Publications by authors named "Gustavo Martinez"

141 Publications

First report of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats (family Molossidae) and Eptesicus furinalis (family Vespertilionidae) of Argentina. New host species in this country?

Rev Argent Microbiol 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Laboratory of Leptospirosis, Institute of Pathobiology, National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Nicolás Repetto and Reseros w/n, Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Leptospirosis is an endemic disease caused by Leptospira spp., a bacterium that affects animals and humans. In recent years, the number of reports of leptospirosis in wild animals has increased, which highlights the need to study the infectious agents in these animals. In this study, a duplex PCR for the detection of leptospiral DNA was performed on 50 kidney samples from bats, and a MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test) for serological detection of anti-leptospiral antibodies was applied to 47 serum samples from bats from different regions of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. DNA was extracted using Chelex-100 and duplex PCR was performed by targeting the detection of genes secY and flaB, of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Of the 50 kidney samples, 3 were positive for Eumops sp. and Tadarida brasiliensis by duplex PCR. Of the 47 serum samples, 12 were positive for different serovars: Leptospira interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Cynopteri and Bataviae, and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Ballum. This is the first report of the detection of pathogenic leptospires by serology in bats belonging to the T. brasiliensis and Eptesicus furinalis species in Argentina. In addition, this is the first report of the detection of pathogenic leptospiral DNA by PCR in T. brasiliensis species. The detection of Leptospira spp. in these wild animals shows that they may play an important role as wildlife reservoirs of leptospires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ram.2020.09.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Psychometric Evaluation of the Personal Feelings Questionnaire-2 (PFQ-2) Shame Subscale Among Spanish-Speaking Female Sex Workers in Mexico.

Assessment 2020 Dec 28:1073191120981768. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Shame may increase HIV risk among stigmatized populations. The Personal Feelings Questionnaire-2 (PFQ-2) measures shame, but has not been validated in Spanish-speaking or nonclinical stigmatized populations disproportionately affected by HIV in resource-limited settings. We examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish-translated PFQ-2 shame subscale among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. From 2016 to 2017, 602 HIV-negative female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez participated in an efficacy trial evaluating a behavior change maintenance intervention. Interviewer-administered surveys collected information on shame (10-item PFQ-2 subscale), psychosocial factors, and sociodemographics. Item performance, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, differential item functioning by city, and concurrent validity were assessed. Response options were collapsed to 3-point responses to improve item performance, and one misfit item was removed. The revised 9-item shame subscale supported a single construct and had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .86). Notable differential item functioning was found but resulted in a negligible effect on overall scores. Correlations between the revised shame subscale and guilt ( = .79, < .01), depression ( = .69, < .01), and emotional support ( = -.28, < .01) supported concurrent validity. The revised PFQ-2 shame subscale showed good reliability and concurrent validity in our sample, and should be explored in other stigmatized populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120981768DOI Listing
December 2020

Expression profiling of endo-xylanases during ripening of strawberry cultivars with contrasting softening rates. Influence of postharvest and hormonal treatments.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Dec 5. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Laboratorio de Bioquímica y Fisiología de la Maduración de Frutos, INTECH (CONICET-UNSAM), Instituto Tecnológico de Chascomús, Av. Intendente Marino km 8,2, Chascomús, Pcia. Buenos Aires, B7130IWA, Argentina.

Background: Softening is one of the main features that determine fruit quality during strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch.) ripening and storage. Being closely related to textural changes, the molecular and biochemical bases underlying strawberry cell-wall metabolism is a matter of interest. Here we investigated the abundance of transcripts encoding putative strawberry endo-xylanases in plant tissues, during fruit ripening and under postharvest and hormonal treatments. Total xylanase activity and expression of related genes in strawberry varieties with contrasting firmness were analyzed.

Results: FaXynA and FaXynC mRNA abundance was significantly higher than FaXynB in each plant tissue studied. Higher total xylanase activity was detected at the end of the ripening of the softer cultivar ('Toyonoka') in comparison with the firmer one ('Camarosa'), correlating with the abundance of FaXynA and FaXynC transcripts. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene treatment up-regulated FaXynA and FaXynC expressions. FaXynC mRNA abundance decreased with heat treatment but the opposite was observed for FaXynA. Calcium chloride treatment down-regulated FaXynA and FaXynC expression. Both genes responded differently to plant growth regulators' exposure. FaXynC expression was down-regulated by auxins and gibberellins treatment and up-regulated by abscisic acid. FaXynA was up-regulated by auxins, while no changes in mRNA levels were evident by abscisic acid and gibberellins treatment. Ethephon exposure did not change FaXynA and FaXynC expressions.

