Publications by authors named "Guy Lagaud"

11 Publications

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Toxicokinetic and Genotoxicity Study of NNK in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Following Nose-Only Inhalation Exposure, Intraperitoneal Injection, and Oral Gavage.

Toxicol Sci 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Jefferson, AR 72079.

The tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone] is found in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. NNK is a potent genotoxin and human lung carcinogen; however, there are limited inhalation data for the toxicokinetics (TK) and genotoxicity of NNK in vivo. In the present study, a single dose of 5x10-5, 5x10-3, 0.1, or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) of NNK, 75% propylene glycol (vehicle control), or air (sham control) was administered to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (9-10 weeks age) via nose-only inhalation (INH) exposure for 1 hour. For comparison, the same doses of NNK were administered to male SD rats via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and oral gavage (PO). Plasma, urine, and tissue specimens were collected at designated timepoints and analyzed for levels of NNK and its major metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and tissue levels of DNA adduct O6-methylguanine by LC/MS/MS. TK data analysis was performed using a non-linear regression program. For the genotoxicity subgroup, tissues were collected at 3 hours post-dosing for comet assay analysis. Overall, the TK data indicated that NNK was rapidly absorbed and metabolized extensively to NNAL after NNK administration via the three routes. The IP route had the greatest systemic exposure to NNK. NNK metabolism to NNAL appeared to be more efficient via INH than IP or PO. NNK induced significant increases in DNA damage in multiple tissues via the three routes. The results of this study provide new information and understanding of the toxicokinetics and genotoxicity of NNK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfab049DOI Listing
May 2021

Urinary Biomarkers of Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Wave 1 (2013-2014).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 28;17(15). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment. In the United States (U.S.), tobacco smoke is the major non-occupational source of exposure to many harmful VOCs. Exposure to VOCs can be assessed by measuring their urinary metabolites (VOCMs). The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study is a U.S. national longitudinal study of tobacco use in the adult and youth civilian non-institutionalized population. We measured 20 VOCMs in urine specimens from a subsample of adults in Wave 1 (W1) (2013-2014) to characterize VOC exposures among tobacco product users and non-users. We calculated weighted geometric means (GMs) and percentiles of each VOCM for exclusive combustible product users (smokers), exclusive electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, exclusive smokeless product users, and tobacco product never users. We produced linear regression models for six VOCMs with sex, age, race, and tobacco user group as predictor variables. Creatinine-ratioed levels of VOCMs from exposure to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, isoprene, acrylonitrile, and 1,3-butadiene were significantly higher in smokers than in never users. Small differences of VOCM levels among exclusive e-cigarette users and smokeless users were observed when compared to never users. Smokers showed higher VOCM concentrations than e-cigarette, smokeless, and never users. Urinary VOC metabolites are useful biomarkers of exposure to harmful VOCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432690PMC
July 2020

4-Hydroxy-2-pyridones: Discovery and evaluation of a novel class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA synthesis.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 11 5;27(22):5014-5021. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

PTC Therapeutics, Inc., 100 Corporate Court, South Plainfield, NJ 07080, USA.

The continued emergence of bacteria resistant to current standard of care antibiotics presents a rapidly growing threat to public health. New chemical entities (NCEs) to treat these serious infections are desperately needed. Herein we report the discovery, synthesis, SAR and in vivo efficacy of a novel series of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones exhibiting activity against Gram-negative pathogens. Compound 1c, derived from the N-debenzylation of 1b, preferentially inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis as determined by standard macromolecular synthesis assays. The structural features of the 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone scaffold required for antibacterial activity were explored and compound 6q, identified through further optimization of the series, had an MIC value of 8 μg/mL against a panel of highly resistant strains of E. coli. In a murine septicemia model, compound 6q exhibited a PD of 8 mg/kg in mice infected with a lethal dose of E. coli. This novel series of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones serves as an excellent starting point for the identification of NCEs treating Gram-negative infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.10.006DOI Listing
November 2017

JNJ-26070109 [(R)4-bromo-N-[1-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(quinoxaline-5-sulfonylamino)-benzamide]: a novel, potent, and selective cholecystokinin 2 receptor antagonist with good oral bioavailability.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011 Jul 14;338(1):328-36. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, LLC San Diego, California 92101, USA.

