Publications by authors named "Guy Plunkett"

17 Publications

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The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2015 Oct 10;81(19):6577-88. Epub 2015 Jul 10.

Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients. Their fungal cultivar, Termitomyces, is the main plant degrader and food source for the termites, while gut bacteria complement Termitomyces in the degradation of foodstuffs, fixation of nitrogen, and metabolism of amino acids and sugars. Due to the community complexity and because these typically anaerobic bacteria can rarely be cultured, little is known about the physiological capabilities of individual bacterial members of the gut communities and their associations with the termite host. The bacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis is associated with fungus-growing termites, but this genus is generally understudied, with only two described species. Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions. Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01844-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561680PMC
October 2015

Genome of Enterobacteriophage Lula/phi80 and insights into its ability to spread in the laboratory environment.

J Bacteriol 2012 Dec 5;194(24):6802-17. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

The novel temperate bacteriophage Lula, contaminating laboratory Escherichia coli strains, turned out to be the well-known lambdoid phage phi80. Our previous studies revealed that two characteristics of Lula/phi80 facilitate its spread in the laboratory environment: cryptic lysogen productivity and stealthy infectivity. To understand the genetics/genomics behind these traits, we sequenced and annotated the Lula/phi80 genome, encountering an E. coli-toxic gene revealed as a gap in the sequencing contig and analyzing a few genes in more detail. Lula/phi80's genome layout copies that of lambda, yet homology with other lambdoid phages is mostly limited to the capsid genes. Lula/phi80's DNA is resistant to cutting with several restriction enzymes, suggesting DNA modification, but deletion of the phage's damL gene, coding for DNA adenine methylase, did not make DNA cuttable. The damL mutation of Lula/phi80 also did not change the phage titer in lysogen cultures, whereas the host dam mutation did increase it almost 100-fold. Since the high phage titer in cultures of Lula/phi80 lysogens is apparently in response to endogenous DNA damage, we deleted the only Lula/phi80 SOS-controlled gene, dinL. We found that dinL mutant lysogens release fewer phage in response to endogenous DNA damage but are unchanged in their response to external DNA damage. The toxic gene of Lula/phi80, gamL, encodes an inhibitor of the host ATP-dependent exonucleases, RecBCD and SbcCD. Its own antidote, agt, apparently encoding a modifier protein, was found nearby. Interestingly, Lula/phi80 lysogens are recD and sbcCD phenocopies, so GamL and Agt are part of lysogenic conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01353-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510586PMC
December 2012

Genome sequence of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii 3937.

J Bacteriol 2011 Apr 7;193(8):2076-7. Epub 2011 Jan 7.

Department of Genetics and Genome Center of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for the soft rot disease of many plants of economic importance. We present here the sequence of strain 3937, a strain widely used as a model system for research on the molecular biology and pathogenicity of this group of bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01513-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3133054PMC
April 2011

Text-mining of PubMed abstracts by natural language processing to create a public knowledge base on molecular mechanisms of bacterial enteropathogens.

BMC Bioinformatics 2009 Jun 10;10:177. Epub 2009 Jun 10.

ERIC-BRC, SRA International Inc, Global Health Sector, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Background: The Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC; http://www.ericbrc.org) has a goal of providing bioinformatics support for the scientific community researching enteropathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Rapid and accurate identification of experimental conclusions from the scientific literature is critical to support research in this field. Natural Language Processing (NLP), and in particular Information Extraction (IE) technology, can be a significant aid to this process.

Description: We have trained a powerful, state-of-the-art IE technology on a corpus of abstracts from the microbial literature in PubMed to automatically identify and categorize biologically relevant entities and predicative relations. These relations include: Genes/Gene Products and their Roles; Gene Mutations and the resulting Phenotypes; and Organisms and their associated Pathogenicity. Evaluations on blind datasets show an F-measure average of greater than 90% for entities (genes, operons, etc.) and over 70% for relations (gene/gene product to role, etc). This IE capability, combined with text indexing and relational database technologies, constitute the core of our recently deployed text mining application.