Conclusion: New knowledge about the presence of xylanases in ripening strawberry fruit and their response to postharvest and hormonal treatments is provided. Our findings suggest a role for endo-xylanases in hemicelluloses depolymerization and possibly in strawberry fruit softening. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10997DOI Listing
December 2020

SARS-COV-2 in Argentina.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 10 6;24(4):394. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Red Latinoamericana de Reproducción Asistida (REDLARA) Vice President Red Latinoamericana de Reproducción Asistida (REDLARA).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20200071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558899PMC
October 2020

Expression of BoNOL and BoHCAR genes during postharvest senescence of broccoli heads.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 18;101(4):1629-1635. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Instituto de Fisiología Vegetal (INFIVE) UNLP-Conicet, La Plata, Argentina.

Background: Chlorophyll is the most abundant pigment on Earth, essential for the capture of light energy during photosynthesis. During senescence, chlorophyll degradation is highly regulated in order to diminish toxicity of the free chlorophyll molecule due to its photoactivity. The first step in the chlorophyll degradation pathway is the conversion of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a by means of two consecutive reactions catalyzed by enzymes coded by NYC1 (NON-YELLOW COLORING 1), NOL (NYC1-LIKE) and HCAR.

Results: In this work, we studied the expression of NOL and HCAR genes during postharvest senescence of broccoli. We found that the expression of BoNOL increase during the first days of storage and then decrease. In the case of BoHCAR, its expression is maintained during the first days and then it also diminishes. Additionally, the effect of different postharvest treatments on the expression of these genes was also analyzed. It was observed that the expression of BoNOL is lower in the treatments performed with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) and modified atmospheres, while BoHCAR expression showed an increase in these same treatments, and a decrease in the treatment with ethylene. There were no variations in the expression of both genes in heat treatment, UV-C treatment and visible light treatment.

Conclusions: These results suggest that both BoHCAR and BoNOL show a lower regulation of their expression than other genes involved in chlorophyll degradation during senescence. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10783DOI Listing
March 2021

Harvesting at different time-points of day affects glucosinolate metabolism during postharvest storage of broccoli.

Food Res Int 2020 10 12;136:109529. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Instituto de Fisiología Vegetal (INFIVE) UNLP-CONICET, 113 and 61, 1900 La Plata, Argentina; Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, Argentina. Electronic address:

The consumption of broccoli provides a large quantity of compounds with nutraceutical properties to the human diet. Broccoli has a high content of glucosinolates, compounds of the specialized metabolism with anticarcinogenic activity. In a previous work, we found that harvesting different time-points during the day affects the rate of senescence of broccoli heads during postharvest storage. In this work, we tested the same cultural practice to evaluate glucosinolate content and expression of genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism. Broccoli heads were harvested at 8:00, 13:00 and 18:00 h and stored for 5 d at 20 °C in darkness. We found that content and composition of the glucosinolate pool was affected by the time of harvest. Levels of indolic glucosinolates decreased with the time of harvest on the day whereas indolic glucosinolate showed only a moderate decrease. The expression of genes associated to the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates was variable during the day. In relation to indolic glucosinolates, an increase in the expression of the transcription factor BolMYB51 was detected around 13:00 h, which strongly correlated with the increase in expression of genes associated to their biosynthesis towards the end of the day. During postharvest, the storage in darkness affected differently the metabolisms of indolic and aliphatic glucosinolates. The content of aliphatics decreased during the postharvest period, as well as the expression of the genes associated with their biosynthesis. In contrast, in the case of indolics, their content remained constant or varied slightly, while the expression of the associated biosynthetic genes decreased only slightly. Finally, the genes related to the degradation of glucosinolates appeared to be strongly regulated by light conditions, since their expression increased during the course of the day and decreased markedly during postharvest storage in darkness. These results suggest that harvesting of broccolis close to noon would be convenient to maintain higher levels of glucosinolates during postharvest storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109529DOI Listing
October 2020

Melatonin daily oral supplementation attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress in testes of men with altered spermatogenesis of unknown aetiology.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 09 3;515:110889. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental, CONICET, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, C1428ADN, Argentina; Cátedra de Química, Ciclo Básico Común, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, C1405CAE, Argentina.

