Publications by authors named "Gustav Nilsonne"

36 Publications

Fostering global data sharing: highlighting the recommendations of the Research Data Alliance COVID-19 working group.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 9;5:267. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Research Data Alliance - US Region (RDA-US), c/o Ronin Institute, 127 Haddon Place, Montclair, NJ, 07043, USA.

The systemic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic require cross-disciplinary collaboration in a global and timely fashion. Such collaboration needs open research practices and the sharing of research outputs, such as data and code, thereby facilitating research and research reproducibility and timely collaboration beyond borders. The Research Data Alliance COVID-19 Working Group recently published a set of recommendations and guidelines on data sharing and related best practices for COVID-19 research. These guidelines include recommendations for researchers, policymakers, funders, publishers and infrastructure providers from the perspective of different domains (Clinical Medicine, Omics, Epidemiology, Social Sciences, Community Participation, Indigenous Peoples, Research Software, Legal and Ethical Considerations). Several overarching themes have emerged from this document such as the need to balance the creation of data adherent to FAIR principles (findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable), with the need for quick data release; the use of trustworthy research data repositories; the use of well-annotated data with meaningful metadata; and practices of documenting methods and software. The resulting document marks an unprecedented cross-disciplinary, cross-sectoral, and cross-jurisdictional effort authored by over 160 experts from around the globe. This letter summarises key points of the Recommendations and Guidelines, highlights the relevant findings, shines a spotlight on the process, and suggests how these developments can be leveraged by the wider scientific community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16378.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808050PMC
November 2020

EEG-based model and antidepressant response.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 01 14;39(1):27. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41587-020-00768-5DOI Listing
January 2021

A combined fMRI and EMG study of emotional contagion following partial sleep deprivation in young and older humans.

Sci Rep 2020 10 21;10(1):17944. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Stress Research Institute, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Sleep deprivation is proposed to inhibit top-down-control in emotion processing, but it is unclear whether sleep deprivation affects emotional mimicry and contagion. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotional contagion and mimicry in young and older humans. Participants underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep opportunity at the end of night), crossed-over with a full sleep condition in a balanced order, followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography (EMG) experiment with viewing of emotional and neutral faces and ratings of emotional responses. The final sample for main analyses was n = 69 (n = 36 aged 20-30 years, n = 33 aged 65-75 years). Partial sleep deprivation caused decreased activation in fusiform gyri for angry faces and decreased ratings of happiness for all stimuli, but no significant effect on the amygdala. Older participants reported more anger compared to younger participants, but no age differences were seen in brain responses to emotional faces or sensitivity to partial sleep deprivation. No effect of the sleep manipulation was seen on EMG. In conclusion, emotional contagion, but not mimicry, was affected by sleep deprivation. Our results are consistent with the previously reported increased negativity bias after insufficient sleep.The Stockholm sleepy brain study: effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and emotional processing in young and old. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02000076 .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74489-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578048PMC
October 2020

Cortical thickness and resting-state cardiac function across the lifespan: A cross-sectional pooled mega-analysis.

Psychophysiology 2020 Oct 10. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12-87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS-or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13688DOI Listing
October 2020

Gray Matter Volume Correlates of Sleepiness: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Younger and Older Adults.

Nat Sci Sleep 2020 21;12:289-298. Epub 2020 May 21.

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Subjectively experienced sleepiness is a problem in society, possibly linked with gray matter (GM) volume. Given a different sleep pattern, aging may affect such associations, possibly due to shrinking brain volume.

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between subjectively rated sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus, insula, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex of young and older adults, after a normal night's sleep.

Methods: Eighty-four healthy individuals participated (46 aged 20-30 years, and 38 aged 65-75 years). Morphological brain data were collected in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Sleepiness was rated multiple times during the imaging sessions.

Results: In older, relative to younger, adults, clusters within bilateral mid-anterior insular cortex and right thalamus were negatively associated with sleepiness. Adjustment for the immediately preceding total sleep time eliminated the significant associations.