Conclusion: Our Text Mining application is available online on the ERIC website (http://www.ericbrc.org/portal/eric/articles). The information retrieval interface displays a list of recently published enteropathogen literature abstracts, and also provides a search interface to execute custom queries by keyword, date range, etc. Upon selection, processed abstracts and the entities and relations extracted from them are retrieved from a relational database and marked up to highlight the entities and relations. The abstract also provides links from extracted genes and gene products to the ERIC Annotations database, thus providing access to comprehensive genomic annotations and adding value to both the text-mining and annotations systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-10-177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704210PMC
June 2009

The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli DH10B: insights into the biology of a laboratory workhorse.

J Bacteriol 2008 Apr 1;190(7):2597-606. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

DNAStar, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.

Escherichia coli DH10B was designed for the propagation of large insert DNA library clones. It is used extensively, taking advantage of properties such as high DNA transformation efficiency and maintenance of large plasmids. The strain was constructed by serial genetic recombination steps, but the underlying sequence changes remained unverified. We report the complete genomic sequence of DH10B by using reads accumulated from the bovine sequencing project at Baylor College of Medicine and assembled with DNAStar's SeqMan genome assembler. The DH10B genome is largely colinear with that of the wild-type K-12 strain MG1655, although it is substantially more complex than previously appreciated, allowing DH10B biology to be further explored. The 226 mutated genes in DH10B relative to MG1655 are mostly attributable to the extensive genetic manipulations the strain has undergone. However, we demonstrate that DH10B has a 13.5-fold higher mutation rate than MG1655, resulting from a dramatic increase in insertion sequence (IS) transposition, especially IS150. IS elements appear to have remodeled genome architecture, providing homologous recombination sites for a 113,260-bp tandem duplication and an inversion. DH10B requires leucine for growth on minimal medium due to the deletion of leuLABCD and harbors both the relA1 and spoT1 alleles causing both sensitivity to nutritional downshifts and slightly lower growth rates relative to the wild type. Finally, while the sequence confirms most of the reported alleles, the sequence of deoR is wild type, necessitating reexamination of the assumed basis for the high transformability of DH10B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01695-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2293198PMC
April 2008

Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC): bioinformatics support for research on biodefense-relevant enterobacteria.

Nucleic Acids Res 2008 Jan 13;36(Database issue):D519-23. Epub 2007 Nov 13.

Genome Center, University of Wisconsin, 425G Henry Mall, Madison, Madison, WI 53703, USA.

ERIC, the Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (www.ericbrc.org), is a new web portal serving as a rich source of information about enterobacteria on the NIAID established list of Select Agents related to biodefense-diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis. More than 30 genomes have been completely sequenced, many more exist in draft form and additional projects are underway. These organisms are increasingly the focus of studies using high-throughput experimental technologies and computational approaches. This wealth of data provides unprecedented opportunities for understanding the workings of basic biological systems and discovery of novel targets for development of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics. ERIC brings information together from disparate sources and supports data comparison across different organisms, analysis of varying data types and visualization of analyses in human and computer-readable formats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkm973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2238966PMC
January 2008

A new asset for pathogen informatics--the Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC), an NIAID Bioinformatics Resource Center for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Disease.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2007 ;603:28-42

Health Research Systems, SRA International, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.

ERIC (Enteropathogen Resource Information Center) is one of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Biodefense and Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Disease. ERIC serves as a comprehensive information resource for five related pathogens: Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, diarrheagenic E. coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. ERIC integrates genomics, proteomics, biochemical and microbiological information to facilitate the interpretation and understanding of ERIC pathogens and select related non-pathogens for the advancement of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. ERIC (www.ericbrc.org) is evolving to provide state-of-the-art analysis tools and data types, such as genome sequencing, comparative genomics, genome polymorphisms, gene expression, proteomics, and pathways as well as expertly curated community genome annotation. Genome sequence and genome annotation data and a variety of analysis and tools for eight strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis pathogens (Yersinia pestis biovars Mediaevalis KIM, Mediaevalis 91001, Orientalis CO92, Orientalis IP275, Antiqua Angola, Antiqua Antiqua, Antiqua Nepal516, and Yersinia enterocolitica 8081) and two strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and IP31758) are currently available through the ERIC portal. ERIC seeks to maintain a strong collaboration with the scientific community so that we can continue to identify and incorporate the latest research data, tools, and training to best meet the current and future needs of the enteropathogen research community. All tools and data developed under this NIAID contract will be freely available. Please contact [email protected] for more information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-72124-8_4DOI Listing
December 2007

