Publications by authors named "Guy Earle"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Photo-polymerization kinetics of a dental resin at a high temporal resolution.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Dec 7;124:104884. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study: 1) aims to measure with high temporal resolution the intrinsic rate of the degree of conversion (DC) of a dental resin-based composite (RBC) photo-cured at two irradiances; 2) aims to determine the transition time at which the DC rate is maximum; 3) used two different irradiances to measure the shift in transition time; 4) aims to compare transition times measured using DC and shrinkage strain.

Methods: Samples (n = 20) 1 mm thick by 10 mm diameter of Filtek One bulk-fill restorative A2 shade (3M Oral Care) were photocured for 20 s with a single emission peak (wavelength centered at 455 nm) light-emitting-diode-based light-curing unit at irradiance levels of 890 mW/cm and 209 mW/cm, and initial sample temperature of T = 23 °C. The DC was measured in real-time using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy with a sampling rate of 13 DC data points per second. The data were analyzed within a phenomenological autocatalytic model. In addition, the axial shrinkage strain was measured using 3 samples of the RBC with the same outer dimensions and under similar experimental conditions using the bonded disk method and an interferometric technique.

Results: For the 890 mW/cm and 209 mW/cm irradiance levels, the DC with time was found to agree with the model enabling the determination of transition times of 0.66 ± 0.05 s and 2.3 ± 0.2 s, and the DC at these times of 5.5 ± 0.2% and 6.4 ± 0.2%. The maximum linear strain rate at 0.76 ± 0.01 s and 1.98 ± 0.02 s for the 890 mW/cm and 209 mW/cm irradiance levels, respectively, are within two standard deviations of the corresponding transition times.

Significance: At an irradiance level much greater than 1000 mW/cm, the photo-polymerization kinetics of a dental RBC may be too fast to be measured accurately using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. A viable alternative to monitor the kinetics is through the measurements of the axial shrinkage strain employing the bonded disk method and an interferometric technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104884DOI Listing
December 2021

Real-time intracochlear imaging of automated cochlear implant insertions in whole decalcified cadaver cochleas using ultrasound.

Cochlear Implants Int 2018 09 16;19(5):255-267. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

c Department of Neuroscience , University of Cambridge , Cambridge , UK.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of combining high-frequency ultrasound imaging, automated insertion, and force sensing to yield more information about cochlear implant insertion dynamics.

Methods: An apparatus was developed combining these aspects along with software to control implant and imaging probe positions. Decalcified unfixed human cochleas were implanted at various speeds, insertion sites, and implant models while imaging near the implant tip throughout insertion and recording force data from the cochlea mounting stage. Ultrasound video data were also captured.

Results: The basilar membrane (BM) was frequently penetrated by the implant in either the mid-basal or lower middle turn. Measurements were also performed of apical BM motion in response to upstream implant movement at varying insertion speeds. Increasing insertion speed resulted in greater BM displacement.

Discussion: Multiple insertions per cochlea increase the volume of data per specimen while also reducing variability due to differences between cochleas. However, to image inside the cochlea with ultrasound, the bone had to be decalcified, which likely had a significant effect upon the response of tissue to contact by the implant. As calcified bone strongly reflects ultrasound, we also found ultrasound imaging to be an excellent method for easily assessing bone decalcification progress.

Conclusion: This technique may be very useful for some studies, although the confounding effects of bone decalcification may make results of other studies too difficult to generalize. The approach could be adapted to other real-time imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14670100.2018.1460024DOI Listing
September 2018

Transmission of a novel sonotubometry acoustic click stimulus in healthy and patulous eustachian tube subjects: a retrospective case -control study.

J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Jun 15;46(1):47. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Background: Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction can be very difficult to diagnose accurately. Our aim is to determine whether a newly developed sonotubometric test using clicks can reliably detect ET opening during swallowing in normal ET subjects, and patulous ET (PET) in subjects with ET dysfunction.

