Publications by authors named "Guy Lerebours"

9 Publications

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Comparison of Outcome Adjudication by Investigators and by a Central End Point Committee in Heart Failure Trials: Experience of the SHIFT Heart Failure Study.

Circ Heart Fail 2020 07 25;13(7):e006720. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Saint Joseph, Paris, France (M.K.).

Background: The usefulness of adjudication by central end point committees (CECs) is poorly assessed in heart failure (HF) trials. We aimed to assess its impact on the outcome of the SHIFT trial (Systolic HF Treatment With the If Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial).

Methods: SHIFT was a randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of ivabradine in 6505 HF patients with reduced ejection fraction. Prespecified end points, reported by investigators (all cardiologists) using specific case report form pages, included all-cause and specific causes of deaths and hospitalizations. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular deaths or hospitalizations for worsening HF. We compared the adjudication of prespecified end points made by investigators and by the CEC.

Results: Investigators identified 7529 prespecified end points, 6793 of which were confirmed by the CEC: 98.1% of cardiovascular deaths, 88.6% of all hospitalizations, and 84.4% of hospitalizations for worsening HF. These differences had no meaningful impact on the study results; hazard ratio for the primary composite end point: investigators, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) versus CEC, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.75-0.90), with similar results for each component of the primary end point (hazard ratio of 0.92 versus 0.91 for cardiovascular death and 0.78 versus 0.74 for hospitalization for worsening HF).

Conclusions: Central adjudication by a CEC in the SHIFT study confirmed most of cardiovascular deaths and worsening HF hospitalizations assessed by cardiologists and did not result in a significant change of the final result as compared to investigator judgment. In this context, the benefits of CEC in blinded HF trials should be reconsidered. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02441218. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN70429960; Unique identifier: ISRCTN70429960.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006720DOI Listing
July 2020

Innovation in coronary artery disease and heart failure: clinical benefits of pure heart rate reduction with ivabradine.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011 Mar;1222:90-9

Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Courbevoie, France.

The link between elevated heart rate and cardiovascular events is established in healthy individuals and in patients with cardiovascular disease. The new agent, ivabradine, specifically and selectively inhibits the I(f) current, with the sole action of heart rate reduction, with no impact on any other cardiac parameters. The benefits of "pure" heart rate reduction with ivabradine have been the focus of one of the largest clinical development programs ever performed, involving >20,000 individuals. Ivabradine has anti-ischemic and antianginal efficacy in monotherapy, as well as in combination with other antianginals, such as beta-blockers, and is safe and well tolerated. Two major morbidity-mortality trials, BEAUTIFUL and SHIFT, showed that heart rate reduction with ivabradine dramatically improves prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, symptomatic angina, or chronic heart failure. The development of ivabradine represents a clear innovation in the management of cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05960.xDOI Listing
March 2011

Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled study.

Lancet 2010 Sep;376(9744):875-85

Department of Emergency and Cardiovascular Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Chronic heart failure is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Raised resting heart rate is a risk factor for adverse outcomes. We aimed to assess the effect of heart-rate reduction by the selective sinus-node inhibitor ivabradine on outcomes in heart failure.

Methods: Patients were eligible for participation in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study if they had symptomatic heart failure and a left-ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or lower, were in sinus rhythm with heart rate 70 beats per min or higher, had been admitted to hospital for heart failure within the previous year, and were on stable background treatment including a β blocker if tolerated. Patients were randomly assigned by computer-generated allocation schedule to ivabradine titrated to a maximum of 7.5 mg twice daily or matching placebo. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for worsening heart failure. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN70429960.

Findings: 6558 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (3268 ivabradine, 3290 placebo). Data were available for analysis for 3241 patients in the ivabradine group and 3264 patients allocated placebo. Median follow-up was 22.9 (IQR 18-28) months. 793 (24%) patients in the ivabradine group and 937 (29%) of those taking placebo had a primary endpoint event (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.90, p<0.0001). The effects were driven mainly by hospital admissions for worsening heart failure (672 [21%] placebo vs 514 [16%] ivabradine; HR 0.74, 0.66-0.83; p<0.0001) and deaths due to heart failure (151 [5%] vs 113 [3%]; HR 0.74, 0.58-0.94, p=0.014). Fewer serious adverse events occurred in the ivabradine group (3388 events) than in the placebo group (3847; p=0.025). 150 (5%) of ivabradine patients had symptomatic bradycardia compared with 32 (1%) of the placebo group (p<0.0001). Visual side-effects (phosphenes) were reported by 89 (3%) of patients on ivabradine and 17 (1%) on placebo (p<0.0001).

Interpretation: Our results support the importance of heart-rate reduction with ivabradine for improvement of clinical outcomes in heart failure and confirm the important role of heart rate in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

Funding: Servier, France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61198-1DOI Listing
September 2010

Heart rate as a risk factor in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): the association between heart rate and outcomes in a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet 2010 Sep;376(9744):886-94

Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Background: Raised resting heart rate is a marker of cardiovascular risk. We postulated that heart rate is also a risk factor for cardiovascular events in heart failure. In the SHIFT trial, patients with chronic heart failure were treated with the selective heart-rate-lowering agent ivabradine. We aimed to test our hypothesis by investigating the association between heart rate and events in this patient population.