Escherichia coli K1-specific bacteriophage CUS-3 distribution and function in phase-variable capsular polysialic acid O acetylation.

J Bacteriol 2007 Sep 29;189(17):6447-56. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Sialobiology and Comparative Metabolomics, Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.

Escherichia coli K1 is the leading cause of human neonatal sepsis and meningitis and is important in other clinical syndromes of both humans and domestic animals; in this strain the polysialic acid capsule (K1 antigen) functions by inhibiting innate immunity. Recent discovery of the phase-variable capsular O acetylation mechanism indicated that the O-acetyltransferase gene, neuO, is carried on a putative K1-specific prophage designated CUS-3 (E. L. Deszo, S. M. Steenbergen, D. I. Freedberg, and E. R. Vimr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:5564-5569, 2005). Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a CUS-3 derivative (CUS-3a), demonstrating its morphology, lysogenization of a sensitive host, and the distribution of CUS-3 among a collection of 111 different K1 strains. The 40,207-bp CUS-3 genome was annotated from the strain RS218 genomic DNA sequence, indicating that most of the 63 phage open reading frames have their closest homologues in one of seven different lambdoid phages. Translational fusion of a reporter lacZ fragment to the hypervariable poly-Psi domain facilitated measurement of phase variation frequencies, indicating no significant differences between switch rates or effects on rates of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system. PCR analysis of poly-Psi domain length indicated preferential loss or gain of single 5'-AAGACTC-3' nucleotide repeats. Analysis of a K1 strain previously reported as "locked on" indicated a poly-Psi region with the least number of heptad repeats compatible with in-frame neuO expression. The combined results establish CUS-3 as an active mobile contingency locus in E. coli K1, indicating its capacity to mediate population-wide capsule variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00657-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1951898PMC
September 2007

Identification and characterization of Escherichia coli RS218-derived islands in the pathogenesis of E. coli meningitis.

J Infect Dis 2006 Aug 30;194(3):358-64. Epub 2006 Jun 30.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Background: Escherichia coli K1 is the most common gram-negative bacterium causing neonatal meningitis, but the mechanisms by which E. coli K1 causes meningitis are not clear.

Methods: We identified 22 E. coli RS218-derived genomic islands (RDIs), using a comparative genome analysis of meningitis-causing E. coli K1 strain RS218 (O18:K1:H7) and laboratory K-12 strain MG1655. Series of RDI deletion mutants were constructed and examined for phenotypes relevant to E. coli K1 meningitis.

Results: We identified 9 RDI deletion mutants (RDI 1, 4, 7, 12, 13, 16, 20, 21, and 22) that exhibited defects in meningitis development. RDI 16 and 21 mutants had profound defects in the induction of a high level of bacteremia in neonatal rats, and RDI 4 mutants exhibited a moderate defect in the induction of bacteremia. RDI 1 and 22 mutants showed defects in the ability to invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), and RDI 12 mutants were defective in the ability to bind to HBMECs. RDI 13 and 20 mutants were defective in the ability to both bind to and invade HBMECs. RDI 7 mutants were defective in the induction of bacteremia and in the ability to both bind to and invade HBMECs.

Conclusions: These results provide a framework for the future discovery and analysis of bacteremia and meningitis caused by E. coli K1 strain RS218.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/505429DOI Listing
August 2006

Emergent properties of reduced-genome Escherichia coli.

Science 2006 May 27;312(5776):1044-6. Epub 2006 Apr 27.

Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Center, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary.