Conclusion: Self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation appears to be negatively associated with GM volume in clusters within both thalamus and insula in older individuals, and total sleep time seems to play a role in this association. Possibly, this suggests that larger GM volume in these clusters may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals. This notion needs confirmation in further studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S240493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247733PMC
May 2020

Variability in the analysis of a single neuroimaging dataset by many teams.

Authors:
Rotem Botvinik-Nezer Felix Holzmeister Colin F Camerer Anna Dreber Juergen Huber Magnus Johannesson Michael Kirchler Roni Iwanir Jeanette A Mumford R Alison Adcock Paolo Avesani Blazej M Baczkowski Aahana Bajracharya Leah Bakst Sheryl Ball Marco Barilari Nadège Bault Derek Beaton Julia Beitner Roland G Benoit Ruud M W J Berkers Jamil P Bhanji Bharat B Biswal Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez Tiago Bortolini Katherine L Bottenhorn Alexander Bowring Senne Braem Hayley R Brooks Emily G Brudner Cristian B Calderon Julia A Camilleri Jaime J Castrellon Luca Cecchetti Edna C Cieslik Zachary J Cole Olivier Collignon Robert W Cox William A Cunningham Stefan Czoschke Kamalaker Dadi Charles P Davis Alberto De Luca Mauricio R Delgado Lysia Demetriou Jeffrey B Dennison Xin Di Erin W Dickie Ekaterina Dobryakova Claire L Donnat Juergen Dukart Niall W Duncan Joke Durnez Amr Eed Simon B Eickhoff Andrew Erhart Laura Fontanesi G Matthew Fricke Shiguang Fu Adriana Galván Remi Gau Sarah Genon Tristan Glatard Enrico Glerean Jelle J Goeman Sergej A E Golowin Carlos González-García Krzysztof J Gorgolewski Cheryl L Grady Mikella A Green João F Guassi Moreira Olivia Guest Shabnam Hakimi J Paul Hamilton Roeland Hancock Giacomo Handjaras Bronson B Harry Colin Hawco Peer Herholz Gabrielle Herman Stephan Heunis Felix Hoffstaedter Jeremy Hogeveen Susan Holmes Chuan-Peng Hu Scott A Huettel Matthew E Hughes Vittorio Iacovella Alexandru D Iordan Peder M Isager Ayse I Isik Andrew Jahn Matthew R Johnson Tom Johnstone Michael J E Joseph Anthony C Juliano Joseph W Kable Michalis Kassinopoulos Cemal Koba Xiang-Zhen Kong Timothy R Koscik Nuri Erkut Kucukboyaci Brice A Kuhl Sebastian Kupek Angela R Laird Claus Lamm Robert Langner Nina Lauharatanahirun Hongmi Lee Sangil Lee Alexander Leemans Andrea Leo Elise Lesage Flora Li Monica Y C Li Phui Cheng Lim Evan N Lintz Schuyler W Liphardt Annabel B Losecaat Vermeer Bradley C Love Michael L Mack Norberto Malpica Theo Marins Camille Maumet Kelsey McDonald Joseph T McGuire Helena Melero Adriana S Méndez Leal Benjamin Meyer Kristin N Meyer Glad Mihai Georgios D Mitsis Jorge Moll Dylan M Nielson Gustav Nilsonne Michael P Notter Emanuele Olivetti Adrian I Onicas Paolo Papale Kaustubh R Patil Jonathan E Peelle Alexandre Pérez Doris Pischedda Jean-Baptiste Poline Yanina Prystauka Shruti Ray Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz Richard C Reynolds Emiliano Ricciardi Jenny R Rieck Anais M Rodriguez-Thompson Anthony Romyn Taylor Salo Gregory R Samanez-Larkin Emilio Sanz-Morales Margaret L Schlichting Douglas H Schultz Qiang Shen Margaret A Sheridan Jennifer A Silvers Kenny Skagerlund Alec Smith David V Smith Peter Sokol-Hessner Simon R Steinkamp Sarah M Tashjian Bertrand Thirion John N Thorp Gustav Tinghög Loreen Tisdall Steven H Tompson Claudio Toro-Serey Juan Jesus Torre Tresols Leonardo Tozzi Vuong Truong Luca Turella Anna E van 't Veer Tom Verguts Jean M Vettel Sagana Vijayarajah Khoi Vo Matthew B Wall Wouter D Weeda Susanne Weis David J White David Wisniewski Alba Xifra-Porxas Emily A Yearling Sangsuk Yoon Rui Yuan Kenneth S L Yuen Lei Zhang Xu Zhang Joshua E Zosky Thomas E Nichols Russell A Poldrack Tom Schonberg