We have previously shown an inverse correlation between testicular melatonin concentration and inflammation/oxidative stress-related markers levels in infertile men showing unexplained azoospermia. Here, we evaluated the impact of melatonin oral supplementation (daily 3 mg dose used to treat sleep disorders) in the incidence of local inflammation, oxidative stress, and tubular wall fibrosis development in young and middle-aged infertile adult men. Compared with testes without histological alterations, gonads with morphological abnormalities showed lower melatonin concentration along with increased macrophage numbers, TBARS generation, and expression levels of inflammation-related markers and antioxidant enzymes, as well as tubular wall collagen fibers disorganization and thickening. Melatonin oral supplementation not only increased its own testicular levels but also decreased inflammation- and oxidative stress-related markers levels, and improved the tubular wall aspect. Overall, our work provides insights into the potential benefits of melatonin on the inflammatory and oxidative status in testes of patients suffering from unexplained infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.110889DOI Listing
September 2020

Biotechnological challenges: The scope of genome editing.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2021 Feb 2;25(1):150-154. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Medicina Reproductiva Fertilis, Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción, Boulogne, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

CRISPR/Cas9 can be considered as the biotechnological breakthrough of the century. Genome editing technologies have developed in a vertiginous way. While the genome editing of species, including animals, plants and bacteria has become a commonly used method, the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in human embryos has led to debates and interdisciplinary discussions. This brings multiple challenges for both scientists and those who must regulate the use of these techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20200038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863103PMC
February 2021

Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: The Latin American Registry, 2017.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 Jul 14;24(3):362-378. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction (REDLARA), Montevideo, Uruguay.

Research Question: What was the utilization, effectiveness and safety of assisted reproductive techniques performed in Latin America during 2017.

Design: Retrospective collection of multinational data on ART performed in 188 institutions from 15 Latin American countries.

Results: We are reporting 93,600 initiated cycles, 16,976 deliveries and the birth of 20,404 babies. ART utilization was 221 cycles/million inhabitants (15 to 535). Despite women aged ≥40 represented 30.5% of fresh IVF/ICSI, after removing freeze-all cycles, delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 19.9% for ICSI and 20.2% for IVF. Overall, single embryo transfer (SET) represented 26.9% of fresh transfers, with 18.2% delivery rate per transfer; increasing to 32.3% in elective SET. Delivery rate in double embryo transfers (DET) was 28.3% increasing to 37.3% with elective DET. This 5% increment in births in eDET over eSET resulted in10-fold increase in twin births, almost 3 weeks' shorter gestations and 3-fold increase in perinatal mortality. Delivery rate in frozen/thawed SET, reached 25.5% increasing to 30.8% with DET; the majority being blastocysts transfers. Of all births, 67% were singletons, 31.4% twins, and 1.6% triplets and higher. Overall, preterm deliveries reached 9.5% in singletons, 64.3% in twins and 97.9% in triplets; and perinatal mortality was 9.4‰ in singletons, 25.3‰ in twins, and 63.3‰ in high-order multiples.

Conclusions: The number of initiated cycles slowly increases. Frozen embryo transfers, blastocyst transfers and SET are also increasing. Our data shows that especially in young women and oocyte recipients, when there is more than one blastocyst for transfer, elective SET should be the rule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20200029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365541PMC
July 2020

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Texting Intervention to Maintain Sexual Risk Reduction with Clients Among Female Sex Workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

AIDS Behav 2020 Dec;24(12):3306-3319

Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Mobile phone technology may help sustain reductions in HIV/STI transmission risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs). We examined the efficacy of a text messaging intervention designed to maintain behavioral improvements in safer sex practices among 602 FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that FSWs who received brief risk reduction counseling and theory-based safer sex maintenance text messages over a 24-month period would have fewer incident HIV/STIs and report greater maintenance of safer sex practices compared to FSWs who received counseling and texts on maintaining general health. Theory-based texts did not change the odds of becoming infected with HIV/STIs in either study site. However, they did lead to significant, sustained protected sex in Tijuana. Theory-based text messaging interventions may help sustain reductions in sexual risk behavior among FSWs.Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov. Identifier: NCT02447484.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02930-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Assisted reproductive technology in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2017.

Reprod Biomed Online 2020 Jul 20;41(1):44-54. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Latin American Network of Assisted Reproduction (REDLARA), Plaza Independencia 811 Montevideo, Uruguay.

Research Question: What was the utilization, effectiveness and safety of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) carried out in Latin America during 2017.

Design: Retrospective collection of multinational data on ART carried out in 188 institutions from 15 Latin American countries.