With the use of synthetic biology, we reduced the Escherichia coli K-12 genome by making planned, precise deletions. The multiple-deletion series (MDS) strains, with genome reductions up to 15%, were designed by identifying nonessential genes and sequences for elimination, including recombinogenic or mobile DNA and cryptic virulence genes, while preserving good growth profiles and protein production. Genome reduction also led to unanticipated beneficial properties: high electroporation efficiency and accurate propagation of recombinant genes and plasmids that were unstable in other strains. Eradication of stress-induced transposition evidently stabilized the MDS genomes and provided some of the new properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1126439DOI Listing
May 2006

Escherichia coli K-12: a cooperatively developed annotation snapshot--2005.

Nucleic Acids Res 2006 5;34(1):1-9. Epub 2006 Jan 5.

Josephine Bay Paul Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

The goal of this group project has been to coordinate and bring up-to-date information on all genes of Escherichia coli K-12. Annotation of the genome of an organism entails identification of genes, the boundaries of genes in terms of precise start and end sites, and description of the gene products. Known and predicted functions were assigned to each gene product on the basis of experimental evidence or sequence analysis. Since both kinds of evidence are constantly expanding, no annotation is complete at any moment in time. This is a snapshot analysis based on the most recent genome sequences of two E.coli K-12 bacteria. An accurate and up-to-date description of E.coli K-12 genes is of particular importance to the scientific community because experimentally determined properties of its gene products provide fundamental information for annotation of innumerable genes of other organisms. Availability of the complete genome sequence of two K-12 strains allows comparison of their genotypes and mutant status of alleles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkj405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1325200PMC
January 2006

ASAP: a resource for annotating, curating, comparing, and disseminating genomic data.

Nucleic Acids Res 2006 Jan;34(Database issue):D41-5

Genome Center of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

ASAP is a comprehensive web-based system for community genome annotation and analysis. ASAP is being used for a large-scale effort to augment and curate annotations for genomes of enterobacterial pathogens and for additional genome sequences. New tools, such as the genome alignment program Mauve, have been incorporated into ASAP in order to improve display and analysis of related genomes. Recent improvements to the database and challenges for future development of the system are discussed. ASAP is available on the web at https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/asap/logon.php.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkj164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1347526PMC
January 2006

Genome of bacteriophage P1.

J Bacteriol 2004 Nov;186(21):7032-68

Department of Microbial Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Ul. Pawinskiego 5A, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.

P1 is a bacteriophage of Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria. It lysogenizes its hosts as a circular, low-copy-number plasmid. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two strains of a P1 thermoinducible mutant, P1 c1-100. The P1 genome (93,601 bp) contains at least 117 genes, of which almost two-thirds had not been sequenced previously and 49 have no homologs in other organisms. Protein-coding genes occupy 92% of the genome and are organized in 45 operons, of which four are decisive for the choice between lysis and lysogeny. Four others ensure plasmid maintenance. The majority of the remaining 37 operons are involved in lytic development. Seventeen operons are transcribed from sigma(70) promoters directly controlled by the master phage repressor C1. Late operons are transcribed from promoters recognized by the E. coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme in the presence of the Lpa protein, the product of a C1-controlled P1 gene. Three species of P1-encoded tRNAs provide differential controls of translation, and a P1-encoded DNA methyltransferase with putative bifunctionality influences transcription, replication, and DNA packaging. The genome is particularly rich in Chi recombinogenic sites. The base content and distribution in P1 DNA indicate that replication of P1 from its plasmid origin had more impact on the base compositional asymmetries of the P1 genome than replication from the lytic origin of replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.186.21.7032-7068.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC523184PMC
November 2004

Comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains Ty2 and CT18.