Nature 2020 06 20;582(7810):84-88. Epub 2020 May 20.

Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses. The flexibility of analytical approaches is exemplified by the fact that no two teams chose identical workflows to analyse the data. This flexibility resulted in sizeable variation in the results of hypothesis tests, even for teams whose statistical maps were highly correlated at intermediate stages of the analysis pipeline. Variation in reported results was related to several aspects of analysis methodology. Notably, a meta-analytical approach that aggregated information across teams yielded a significant consensus in activated regions. Furthermore, prediction markets of researchers in the field revealed an overestimation of the likelihood of significant findings, even by researchers with direct knowledge of the dataset. Our findings show that analytical flexibility can have substantial effects on scientific conclusions, and identify factors that may be related to variability in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results emphasize the importance of validating and sharing complex analysis workflows, and demonstrate the need for performing and reporting multiple analyses of the same data. Potential approaches that could be used to mitigate issues related to analytical variability are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2314-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771346PMC
June 2020

Improvement in indices of cellular protection after psychological treatment for social anxiety disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 12 19;9(1):340. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Telomere attrition is a hallmark of cellular aging and shorter telomeres have been reported in mood and anxiety disorders. Telomere shortening is counteracted by the enzyme telomerase and cellular protection is also provided by the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Here, telomerase, GPx, and telomeres were investigated in 46 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients in a within-subject design with repeated measures before and after cognitive behavioral therapy. Treatment outcome was assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (self-report), administered three times before treatment to control for time and regression artifacts, and posttreatment. Venipunctures were performed twice before treatment, separated by 9 weeks, and once posttreatment. Telomerase activity and telomere length were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and GPx activity in plasma. All patients contributed with complete data. Results showed that social anxiety symptom severity was significantly reduced from pretreatment to posttreatment (Cohen's d = 1.46). There were no significant alterations in telomeres or cellular protection markers before treatment onset. Telomere length and telomerase activity did not change significantly after treatment, but an increase in telomerase over treatment was associated with reduced social anxiety. Also, lower pretreatment telomerase activity predicted subsequent symptom improvement. GPx activity increased significantly during treatment, and increases were significantly associated with symptom improvement. The relationships between symptom improvement and putative protective enzymes remained significant also after controlling for body mass index, sex, duration of SAD, smoking, concurrent psychotropic medication, and the proportion of lymphocytes to monocytes. Thus, indices of cellular protection may be involved in the therapeutic mechanisms of psychological treatment for anxiety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0668-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920472PMC
December 2019

Sleep restriction caused impaired emotional regulation without detectable brain activation changes-a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

R Soc Open Sci 2019 Mar 27;6(3):181704. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 9, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden.