Results: In this study, 93,600 initiated cycles, 16,976 deliveries and 20,404 births reported. Utilization of ART was 221 cycles per million inhabitants (15 to 535). Women aged 40 years and above represented 30.5% of fresh IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); however, after removing freeze-all cycles, delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 19.9% for ICSI and 20.2% for IVF. Overall, single embryo transfer (SET) represented 26.9% of fresh transfers, with 18.2% delivery rate per transfer, increasing to 32.3% in elective SET. Delivery rate in double embryo transfers (DET) was 28.3% increasing to 37.3% with elective DET. This 5% increment in births in elective DET over elective SET resulted in a tenfold increase in twin births, gestational periods almost 3 weeks' shorter and a threefold increase in perinatal mortality. Delivery rate in frozen-thawed SET reached 25.5% increasing to 30.8% with DET, most being blastocyst transfers. Of all births, 66.9% were singletons, 31.4% twins and 1.6% triplets and higher. Overall, preterm deliveries reached 9.5% in singletons, 64.3% in twins and 97.9% in triplets; perinatal mortality was 9.4‰ in singletons, 25.3‰ in twins and 63.3‰ in high-order multiples.

Conclusions: The number of initiated cycles has slowly increased. Frozen embryo transfers, blastocyst transfers and SET are also increasing. Our data show that, especially in young women and oocyte recipients, when there is more than one blastocyst for transfer, elective SET should be the rule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rbmo.2020.02.004DOI Listing
July 2020

Otoliths as indicators for fish behaviour and procurement strategies of hunter-gatherers in North Patagonia.

Heliyon 2020 Mar 10;6(3):e03438. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Investigaciones en Producción Animal, (INPA), Av. Chorroarin 280 C1427CWO, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This study evaluates the potential use of archaeological otoliths of (Cuvier and Valenciennes) as a tool to study fish behavior and hunter-gatherers procurement strategies on the North Patagonian coast. The studied samples come from the San Antonio archaeological locality dated at ca. 1000-800 C yr BP (Late Holocene). To assess whether exposure to fire significantly affects the otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios, burned and unburned modern otoliths have been analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and no statistically significant differences were found between the results of both treatments. Core-to-edge chemical time series were carried out on ancient otoliths (ca. 1000 C yr BP) in order to study the fish life history. Three amphidromous patterns were found for ancient samples. The capture environments and seasons inferred by the otolith edge chemistry and marginal increase, respectively, suggest a location in high salinity water (estuary and sea) in summer. Finally, to estimate the size of archaeological fish, a linear regression between total length and otolith length was constructed using 70 modern catfish otoliths. The size variability (358-610 mm) might indicate the use of non-selective capture techniques, probably nets, by hunter-gatherer groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7066067PMC
March 2020

Editorial: Strategies for Modulating T Cell Responses in Autoimmunity and Infection.

Front Immunol 2020 20;11:208. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y Sida, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044148PMC
February 2021

First analysis of mitochondrial lineages from the eastern Pampa-Patagonia transition during the final late Holocene.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 04 4;171(4):659-670. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), CEBBAD, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objective: Studies on population genetics have become highly relevant for understanding the evolutionary history of human settlement in southern South America. The eastern Pampa-Patagonia transition is an area that stands out due to its complex population dynamics, especially during the last about 1,000 years BP. The aim of this work is to characterize the maternal lineages of individuals buried in the Paso Alsina 1 archaeological site (ca. 500 years BP) through the analysis of mitochondrial genetic variability, in order to discuss the population models previously proposed for the southern cone of South America.

Methods: Mitochondrial HyperVariable Region I sequences were analyzed on teeth belonging to 20 adult individuals. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare the interpopulation and intrapopulation molecular variability between the results obtained in this work and those previously published data from pre-Hispanic human groups. D1 haplotype network was constructed drawing from data on ancient and extant population group samples.

Results: Thirteen sequences (65%) were obtained from the 20 analyzed samples. The maternal lineages or subhaplogroups identified were D1g (69.24%), C1 (15.38%), D1 (7.69%), and D1j (7.69%). There was low haplotype variability within the site; some individuals could be matrilineally related.

Discussion: The subhaplogroups registered in Paso Alsina 1 site are in accordance with those reported for ancient and contemporary Patagonian populations. The results suggest that an initial nucleus of individuals carrying mostly subhaplogroup D1g settled in northern Patagonia, from which local diversity of this matrilineage could have arisen. The existence of gene flow in the final late Holocene with groups from Northern Andean Patagonia, as well as from Central Argentina, is proposed. The D1j variant probably developed in the latter region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24016DOI Listing
April 2020

Low intensity light treatment improves purple kale ( var. sabellica) postharvest preservation at room temperature.

Heliyon 2019 Sep 17;5(9):e02467. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Instituto de Fisiología Vegetal (INFIVE), Concejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) - Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Diagonal 113 Nº 495, La Plata, 1900, Argentina.