Methods: Sixteen subjects (19 normal ET ears and 6 PET ears) were individually placed in a sound-isolated audiometry booth and subjected to a 1000Hz click train stimulus, played through the nose. PET subjects were identified through the ET clinic at our institution, while healthy subjects were recruited. Transmission through the ET was recorded by a microphone in the ear ipsilateral to the presenting nostril, during no swallow and swallow states, and this was used to compute a power ratio (power in the frequency range of interest to the whole frequency range). The power transmission ratio both before and after the swallow was averaged, and represented the baseline (BaseR). The power transmission ratio during swallow represented the peak (PeakR). The same process was repeated in the absence of a stimulus to account for swallowing noise. Wilcoxon rank rum tests were performed to determine statistical significance.

Results: It was found that for healthy ET patients, the median difference between the PeakR and BaseR was 0.51 (p = 0.004). For the PET patients in this study, the median difference between the PeakR and the BaseR was 3.30 (p = 0.041). Comparing the baseline between groups revealed that PET patients had a median BaseR 1.05 higher than healthy ET patients. PET patients had a median PeakR of 3.84 higher than healthy ET patients. Both were deemed to be statistically significant (p = 0.003, p = 0.003 respectively). A significant difference was found between median PeakR for the stimulus and no-stimulus condition for the healthy ET group (0.59, p < 0.001) and for the PET group (4.39, p = 0.031), indicating that it was unlikely that swallowing noise caused false positive results.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a novel click stimulus is capable of detecting ET opening during swallowing in healthy patients as well as highlighting PET in diseased subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40463-017-0227-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5472917PMC
June 2017

Acoustic Transmission Characteristics of a Eustachian Tube Volitionally Opened in Two Living Subjects.

Otol Neurotol 2016 09;37(8):1055-8

*Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada †Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada ‡Discipline of Surgery, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia §Sensory Encoding and Neuro-Sensory Encoding (SENSE) Laboratory, Division of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada ||Ear and Auditory Research (EAR) Laboratory, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Objective: To assess the acoustic transmission characteristics of the Eustachian tube (ET) in living subjects in verified patent and closed ET states to facilitate the detection and quantification of ET function using acoustic measures such as sonotubometry.

Patients: The two subjects in this study had no history of ear disease nor previous ear surgery and were capable of volitionally opening and closing their ET.

Interventions: Tympanometry and otologic examinations were used to confirm ET patent and closed states by observing tympanic membrane movement with respiration and by acoustic immitance measurements during forced respiration. A series of 500-ms long chirps containing frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 kHz were introduced into the nasal cavity during both ET states and recorded by microphones in both the contralateral naris and external auditory canal.

Main Outcome Measures: Acoustic energy transmission through the ET across the 0.1 to 10 kHz frequency range in the closed state versus the patent state.

Results: An increase in acoustic energy transmission occurs across the frequencies of 1 to 4 kHz between the closed and patent ET states, particularly in frequencies below 2.5 kHz.

Conclusions: Results support sonotubometry as a potential diagnostic tool for ET dysfunction. Acoustic differences between the ET states manifest as a general increase in transmitted signal amplitude. Characterizing the acoustic properties in the verified patent and closed ET states allows investigators to more reliably interpret sonotubometric tests of ET function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000001130DOI Listing
September 2016

Precise instructions determine participants' memory search strategy in judgments of relative order in short lists.

Psychon Bull Rev 2009 Oct;16(5):945-51

Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Memory often requires knowledge of the order of events. Previous findings about immediate judgments of relative order in short, subspan lists are variable regarding whether participants' strategy is to search memory in the forward direction, starting from the first list item and progressing toward the end item, or in the backward direction, starting from the end item and progressing toward the start. We asked whether wording of the instructions influences participants' search direction. Participants studied sequences of three to six consonants, and for an immediate, two-item probe of each list, judged which probe was presented earlier ("earlier" instruction) or later ("later" instruction) on the list. Forward and backward searches were supported for "earlier" and "later" instructions, respectively. Our findings suggest that participants have more than one effective strategy for order judgments in short lists, and that subtle instructional differences can bias memory search in either the forward or backward direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/PBR.16.5.945DOI Listing
October 2009
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