Sleep restriction has been proposed to cause impaired emotional processing and emotional regulation by inhibiting top-down control from prefrontal cortex to amygdala. Intentional emotional regulation after sleep restriction has, however, never been studied using brain imaging. We aimed here to investigate the effect of partial sleep restriction on emotional regulation through cognitive reappraisal. Forty-seven young (age 20-30) and 33 older (age 65-75) participants (38/23 with complete data and successful sleep intervention) performed a cognitive reappraisal task during fMRI after a night of normal sleep and after restricted sleep (3 h). Emotional downregulation was associated with significantly increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ( < 0.05) and lateral orbital cortex ( < 0.05) in young, but not in older subjects. Sleep restriction was associated with a decrease in self-reported regulation success to negative stimuli ( < 0.01) and a trend towards perceiving all stimuli as less negative ( = 0.07) in young participants. No effects of sleep restriction on brain activity nor connectivity were found in either age group. In conclusion, our data do not support the idea of a prefrontal-amygdala disconnect after sleep restriction, and neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects on emotional regulation after insufficient sleep require further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458356PMC
March 2019

Estimating statistical power, posterior probability and publication bias of psychological research using the observed replication rate.

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Sep 12;5(9):181190. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

In this paper, we show how Bayes' theorem can be used to better understand the implications of the 36% reproducibility rate of published psychological findings reported by the Open Science Collaboration. We demonstrate a method to assess publication bias and show that the observed reproducibility rate was not consistent with an unbiased literature. We estimate a plausible range for the prior probability of this body of research, suggesting expected statistical power in the original studies of 48-75%, producing (positive) findings that were expected to be true 41-62% of the time. Publication bias was large, assuming a literature with 90% positive findings, indicating that negative evidence was expected to have been observed 55-98 times before one negative result was published. These findings imply that even when studied associations are truly NULL, we expect the literature to be dominated by statistically significant findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170554PMC
September 2018

Data availability, reusability, and analytic reproducibility: evaluating the impact of a mandatory open data policy at the journal .

R Soc Open Sci 2018 Aug 15;5(8):180448. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Access to data is a critical feature of an efficient, progressive and ultimately self-correcting scientific ecosystem. But the extent to which in-principle benefits of data sharing are realized in practice is unclear. Crucially, it is largely unknown whether published findings can be reproduced by repeating reported analyses upon shared data ('analytic reproducibility'). To investigate this, we conducted an observational evaluation of a mandatory open data policy introduced at the journal . Interrupted time-series analyses indicated a substantial post-policy increase in data available statements (104/417, 25% pre-policy to 136/174, 78% post-policy), although not all data appeared reusable (23/104, 22% pre-policy to 85/136, 62%, post-policy). For 35 of the articles determined to have reusable data, we attempted to reproduce 1324 target values. Ultimately, 64 values could not be reproduced within a 10% margin of error. For 22 articles all target values were reproduced, but 11 of these required author assistance. For 13 articles at least one value could not be reproduced despite author assistance. Importantly, there were no clear indications that original conclusions were seriously impacted. Mandatory open data policies can increase the frequency and quality of data sharing. However, suboptimal data curation, unclear analysis specification and reporting errors can impede analytic reproducibility, undermining the utility of data sharing and the credibility of scientific findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124055PMC
August 2018

Effects of late-night short-sleep on in-home polysomnography: relation to adult age and sex.

J Sleep Res 2018 08 30;27(4):e12626. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years). Results (N = 59) showed that late-night short-sleep was associated with an increase in percentage of N3 sleep and a decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, as well as decreases in several measures of sleep discontinuity and rapid eye movement density. Men showed a smaller decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep than women in response to late-night short-sleep, as did older individuals of both sexes compared with younger. Older men showed a weaker percentage of N3 sleep in response to late-night short-sleep than younger men. In general, men showed a greater percentage of rapid eye movement sleep and a lower percentage of N3 sleep than women, and older individuals showed a lower percentage of N3 sleep than younger. In particular, older men showed very low levels of percentage of N3 sleep. We conclude that older males show less of a homeostatic response to late-night short-sleep. This may be an indication of impaired capacity for recovery in older men. Future studies should investigate if this pattern can be linked to gender-associated differences in morbidity and mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12626DOI Listing
August 2018

The effect of sleep restriction on empathy for pain: An fMRI study in younger and older adults.