Purple Kale is a vegetable of the Brassicaceae family whose are popularly consumed in recent years due to their high level of healthy components. For consumption, matures leaves are harvested and postharvest senescence is induced. Changes in color leaves due to chlorophyll degradation are the main visible symptoms of postharvest senescence, but there are other changes that affect the nutritional quality of kale. The aim of this study was to investigate if low intensity light pulses could be used to delay postharvest senescence of purple kale stored at room temperature. Daily treatments with 1 h pulses of white or red light were performed. Irradiated samples had approximately 40% higher chlorophyll and protein and more of 20% higher antioxidant capacity and soluble sugar content than control samples regardless of light quality used in treatment (white or red). Both light treatments improve the appearance and quality of kale during storage at room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819828PMC
September 2019

Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histologic Findings at the Distal Esophagus and Stomach Before and Late (10.5 Years) After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Results of a Prospective Study with 93% Follow-Up.

Obes Surg 2019 12;29(12):3809-3817

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, University of Chile, Santos Dumont #999, Santiago, Chile.

Objective: Perform a prospective study based on sequential clinical, endoscopic, and histologic evaluations of the foregut late after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in obese patients. After LSG, several studies have suggested an increase in the incidence of clinical gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) while others have reported an improvement but based mainly on clinical questionnaires.

Methods: Prospective study of 104 consecutive patients submitted to LSG. Several postoperative endoscopic and histologic evaluations of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and the gastric tube (GT) were performed and correlated with symptomatic findings.

Results: According to clinical preoperative findings, patients were divided into non-refluxers (Group I) and refluxers (Group II). Seven patients were unreachable, leaving 97 (93%) for late evaluation. Among Group I, 58.5% developed de novo GERD, while in Group II just 13.6% showed the disappearance of them. Endoscopic evaluations showed progressive deterioration of the EGJ in Group I, with the development of erosive esophagitis (EE), hiatal hernia (HH), and dilated cardia in a large proportion of them. In the GT, the presence of bile was seen in 40%, and an open immobile pylorus was detected in 82%. Short-segment Barrett's esophagus (BE) appeared in 4%.

Conclusions: Patients submitted to LSG showed a significant and progressive increase in the presence of "de novo" GERD. Also, an increased duodenogastric reflux was seen through an open and immobile pylorus. Therefore, based on these results, it seems like LSG is a "pro-reflux" surgical procedure, which should be continuously evaluated late after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-04054-5DOI Listing
December 2019

Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histologic Findings at the Distal Esophagus and Stomach Before and Late (10.5 Years) After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Results of a Prospective Study with 93% Follow-Up.

Obes Surg 2019 12;29(12):3809-3817

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, University of Chile, Santos Dumont #999, Santiago, Chile.

Objective: Perform a prospective study based on sequential clinical, endoscopic, and histologic evaluations of the foregut late after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in obese patients. After LSG, several studies have suggested an increase in the incidence of clinical gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) while others have reported an improvement but based mainly on clinical questionnaires.

Methods: Prospective study of 104 consecutive patients submitted to LSG. Several postoperative endoscopic and histologic evaluations of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and the gastric tube (GT) were performed and correlated with symptomatic findings.

Results: According to clinical preoperative findings, patients were divided into non-refluxers (Group I) and refluxers (Group II). Seven patients were unreachable, leaving 97 (93%) for late evaluation. Among Group I, 58.5% developed de novo GERD, while in Group II just 13.6% showed the disappearance of them. Endoscopic evaluations showed progressive deterioration of the EGJ in Group I, with the development of erosive esophagitis (EE), hiatal hernia (HH), and dilated cardia in a large proportion of them. In the GT, the presence of bile was seen in 40%, and an open immobile pylorus was detected in 82%. Short-segment Barrett's esophagus (BE) appeared in 4%.

Conclusions: Patients submitted to LSG showed a significant and progressive increase in the presence of "de novo" GERD. Also, an increased duodenogastric reflux was seen through an open and immobile pylorus. Therefore, based on these results, it seems like LSG is a "pro-reflux" surgical procedure, which should be continuously evaluated late after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-019-04054-5DOI Listing
December 2019

The time of the day to harvest affects the degreening, antioxidant compounds, and protein content during postharvest storage of broccoli.

J Food Biochem 2019 07 20;43(7):e12904. Epub 2019 May 20.

Instituto de Fisiología Vegetal (INFIVE) UNLP-CONICET, La Plata, Argentina.