JNJ-26070109 [(R)4-bromo-N-[1-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(quinoxaline-5-sulfonylamino)-benzamide] is a representative of a new chemical class of competitive antagonists of cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2) receptors. In this study, the primary in vitro pharmacology of JNJ-26070109 was evaluated along with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of this compound in rat and canine models of gastric acid secretion. JNJ-26070109 expressed high affinity for human (pK(I) = 8.49 ± 0.13), rat (pK(I) = 7.99 ± 0.08), and dog (pK(I) = 7.70 ± 0.14) CCK2 receptors. The selectivity of JNJ-26070109 at the CCK2 receptor versus the CCK1 receptor was species-dependent, with the greatest degree of selectivity (>1200-fold) measured at the human isoforms of the CCK1 receptor (selectivity at CCK2 versus CCK1 receptors: human, ∼1222-fold; rat, ∼324-fold; dog ∼336-fold). JNJ-26070109 behaved as a surmountable, competitive, antagonist of human CCK2 receptors in a calcium mobilization assay (pK(B) = 8.53 ± 0.05) and in pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in the isolated, lumen-perfused, mouse stomach assay (pK(B) = 8.19 ± 0.13). The pharmacokinetic profile of this compound was determined in vivo in rats and dogs. JNJ-26070109 was shown to have high oral bioavailability (%F rat = 73 ± 16; %F dog = 92 ± 12) with half lives of 1.8 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.1 h in rat and dog, respectively. The pharmacodynamic properties of this compound were investigated using two in vivo models. In conscious rat and dog chronic gastric fistula models of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion, JNJ-26070109 had oral EC(50) values of 1.5 and 0.26 μM, respectively. Overall, we have demonstrated that JNJ-26070109 is a high-affinity, selective CCK2 receptor antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.178483DOI Listing
July 2011

Anthranilic sulfonamide CCK1/CCK2 dual receptor antagonists II: tuning of receptor selectivity and in vivo efficacy.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Nov 23;19(22):6376-8. Epub 2009 Sep 23.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

In the previous article we demonstrated how certain CCK2R-selective anthranilic amides could be structurally modified to afford high-affinity, selective CCK1R activity. We now describe our efforts at modulating and optimizing the CCK1R and CCK2R affinities aimed at producing compounds with good pharmacokinetics properties and in vivo efficacy in rat models of gastric acid and pancreatic amylase secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.09.065DOI Listing
November 2009

3-[5-(3,4-Dichloro-phenyl)-1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-m-tolyl-propionate (JNJ-17156516), a novel, potent, and selective cholecystokinin 1 receptor antagonist: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological comparison with dexloxiglumide.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2007 Nov 7;323(2):562-9. Epub 2007 Aug 7.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C., San Diego, California 92121, USA.

3-[5-(3,4-Dichloro-phenyl)-1-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2-m-tolyl-propionate (JNJ-17156516) is a novel, potent, and selective cholecystokinin (CCK)1-receptor antagonist. In this study, the pharmacology of JNJ-17156516 was investigated both in vitro and in vivo, and the pharmacokinetic profile was evaluated in rats. JNJ-17156516 expressed high-affinity at the cloned human (pK(I) = 7.96 +/- 0.11), rat (pK(I) = 8.02 +/- 0.11), and canine (pK(I) = 7.98 +/- 0.04) CCK1 receptors, and it was also highly selective for the CCK1 receptor compared with the CCK2 receptor across the same species ( approximately 160-, approximately 230-, and approximately 75-fold, respectively). The high affinity of JNJ-17156516 at CCK1 receptors in vitro was confirmed in radioligand binding studies on fresh human gallbladder tissue (pK(I) = 8.22 +/- 0.05). In a functional in vitro assay of guinea pig gallbladder contraction, JNJ-17156516 behaved as a competitive antagonist, with a pK(B) value of 8.00 +/- 0.07. In vivo, JNJ-17156516 produced a parallel, rightward shift in the CCK-8S-evoked contraction of the guinea pig gallbladder. The dose required to shift the CCK-8S dose-response curve was 240 nmol kg(-1) i.v. In the anesthetized rat, JNJ-17156516 produced a dose-related decrease in the number of duodenal contractions evoked by infusion of CCK-8S, with an ED(50) = 484 nmol kg(-1). Pharmacokinetic analysis of JNJ-17156516 in rats, revealed that JNJ-17156516 had a half-life of 3.0 +/- 0.5 h and a very high bioavailability (108 +/- 10%) in this species. Overall, we have demonstrated that JNJ-17156516 is a high-affinity selective human CCK1 receptor antagonist with good pharmacokinetic properties in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.107.124578DOI Listing
November 2007

