the use of live rVSVs as vaccine vectors demands the utmost safety. Our strategy to attenuate rVSVInd by utilizing a temperature-sensitive assembly-defective mutation of L111A and combining it with an M51R mutation in the M protein of rVSVInd significantly reduced the pathogenicity of the virus while maintaining highly effective virus production. We believe our new temperature-sensitive M gene mutant of rVSVInd(GML) and M gene mutants of rVSVNJ(GMM) and rVSVNJ(GMML) add excellent vaccine vectors to the pool of live viral vectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00222-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4474318PMC
June 2015

Genetically modified VSV(NJ) vector is capable of accommodating a large foreign gene insert and allows high level gene expression.

Virus Res 2013 Jan 30;171(1):168-77. Epub 2012 Nov 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Western University, London, ON N6G 2V4, Canada.

It is desirable to develop a RNA virus vector capable of accommodating large foreign genes for high level gene expression. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been used as a gene expression vector, especially Indiana serotype (VSV(Ind)), but less with New Jersey serotype (VSV(NJ)). Here, we report constructions of genetically modified rVSV(NJ) vector carrying various lengths of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural (NS) protein genes, level of inserted gene expression and characterization of rVSV(NJ). We modified the M gene of VSV(NJ) by changing methionine to arginine at positions 48 and 51 (rVSV(NJ)-M) (Kim and Kang, 2007) for construction of rVSV(NJ) with various lengths of HCV non-structural genes. The NS polyprotein genes of HCV were inserted between the G and L genes of the rVSV(NJ)-M vector, and recombinant VSV(NJ)-M viruses with HCV gene inserts were recovered by the reverse genetics. The recombinant VSV(NJ)-M vector with the HCV NS genes express high levels of all different forms of the NS proteins. The electron microscopic examination showed that lengths of recombinant VSV(NJ)-M without gene of interests, VSV(NJ)-M with a gene of HCV NS3 and NS4A (VSV(NJ)-M-NS3/4A), VSV(NJ)-M with a gene of HCV NS4AB plus NS5AB (VSV(NJ)-M-NS4AB/5AB), and VSV(NJ)-M carrying a gene of HCV NS3, NS4AB, and NS5AB (VSV(NJ)-M-NS3/4AB/5AB) were 172±10.5 nm, 201±12.5 nm, 226±12.9 nm, and 247±18.2 nm, respectively. The lengths of recombinant VSVs increased approximately 10nm by insertion of 1kb of foreign genes. The diameter of these recombinant viruses also increased slightly by longer HCV gene inserts. Our results showed that the recombinant VSV(NJ)-M vector can accommodate as much as 6000 bases of the foreign gene. We compared the magnitude of the IFN induction in mouse fibroblast L(Y) cells infected with rVSV(NJ) wild type and rVSV(NJ) M mutant viruses and show that the rVSV(NJ) M mutant virus infection induced a higher level of the IFN-β compare to the wild type virus. In addition, we showed that the NS protein expression level in IFN-incompetent cells (Mouse-L) infected with rVSV(NJ)-M viruses was higher than in IFN-competent L(Y) cells. In addition, we confirmed that HCV NS protein genes were expressed and properly processed. We also confirmed that NS3 protein expressed from the rVSV(NJ)-M cleaves NS polyprotein at junctions and that NS4A plays an important role as a co-factor for NS3 protease to cleave at the NS4B/5A site and at the NS5A/5B site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2012.11.007DOI Listing
January 2013

Expression and processing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 using the vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype vector system.

J Gen Virol 2009 May 4;90(Pt 5):1135-1140. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Siebens-Drake Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6G 2V4, Canada.

The Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV(IND)), but not the New Jersey serotype (VSV(NJ)), has been widely used as a gene expression vector. In terms of prime-boost-based vaccine strategies, it would be desirable to use two different VSV serotypes to avoid immunity against the priming viral vector. Here, we report that we have applied the VSV(NJ) vector system for expression of the env gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The HIV-1 env gene was inserted into the VSV(NJ) vector system at two different sites: between the P and M genes (NP-gp160-MGL) and between the G and L genes (NPMG-gp160-L). The HIV-1 env gene product, gp160, was efficiently expressed and processed in cells infected with either of these two recombinant VSV-HIV-1(gp160) viruses. In this study, we have investigated the applicability of the VSV(NJ) vector system for foreign gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.009019-0DOI Listing
May 2009

Matrix protein of VSV New Jersey serotype containing methionine to arginine substitutions at positions 48 and 51 allows near-normal host cell gene expression.