Harvesting of broccoli at several moments of the day affects the rate of senescence during storage. In this work, broccoli heads were harvested at several moments and then kept at 20°C in order to analyze protein metabolism and antioxidant compounds. Almost no differences were detected in the contents of total and soluble proteins, and free amino acids. Only an increment in free amino acids was detected by day 3 in samples obtained at 8:00 hr. With reference to antioxidants, the contents of ascorbic acid, carotenoids and xanthophylls, phenols, and flavonoids were similar in samples harvested at different moments. However, an increment was detected in carotenoids, phenols, and flavonoids during storage of samples collected at 18:00 hr on day 3 and samples collected at 13:00 hr on day 5. The combination of delay of senescence and increment in antioxidants suggest harvesting at 12:00 or 18:00 hr. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Broccoli is a vegetable with an important level of nutrients. However, it is also highly perishable and suffers a high rate of senescence and loss of quality during postharvest. In this work, it is demonstrated that the simple practice of harvests in different moments of the day can affect the postharvest behavior of broccoli, and it is suggested to carry out the harvest toward the end of the day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12904DOI Listing
July 2019

Patients Remain at High Risk of Gallstones Development Late (10 y) After Sleeve Gastrectomy?

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2019 Dec;29(6):451-455

Department of Surgery, Puerto Montt's Hospital, Puerto Montt, Chile.

Background: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is an established bariatric procedure which produces substantial and rapid weight loss and hence can lead to an increase in gallstones development.

Objectives: To demonstrate the early and late appearance of gallstones after SG.

Materials And Methods: A prospective protocol was established in consecutive patients submitted to SG. Clinical and ultrasound evaluations were performed early (1 to 2 y) and late after surgery (over 6 y).

Results: From 109 patients included, 13 (13.1%) had a previous and 10 (10.1%) had simultaneous cholecystectomy at the time of SG. Therefore, 86 patients were submitted to surveillance. Seven patients were unreachable, leaving 79 patients for late follow-up. Forty-five patients (57%) had alithiasic gallbladder late after surgery, whereas 34 patients (43%) showed appearance of gallstone. From them, 53% developed gallstones late after surgery (mean, 7.5 y). Among the group with early development of stones, 69% were symptomatic and in the latter group only 17%.

Conclusions: Study with 92% of follow-up late after SG demonstrated a 43% development of gallstones: half earlier and half late after surgery. We emphasize the need for late control to detect the real appearance of gallstones after SG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000700DOI Listing
December 2019

Long-term (15-year) objective evaluation of 150 patients after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

Surgery 2019 11 19;166(5):886-894. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the preferred operative treatment for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The most recent published results only refer to clinical evaluations and few discuss objective measurements. Our purpose was to determine the late results of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, performing clinical, endoscopic, histologic, and functional studies.

Material And Methods: A total of 179 patients were included in a prospective study. All had gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms of at least 5-year duration, daily dependence on proton pump inhibitors, and a type I hiatal hernia less than 5 cm. Exclusion criteria included Barrett's esophagus, hiatal hernia >5 cm, failed antireflux surgery, and obesity (body mass index >30). We performed a radiologic study, 3 or more endoscopic procedures with biopsy samples of the antrum and esophagogastric junction, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour pH monitoring.

Results: We found that 4 patients (2.2%) died 3-4 years after operation from nonoperatiove reasons. A total of 25 patients (14%) were lost to follow-up, and 150 patients (83.8%) submitted to late objective evaluations (15 years). Visick I-II symptoms were observed in 79.3% and III-IV (failures) in 20.7%. Endoscopy showed a normal positioning of the esophagogastric junction in the Visick I-II patients and a type III cardia or hiatal hernia with erosive esophagitis in Visick III-IV patients. Short-segment Barrett's esophagus developed in 5.3% of patients. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure remained increased over the preoperative value in all groups. The 24-hour pH monitoring also was decreased over the preoperative value in Visick I-II patients but showed no significant change in Visick III-IV patients. Carditis at the esophagogastric junction regressed to fundic mucosa in 50% of Visick I-II patients.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication produces control of symptoms in 80% of patients late (up to 15 years) after surgeries corroborated by endoscopic, histologic examinations, and functional studies. It is essential to perform these objective evaluations to demonstrate the "antireflux effect" after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.04.024DOI Listing
November 2019

Maternal role strain and depressive symptoms among female sex workers in Mexico: the moderating role of sex work venue.