Obestatin reduces food intake and suppresses body weight gain in rodents.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 May 30;357(1):264-9. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

Internal Medicine, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development L.L.C., San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Obestatin was recently described as a bioactive peptide encoded for by the same gene as ghrelin but with opposite actions on food intake. Although some groups have confirmed these findings others find no effect. We investigated the effect of obestatin on feeding in rodents over a wide range of doses. Acute administration of obestatin inhibited feeding at doses of 10-100 nmol/kg i.p. in mice and 100-300 nmol/kg i.p. in lean and Zucker fatty rats. Interestingly, the dose-response relationship was U-shaped such that both low and high doses were without effect in either species. Treatment of mice with obestatin over a 7-day period decreased body weight gain and food consumption. Overall, obestatin suppressed food intake and body weight gain in rodent and an unusual dose-response relationship was found. These findings may explain the difficulties in reproducing the effects of obestatin on feeding reported by some groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.138DOI Listing
May 2007

Identification and optimization of anthranilic sulfonamides as novel, selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor antagonists.

J Med Chem 2006 Oct;49(21):6371-90

Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, 3210 Merryfield Row, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

A high throughput screening approach to the identification of selective cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK-2R) ligands resulted in the discovery of a novel series of antagonists, represented by 1-[2-[(2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4-ylsulfonyl)amino]-5-chlorobenzoyl]-piperidine (1; CCK-2R, pK(I) = 6.4). Preliminary exploration of the structure-activity relationships around the anthranilic ring and the amide and sulfonamide moieties led to a nearly 50-fold improvement of receptor affinity and showed a greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the related cholecystokinin-1 receptor. Pharmacokinetic evaluation led to the identification of 4-[4-iodo-2-[(5-quinoxalinylsulfonyl)amino]benzoyl]-morpholine, 26d, a compound that demonstrates promising pharmacokinetic properties in the rat and dog with respect to plasma clearance and oral bioavailability and is a potent inhibitor in vivo of pentagastrin-stimulated acid secretion in the rat when dosed orally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm060590xDOI Listing
October 2006

Urogenital alterations in aged male caveolin-1 knockout mice.

J Urol 2004 Feb;171(2 Pt 1):950-7

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

Purpose: Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane formed by the oligomerization of caveolins. Because only smooth muscle contains all caveolin (Cav) family members (Cav-1, 2 and 3), we examined the contribution of each caveolin to urogenital smooth muscle structure/function.

Materials And Methods: WT, Cav-1, 2, 3 and -1/3 knockout (KO) mouse bladders were characterized by Western blot, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy, histochemistry and pharmacological techniques. Cystometric analysis was performed in conscious, freely moving mice. Other urogenital organs were investigated by histological analysis.

Results: The loss of bladder Cav-1 results in a marked decrease in Cav-2 but not Cav-3 expression. Ablation of Cav-3 fails to alter Cav-1 or Cav-2 expression. Deletion of Cav-1 results in the almost complete loss of caveolae, while Cav-2 KO and Cav-3 KO mouse smooth muscle showed a normal number of caveolae. The loss of Cav-1 generated caveolae led to significant urogenital changes in male mice (most marked by 12 months of age), namely 1) bladder weight-to-body weight ratios were increased, 2) the bladder smooth muscle layer was thickened, 3) the bladders had increased baseline, threshold and spontaneous pressures, 4) bladder strips showed a decreased contractile response to carbachol and KCl, and 5) these smooth muscle changes were accompanied by marked fluid accumulation in the prostate and seminal vesicles, with intracellular vacuolization in the kidneys. As such, male Cav-1 KO mice may be a useful animal model for studying LUTD (lower urinary tract dysfunction) that is so prevalent in aging male patients.