J Bacteriol 2003 Apr;185(7):2330-7

Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

We present the 4.8-Mb complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2, a human-specific pathogen causing typhoid fever. A comparison with the genome sequence of recently isolated S. enterica serovar Typhi strain CT18 showed that 29 of the 4,646 predicted genes in Ty2 are unique to this strain, while 84 genes are unique to CT18. Both genomes contain more than 200 pseudogenes; 9 of these genes in CT18 are intact in Ty2, while 11 intact CT18 genes are pseudogenes in Ty2. A half-genome interreplichore inversion in Ty2 relative to CT18 was confirmed. The two strains exhibit differences in prophages, insertion sequences, and island structures. While CT18 carries two plasmids, one conferring multiple drug resistance, Ty2 has no plasmids and is sensitive to antibiotics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151493PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.185.7.2330-2337.2003DOI Listing
April 2003

ASAP, a systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes.

Nucleic Acids Res 2003 Jan;31(1):147-51

Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 656 Linden Dr Madison, WI 53706-1581, USA.

ASAP (a systematic annotation package for community analysis of genomes) is a relational database and web interface developed to store, update and distribute genome sequence data and functional characterization (https://asap.ahabs.wisc.edu/annotation/php/ASAP1.htm). ASAP facilitates ongoing community annotation of genomes and tracking of information as genome projects move from preliminary data collection through post-sequencing functional analysis. The ASAP database includes multiple genome sequences at various stages of analysis, corresponding experimental data and access to collections of related genome resources. ASAP supports three levels of users: public viewers, annotators and curators. Public viewers can currently browse updated annotation information for Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655, genome-wide transcript profiles from more than 50 microarray experiments and an extensive collection of mutant strains and associated phenotypic data. Annotators worldwide are currently using ASAP to participate in a community annotation project for the Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937 genome. Curation of the E. chrysanthemi genome annotation as well as those of additional published enterobacterial genomes is underway and will be publicly accessible in the near future.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC165572PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkg125DOI Listing
January 2003

Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM.

J Bacteriol 2002 Aug;184(16):4601-11

Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

We present the complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM, the etiologic agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The strain KIM, biovar Mediaevalis, is associated with the second pandemic, including the Black Death. The 4.6-Mb genome encodes 4,198 open reading frames (ORFs). The origin, terminus, and most genes encoding DNA replication proteins are similar to those of Escherichia coli K-12. The KIM genome sequence was compared with that of Y. pestis CO92, biovar Orientalis, revealing homologous sequences but a remarkable amount of genome rearrangement for strains so closely related. The differences appear to result from multiple inversions of genome segments at insertion sequences, in a manner consistent with present knowledge of replication and recombination. There are few differences attributable to horizontal transfer. The KIM and E. coli K-12 genome proteins were also compared, exposing surprising amounts of locally colinear "backbone," or synteny, that is not discernible at the nucleotide level. Nearly 54% of KIM ORFs are significantly similar to K-12 proteins, with conserved housekeeping functions. However, a number of E. coli pathways and transport systems and at least one global regulator were not found, reflecting differences in lifestyle between them. In KIM-specific islands, new genes encode candidate pathogenicity proteins, including iron transport systems, putative adhesins, toxins, and fimbriae.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC135232PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.184.16.4601-4611.2002DOI Listing
August 2002

Engineering a reduced Escherichia coli genome.

Genome Res 2002 Apr;12(4):640-7

Institute of Biochemistry, Biological Research Center, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary.

Our goal is to construct an improved Escherichia coli to serve both as a better model organism and as a more useful technological tool for genome science. We developed techniques for precise genomic surgery and applied them to deleting the largest K-islands of E. coli, identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome. They are loaded with cryptic prophages, transposons, damaged genes, and genes of unknown function. Our method leaves no scars or markers behind and can be applied sequentially. Twelve K-islands were successfully deleted, resulting in an 8.1% reduced genome size, a 9.3% reduction of gene count, and elimination of 24 of the 44 transposable elements of E. coli. These are particularly detrimental because they can mutagenize the genome or transpose into clones being propagated for sequencing, as happened in 18 places of the draft human genome sequence. We found no change in the growth rate on minimal medium, confirming the nonessential nature of these islands. This demonstration of feasibility opens the way for constructing a maximally reduced strain, which will provide a clean background for functional genomics studies, a more efficient background for use in biotechnology applications, and a unique tool for studies of genome stability and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.217202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC187512PMC
April 2002
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