Women Health 2020 03 14;60(3):284-299. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Stressors that arise in parenting are likely to have an adverse impact on the psychological well-being of female sex workers (FSWs), particularly in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC). This study examined the association between maternal role strain and depressive symptoms among 426 FSW mothers with dependent-age children (aged < 18 years) in Tijuana and Cd. Juarez, Mexico (2016-2017). Four dimensions of maternal role strain (e.g., child emotional and behavioral problems) were examined in relation to maternal depressive symptoms. We also investigated whether the relationship between maternal role strain and depressive symptoms was modified by venue of sex work. Compared to indoor/establishment-based FSWs, street-based FSWs reported significantly more child-related financial strain. In multiple regression analysis, having more depressive symptoms was associated with identifying as a street-based FSW, greater use of drugs, lower emotional support, more child-related financial strain and more emotional and behavioral problems in children. A significant interaction was identified such that the association between maternal role strain and depressive symptoms was stronger for indoor/establishment-based compared to street-based FSWs. These findings suggest the need to address parenting strain and type of sex work venue in the development of counseling programs to improve the mental health of FSWs in LMIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2019.1626792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911002PMC
March 2020

Mechanisms of plant protection against two oxalate-producing fungal pathogens by oxalotrophic strains of Stenotrophomonas spp.

Plant Mol Biol 2019 Aug 12;100(6):659-674. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Instituto Tecnológico Chascomús, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (INTECH/UNSAM-CONICET), Av. Intendente Marino Km 8,200 CC164, Chascomús, Argentina.

Key Message: Oxalotrophic Stenotrophomonas isolated from tomato rhizosphere are able to protect plants against oxalate-producing pathogens by a combination of actions including induction of plant defence signalling callose deposition and the strengthening of plant cell walls and probably the degradation of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid plays a pivotal role in the virulence of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this work, we isolated two oxalotrophic strains (OxA and OxB) belonging to the bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas from the rhizosphere of tomato plants. Both strains were capable to colonise endophytically Arabidopsis plants and protect them from the damage caused by high doses of oxalic acid. Furthermore, OxA and OxB protected Arabidopsis from S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections. Bacterial inoculation induced the production of phenolic compounds and the expression of PR-1. Besides, both isolates exerted a protective effect against fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis mutants affected in the synthesis pathway of salicylic acid (sid2-2) and jasmonate perception (coi1). Callose deposition induced by OxA and OxB was required for protection against phytopathogens. Moreover, B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum mycelial growth was reduced in culture media containing cell wall polysaccharides from leaves inoculated with each bacterial strain. These findings suggest that cell walls from Arabidopsis leaves colonised by these bacteria would be less susceptible to pathogen attack. Our results indicate that these oxalotrophic bacteria can protect plants against oxalate-producing pathogens by a combination of actions and show their potential for use as biological control agents against fungal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-019-00888-wDOI Listing
August 2019

Perceived barriers to pre-exposure prophylaxis use and the role of syndemic factors among female sex workers in the Mexico-United States border region: .

AIDS Care 2020 05 4;32(5):557-566. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Female sex workers (FSWs) experience syndemic factors (e.g., polydrug use, hazardous alcohol consumption, client-perpetrated violence, depression, and sexually transmitted infections) that often heighten vulnerability to HIV and limit healthcare utilization. We hypothesized that syndemic factors will limit FSWs' uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). From 2016 to 2017, 295 HIV-negative FSWs were enrolled in a behavioral HIV prevention trial in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, underwent STI testing, and completed surveys on syndemic factors and perceived barriers to PrEP use. Syndemic scores (0-5) were calculated by summing syndemic factors. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify homogeneous classes with respect to perceived barriers to PrEP use. We identified four classes: (1) perceived healthcare access barriers (8.3%), (2) perceived financial barriers (18.7%), (3) high level of perceived barriers (19.9%), and (4) low level of perceived barriers (53.0%) to PrEP use. Those experiencing three (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-10.67) and four or five (aOR = 6.30, 95% CI = 1.70-23.35) syndemic factors had a higher odds of membership in the class characterized by a high level of perceived barriers than in the class characterized by a low level of perceived barriers. Addressing syndemic factors may maximize PrEP's impact among FSWs along Mexico's northern border.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2019.1626338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891112PMC
May 2020

NFAT1 and NFAT2 Differentially Regulate CTL Differentiation Upon Acute Viral Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 15;10:184. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University, North Chicago, IL, United States.