Conclusions: The loss of Cav-1 and, thus, of most smooth muscle cell caveolae results in significant bladder dysfunction and urogenital organ changes in aged male mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000105102.72295.b8DOI Listing
February 2004

Inhibitors of gap junctions attenuate myogenic tone in cerebral arteries.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002 Dec;283(6):H2177-86

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The effects of two structurally distinct inhibitors of gap junction communication were studied by using three different forms of vasoconstriction in pressurized rat middle cerebral arteries. The sensitivity of myogenic tone (at 60 mmHg), vasopressin-induced tone (10 nM, at 20 mmHg), and depolarizing solution-induced tone (80 mM K(+), at 20 mmHg) to inhibition by heptanol (1.0 microM to 3.0 mM) or 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (18alpha-GA, 1.0 to 50 microM) were determined. Pressure-induced myogenic tone was inhibited by heptanol (IC(50) = 0.75 +/- 0.09 mM) and 18alpha-GA ( approximately 30 microM). Vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction was also inhibited by heptanol (IC(50) = 0.4 +/- 0.3 mM) and 18alpha-GA (>1 microM). Depolarizing solution-induced vasoconstriction was less sensitive to inhibition by heptanol compared to vasopressin (P < 0.01) or pressure-induced constriction (P < 0.05). However, 18alpha-GA did not inhibit depolarization-induced constriction. Sharp microelectrode experiments on isolated arteries revealed stable membrane potentials, with no detectable effect of heptanol (1 mM) or 18alpha-GA (20-30 microM) on the average membrane potential at 20 mmHg. However, approximately 20% of impaled cells (5 of 28) exhibited uncharacteristic oscillations in membrane potential after pharmacological uncoupling. At 60 mmHg a approximately 7- to 9-mV hyperpolarization and corresponding vasodilation (approximately 50%) was observed, and the frequency of membrane potential oscillations doubled (9 of 23 cells). These data indicate that gap junctions play an important role in the maintenance and modulation of membrane potential and tone in cerebral resistance arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00605.2001DOI Listing
December 2002

Caveolin-2-deficient mice show evidence of severe pulmonary dysfunction without disruption of caveolae.

Mol Cell Biol 2002 Apr;22(7):2329-44

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute for Smooth Muscle Biology, The Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

Caveolin-2 is a member of the caveolin gene family with no known function. Although caveolin-2 is coexpressed and heterooligomerizes with caveolin-1 in many cell types (most notably adipocytes and endothelial cells), caveolin-2 has traditionally been considered the dispensable structural partner of the widely studied caveolin-1. We now directly address the functional significance of caveolin-2 by genetically targeting the caveolin-2 locus (Cav-2) in mice. In the absence of caveolin-2 protein expression, caveolae still form and caveolin-1 maintains its localization in plasma membrane caveolae, although in certain tissues caveolin-1 is partially destabilized and shows modestly diminished protein levels. Despite an intact caveolar membrane system, the Cav-2-null lung parenchyma shows hypercellularity, with thickened alveolar septa and an increase in the number of endothelial cells. As a result of these pathological changes, these Cav-2-null mice are markedly exercise intolerant. Interestingly, these Cav-2-null phenotypes are identical to the ones we and others have recently reported for Cav-1-null mice. As caveolin-2 expression is also severely reduced in Cav-1-null mice, we conclude that caveolin-2 deficiency is the clear culprit in this lung disorder. Our analysis of several different phenotypes observed in caveolin-1-deficient mice (i.e., abnormal vascular responses and altered lipid homeostasis) reveals that Cav-2-null mice do not show any of these other phenotypes, indicating a selective role for caveolin-2 in lung function. Taken together, our data show for the first time a specific role for caveolin-2 in mammalian physiology independent of caveolin-1.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC133690PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.22.7.2329-2344.2002DOI Listing
April 2002