Methods: We analysed cardiovascular outcomes in the placebo (n=3264) and ivabradine groups (n=3241) of this randomised trial, divided by quintiles of baseline heart rate in the placebo group. The primary composite endpoint was cardiovascular death or hospital admission for worsening heart failure. In the ivabradine group, heart rate achieved at 28 days was also analysed in relation to subsequent outcomes. Analysis adjusted to change in heart rate was used to study heart-rate reduction as mechanism for risk reduction by ivabradine directly.

Findings: In the placebo group, patients with the highest heart rates (>or=87 beats per min [bpm], n=682, 286 events) were at more than two-fold higher risk for the primary composite endpoint than were patients with the lowest heart rates (70 to <72 bpm, n=461, 92 events; hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.84-2.98, p<0.0001). Risk of primary composite endpoint events increased by 3% with every beat increase from baseline heart rate and 16% for every 5-bpm increase. In the ivabradine group, there was a direct association between heart rate achieved at 28 days and subsequent cardiac outcomes. Patients with heart rates lower than 60 bpm at 28 days on treatment had fewer primary composite endpoint events during the study (n=1192; event rate 17.4%, 95% CI 15.3-19.6) than did patients with higher heart rates. The effect of ivabradine is accounted for by heart-rate reduction, as shown by the neutralisation of the treatment effect after adjustment for change of heart rate at 28 days (HR 0.95, 0.85-1.06, p=0.352).

Interpretation: Our analysis confirms that high heart rate is a risk factor in heart failure. Selective lowering of heart rates with ivabradine improves cardiovascular outcomes. Heart rate is an important target for treatment of heart failure.

Funding: Servier, France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61259-7DOI Listing
September 2010

[Sinus rhythm: mechanisms and function].

Authors:
Guy Lerebours

Med Sci (Paris) 2007 Jun-Jul;23(6-7):657-62

Institut de recherches internationales Servier, 6, place des Pléiades, 92415 Courbevoie, France.

The normal cardiac rhythm originates in a specialized region of the heart, the sinus node that is part of the nodal tissue. The rhythmic, impulse initiation of sinus node pacemaker cells results from a spontaneous diastolic depolarization that is initiated immediately after repolarization of the preceding actions potential. This slow diastolic depolarisation is typical of automatic cells and essential to their function. Several currents are involved in this diastolic depolarisation: a hyperpolarization activated inward current, termed "pacemaker" I(f) current, two Ca2+ currents (a L type and a T type), a delayed K+ current and a Na/Ca exchange current. The frequency of the automatic discharge is the main determinant of heart rate. However the sinus node activity is regulated by adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine provokes the hyperpolarization of pacemaker cells and decreases the speed of the spontaneous diastolic depolarisation, thus slowing the sinus rate. Catecholamines lead to sinus tachycardia by increasing the diastolic depolarisation speed. In normal conditions, the observed resting heart rate is lower than the intrinsic frequency of the sinus node due to a "predominance" of the vagal tone. Neural regulation of the heart rate aims at meeting the metabolic needs of the tissues through a varying blood flow. Differences between diurnal and nocturnal mean heart rates are accounted for by neural influences. During the night, the increased vagal tone results in decreased heart rate. The exercise-induced tachycardia results from the sympathetic stimulation. It allows more blood to reach skeletal muscles, and as a consequence an increased supply of oxygen and nutrients. Compared to the variety of clinical arrhythmias, sinus rhythm is the basis for optimal exercise capacity and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/medsci/20072367657DOI Listing
September 2007

Comparative effects of ivabradine, a selective heart rate-lowering agent, and propranolol on systemic and cardiac haemodynamics at rest and during exercise.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006 Feb;61(2):127-37

Department of Pharmacology, Rouen University Hospital, INSERM U644, Rouen, France.

Aim: To compare in humans the effects of ivabradine and propranolol on cardiac and systemic haemodynamics at rest, during tilt and exercise.

Methods: Nine healthy volunteers randomly received single oral doses of ivabradine (Iva, 30 mg), propranolol (Propra, 40 mg) or placebo (Plac) during a double-blind cross-over study. Doses were selected to be equipotent in heart rate (HR) reduction. HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), cardiac index (CI, bioimpedance), rate pressure product (RPP), plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE), were measured at rest at baseline, before and after two tilt and exercise tests, started 2 and 5 h after drug intake. Heart rate variability (low to high frequency ratio LF/HF) was evaluated at rest and at 5 th minute of tilt.

Results: At rest, HR and RPP decreased similarly with Iva and Propra (both P < 0.01). During tilt, HR increased less with Iva than Propra (P < 0.01), LF/HF decreased after Iva (P < 0.03), SBP and mean blood pressure decreased after Propra (both P < 0.01), RPP decreased similarly after Iva and Propra (both P < 0.01) and CI decreased to a greater extent with Propra than with Iva or Plac (both P < 0.04). During exercise, Iva and Propra similarly decreased HR (both P < 0.01) and RPP (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that for a similar decrease in HR at rest and during sympathetic stimulation, acute administration of ivabradine, a selective heart rate-lowering agent, decreased myocardial oxygen demand to the same extent as a reference beta-blocker, propranolol, but without evidence of depressant effect on cardiac function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02544.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1884997PMC
February 2006

Effect of perindopril on the onset and progression of left ventricular dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2005 Mar;45(6):855-7

French Working Group of Heart Involvement in Myopathies Investigators, Paris, France.

Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of perindopril on cardiac function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).

Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, an inherited X-linked disease, is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and myocardial involvement.

Methods: In phase I, 57 children with DMD and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >55% (mean 65.0 +/- 5.4%), 9.5 to 13 years of age (mean 10.7 +/- 1.2 years), were enrolled in a three-year multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of perindopril, 2 to 4 mg/day (group 1), versus placebo (group 2). In phase II, all patients received open-label perindopril for 24 more months; LVEF was measured at 0, 36, and 60 months.

Results: Phase I was completed by 56 (27 in group 1 and 29 in group 2) and phase II by 51 patients (24 in group 1 and 27 in group 2). There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the treatment groups. At the end of phase I, mean LVEF was 60.7 +/- 7.6% in group 1 versus 64.4 +/- 9.8% in group 2, and was <45% in a single patient in each group (p = NS). At 60 months, LVEF was 58.6 +/- 8.1% in group 1 versus 56.0 +/- 15.5% in group 2 (p = NS). A single patient had an LVEF <45% in group 1 versus eight patients in group 2 (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Early treatment with perindopril delayed the onset and progression of prominent left ventricle dysfunction in children with DMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2004.09.078DOI Listing
March 2005

Long-term heart rate reduction induced by the selective I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine improves left ventricular function and intrinsic myocardial structure in congestive heart failure.

Circulation 2004 Apr 23;109(13):1674-9. Epub 2004 Feb 23.

INSERM U644, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France.

Background: Heart rate reduction (HRR) improves left ventricular (LV) filling, increases myocardial O2 supply, and reduces myocardial O2 consumption, which are all beneficial in congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the long-term effects of HRR on cardiac function and remodeling are unknown.

Methods And Results: We assessed, in rats with CHF, the effects of long-term HRR induced by the selective I(f) current inhibitor ivabradine (as food admix for 90 days starting 7 days after coronary artery ligation). To assess intrinsic modifications of LV tissue induced by long-term HRR, all parameters were reassessed 3 days after interruption of treatment. Ivabradine decreased heart rate over the 90-day treatment period (-18% versus untreated at 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)), without modifying blood pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure, or dP/dt(max/min). Ivabradine significantly reduced LV end-systolic but not end-diastolic diameter, which resulted in preserved cardiac output due to increased stroke volume. In the Langendorff preparation, ivabradine shifted LV systolic but not end-diastolic pressure-volume relations to the left. Ivabradine decreased LV collagen density and increased LV capillary density without modifying LV weight. Three days after interruption of treatment, the effects of ivabradine on LV geometry, shortening, and stroke volume persisted despite normalization of heart rate.

Conclusions: In rats with CHF, long-term HRR induced by the selective I(f) inhibitor ivabradine improves LV function and increases stroke volume, preserving cardiac output despite the HRR. The improvement of cardiac function is related not only to the HRR per se but also to modifications in the extracellular matrix and/or function of myocytes as a consequence of long-term HRR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000118464.48959.1CDOI Listing
April 2004

Antianginal and antiischemic effects of ivabradine, an I(f) inhibitor, in stable angina: a randomized, double-blind, multicentered, placebo-controlled trial.

Circulation 2003 Feb;107(6):817-23

Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Heart rate reduction should benefit patients with chronic stable angina by improving myocardial perfusion and reducing myocardial oxygen demand. This study evaluated the antianginal and antiischemic effects of ivabradine, a new heart rate-lowering agent that acts specifically on the sinoatrial node.

Methods And Results: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 360 patients with a > or =3-month history of chronic stable angina were randomly assigned to receive ivabradine (2.5, 5, or 10 mg BID) or placebo for 2 weeks, followed by an open-label 2- or 3-month extension on ivabradine (10 mg BID) and a 1-week randomized withdrawal to ivabradine (10 mg BID) or placebo. Primary efficacy criteria were changes in time to 1-mm ST-segment depression and time to limiting angina during bicycle exercise (exercise tolerance tests), performed at trough of drug activity. In the per-protocol population (n=257), time to 1-mm ST-segment depression increased in the 5 and 10 mg BID groups (P<0.005); time to limiting angina increased in the 10 mg BID group (P<0.05). Deterioration in all exercise tolerance test parameters occurred in patients who received placebo during randomized withdrawal (all P<0.02) but not in those still receiving ivabradine. No rebound phenomena were observed on treatment cessation.

Conclusions: Ivabradine produces dose-dependent improvements in exercise tolerance and time to development of ischemia during exercise. These results suggest that ivabradine, representing a novel class of antianginal drugs, is effective and safe during 3 months of use; longer-term safety requires additional assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.0000048143.25023.87DOI Listing
February 2003