Virology 2007 Jan 7;357(1):41-53. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, Siebens-Drake Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada N6G 2V4.

The matrix (M) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) plays significant roles in the replication of VSV through its involvement in the assembly of virus particles as well as by facilitating the evasion of innate host cell defense mechanisms. The presence of methionine at position 51 (M51) of the matrix (M) protein of the VSV Indiana serotype (VSV(Ind)) has been proven to be crucial for cell rounding and inhibition of host cell gene expression. The M protein of VSV(Ind) with the substitution of M51 with arginine (R:M51R) results in the loss of inhibitory effects on host cell gene expression. The VSV(Ind) expressing the M(M51R) protein became the attractive oncolytic virus which is safer and more tumor-specific because the normal cells can clear the mutant VSV(Ind) easily but tumor cells are susceptible to the virus because a variety of tumor cells lack innate antiviral activities. We have studied the role of the methionines at positions 48 and 51 of the M protein of the New Jersey serotype of VSV (VSV(NJ)) in the induction of cytopathic effects (CPE) and host cell gene expression. We have generated human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines inducibly expressing M proteins with M to R mutations at positions 48 and 51, either separately or together as a double mutant, and examined expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as an indicator of host cell gene expression. We have also generated recombinant VSV(NJ) encoding the mutant M proteins M(M48R) or M(M48R+M51R) for the first time and tested for the expression of HSP70 in infected cells. Our results demonstrated that the M51 of VSV(NJ) M proteins has a major role in cell rounding and in suppressing the host cell gene expression either when the M protein was expressed alone in inducible cell lines or when expressed together with other VSV proteins by the recombinant VSV(NJ). Amino acid residue M48 may also have some role in cell rounding and in the inhibitory effects of VSV(NJ) M, which was demonstrated by the fact that the cell line expressing the double substitution mutant M(M48R+M51R) exhibited the least cytopathic effects and the least inhibitory effect on host cell gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2006.07.022DOI Listing
January 2007

Utilization of homotypic and heterotypic proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus by defective interfering particle genomes for RNA replication and virion assembly: implications for the mechanism of homologous viral interference.

J Virol 2005 Aug;79(15):9588-96

Siebens-Drake Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

Defective interfering (DI) particles of Indiana serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV(Ind)) are capable of interfering with the replication of both homotypic VSV(Ind) and heterotypic New Jersey serotype (VSV(NJ)) standard virus. In contrast, DI particles from VSV(NJ) do not interfere with the replication of VSV(Ind) standard virus but do interfere with VSV(NJ) replication. The differences in the interfering activities of VSV(Ind) DI particles and VSV(NJ) DI particles against heterotypic standard virus were investigated. We examined the utilization of homotypic and heterotypic VSV proteins by DI particle genomic RNAs for replication and maturation into infectious DI particles. Here we show that the RNA-nucleocapsid protein (N) complex of one serotype does not utilize the polymerase complex (P and L) of the other serotype for RNA synthesis, while DI particle genomic RNAs of both serotypes can utilize the N, P, and L proteins of either serotype without serotypic restriction but with differing efficiencies as long as all three proteins are derived from the same serotype. The genomic RNAs of VSV(Ind) DI particles assembled and matured into DI particles by using either homotypic or heterotypic viral proteins. In contrast, VSV(NJ) DI particles could assemble only with homotypic VSV(NJ) viral proteins, although the genomic RNAs of VSV(NJ) DI particles could be replicated by using heterotypic VSV(Ind) N, P, and L proteins. Thus, we concluded that both efficient RNA replication and assembly of DI particles are required for the heterotypic interference by VSV DI particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.79.15.9588-9596.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181566PMC
August 2005

Replication and transcription of viral RNAs by recombinant L proteins of New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus.

Virus Res 2002 Dec;90(1-2):347-64

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Siebens-Drake Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London Ont, Canada N6G 2V4.

The large (L) protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), catalytic subunit of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is responsible for the transcription and replication of VSV. The L protein of the Indiana serotype of VSV (VSV(Ind)) has previously been cloned and expressed, and used in the reverse genetics of VSV(Ind). However, the cDNA clones expressing functional L proteins of the VSV(NJ) serotype were not available. It was necessary to obtain functional clones of the New Jersey serotype of VSV (VSV(NJ)) in order to study homologous viral interference. Here we report the cDNA cloning, expression, and functional analyses of L proteins from both the Hazelhurst subtype and Concan subtype of VSV(NJ). The analysis of the expressed L proteins for the transcription and replication of VSV demonstrate that both VSV(NJ) L clones express functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1702(02)00255-1DOI Listing
December 2002