CD8 T cell differentiation orchestrated by transcription regulators is critical for balancing pathogen eradication and long-term immunity by effector and memory CTLs, respectively. The transcription factor Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) family members are known for their roles in T cell development and activation but still largely undetermined in CD8 T cell differentiation . Here, we interrogated the role of two NFAT family members, NFAT1 and NFAT2, in the effector and memory phase of CD8 T cell differentiation using LCMV acute infection model. We found that NFAT1 is critical for effector population generation whereas NFAT2 is required for promoting memory CTLs in a cell intrinsic manner. Moreover, we found that mice lacking both NFAT1 and NFAT2 in T cells display a significant increase in KLRG1 CD127 population and are unable to clear an acute viral infection. NFAT-deficient CTLs showed different degrees of impaired IFN-γ and TNF-α expression with NFAT1 being mainly responsible for IFN-γ production upon stimulation as well as for antigen-specific cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that NFAT1 and NFAT2 have distinct roles in mediating CD8 T cell differentiation and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384247PMC
January 2020

Calcium chloride treatment modifies cell wall metabolism and activates defense responses in strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch).

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Jun 13;99(8):4003-4010. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

INTECH (CONICET-UNSAM), Instituto Tecnológico de Chascomús, Chascomús, Argentina.

Background: Fruit dips in calcium ions solutions have been shown as an effective treatment to extend strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch) quality during storage. In the present work, strawberry fruit were treated with 10 g L calcium chloride solution and treatment effects on cell wall enzymes activities and the expression of encoding genes, as well as enzymes involved in fruit defense responses were investigated.

Results: Calcium treatment enhanced pectin methylesterase activity while inhibited those corresponding to pectin hydrolases as polygalacturonase and β-galactosidase. The expression of key genes for strawberry pectin metabolism was up-regulated (for FaPME1) and down-regulated (for FaPG1, FaPLB, FaPLC, FaβGal1 and FaAra1) by calcium dips. In agreement, a higher firmness level and ionically-bound pectins (IBPs) amount were detected in calcium-treated fruit compared with controls. The in vitro and in vivo growth rate of fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea was limited by calcium treatment. Moreover, the activities of polyphenol oxidases, chitinases, peroxidases and β-1,3-glucanases were enhanced by calcium ion dips.

Conclusion: News insights concerning the biochemical and molecular basis of cell wall preservation and resistance to fungal pathogens on calcium-treated strawberries are provided. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9626DOI Listing
June 2019

d-Allulose is a substrate of glucose transporter type 5 (GLUT5) in the small intestine.

Food Chem 2019 Mar 2;277:604-608. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Pathobiochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8503, Japan. Electronic address:

d-Allulose has been reported to have beneficial health effects. However, the transport system(s) mediating intestinal d-allulose transport has not yet been clearly identified. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal d-allulose transport is mediated by glucose transporter type 5 (GLUT5). When d-allulose alone was gavaged, plasma d-allulose levels were dramatically higher in rats previously fed fructose. This suggests enhanced intestinal d-allulose absorption paralleled increases in GLUT5 expression observed only in fructose-fed rats. When d-allulose was gavaged with d-fructose, previously observed increases in plasma d-allulose levels were dampened and delayed, indicating d-fructose inhibited transepithelial d-allulose transport into plasma. Tracer D-[C]-fructose uptake rate was reduced to 54.8% in 50 mM d-allulose and to 16.4% in 50 mM d-fructose, suggesting d-allulose competed with D-[C]-fructose and the affinity of d-allulose for GLUT5 was lower than that of d-fructose. GLUT5 clearly mediates, likely at lower affinity relative to d-fructose, intestinal d-allulose transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.11.003DOI Listing
March 2019

How do lupus glomerulonephritis and its treatment affect the renal reserve?

Int Urol Nephrol 2019 Feb 4;51(2):369-370. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Human Physiology Department, Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-018-2042-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Abandoned frozen embryos in Argentina: a committee opinion.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2019 04 30;23(2):165-168. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

President of the Scientific Committee of Sociedad Argentina de Medicina Reproductiva (SAMeR).

Argentina, like many other countries in the region, faces the dilemma of what to do with the increasing accumulation of frozen embryos, which are often abandoned. This report aims to address the issue of abandoned frozen embryos, following the main concerns: 1) when is an embryo considered abandoned, according to regulatory documents; 2) how can the number of cryopreserved abandoned embryos be decreased; and 3) what are the current available options for discarding these abandoned embryos. Issues concerning the fate of abandoned embryos call for a revision of the technical aspects, as well as the symbolic aspects associated with the embryos and their options for discarding. Embryo disposal is a complex and intimate decision, which depends not only, on the quality of the cryopreserved embryo, but also on the social, cultural, economic, labor and health insurance aspects. In the absence of a formal regulatory framework for such decisions in Argentina, current practices and standard procedures face significant developmental hurdles. Among future actions to be developed in the short, medium and long term by this committee are building interdisciplinary teams, fostering patient-awareness, devising guidelines, and enforcing policies regarding embryo abandonment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20180085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6501755PMC
April 2019