Sci Rep 2017 09 25;7(1):12236. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Age and sleep both affect emotional functioning. Since sleep patterns change over the lifespan, we investigated the effects of short sleep and age on empathic responses. In a randomized cross-over experimental design, healthy young and older volunteers (n = 47 aged 20-30 years and n = 39 aged 65-75 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after normal sleep or night sleep restricted to 3 hours. During fMRI, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain) or Q-tips touching a hand (control), a well-established paradigm to investigate empathy for pain. There was no main effect of sleep restriction on empathy. However, age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused increased unpleasantness in older but not in young participants. Irrespective of sleep condition, older participants showed increased activity in angular gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction compared to young. Speculatively, this could indicate that the older individuals adopted a more cognitive approach in response to others' pain. Our findings suggest that caution in generalizability across age groups is needed in further studies of sleep on social cognition and emotion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12098-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5612991PMC
September 2017

Intrinsic brain connectivity after partial sleep deprivation in young and older adults: results from the Stockholm Sleepy Brain study.

Sci Rep 2017 08 25;7(1):9422. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Sleep deprivation has been reported to affect intrinsic brain connectivity, notably reducing connectivity in the default mode network. Studies to date have however shown inconsistent effects, in many cases lacked monitoring of wakefulness, and largely included young participants. We investigated effects of sleep deprivation on intrinsic brain connectivity in young and older participants. Participants aged 20-30 (final n = 30) and 65-75 (final n = 23) years underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep) in a cross-over design, with two 8-minutes eyes-open resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) runs in each session, monitored by eye-tracking. We assessed intrinsic brain connectivity using independent components analysis (ICA) as well as seed-region analyses of functional connectivity, and also analysed global signal variability, regional homogeneity, and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations. Sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability. Changes in investigated resting state networks and in regional homogeneity were not statistically significant. Younger participants had higher connectivity in most examined networks, as well as higher regional homogeneity in areas including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In conclusion, we found that sleep deprivation caused increased global signal variability, and we speculate that this may be caused by wake-state instability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09744-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573389PMC
August 2017

Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults.

Lancet Psychiatry 2017 06 8;4(6):437. Epub 2017 May 8.

School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, SE-70182 Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30160-8DOI Listing
June 2017

Effects of 25 mg oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain: a randomized controlled experiment.

R Soc Open Sci 2017 Mar 8;4(3):160607. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience , Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden.

Emotional mimicry and empathy are mechanisms underlying social interaction. Benzodiazepines have been proposed to inhibit empathy and promote antisocial behaviour. First, we aimed to investigate the effects of oxazepam on emotional mimicry and empathy for pain, and second, we aimed to investigate the association of personality traits to emotional mimicry and empathy. Participants (=76) were randomized to 25 mg oxazepam or placebo. Emotional mimicry was examined using video clips with emotional expressions. Empathy was investigated by pain stimulating the participant and a confederate. We recorded self-rated experience, activity in major zygomatic and superciliary corrugator muscles, skin conductance, and heart rate. In the mimicry experiment, oxazepam inhibited corrugator activity. In the empathy experiment, oxazepam caused increased self-rated unpleasantness and skin conductance. However, oxazepam specifically inhibited neither emotional mimicry nor empathy for pain. Responses in both experiments were associated with self-rated empathic, psychopathic and alexithymic traits. The present results do not support a specific effect of 25 mg oxazepam on emotional mimicry or empathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5383810PMC
March 2017

Circulating Interleukin 6 in Parkinson Disease.

JAMA Neurol 2017 05;74(5):607-608

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden2Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0037DOI Listing
May 2017

Diurnal Variation of Circulating Interleukin-6 in Humans: A Meta-Analysis.

PLoS One 2016 10;11(11):e0165799. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been proposed to contribute to circadian regulation of sleepiness by increasing in the blood at night. Earlier studies have reported diurnal variation of IL-6, but phase estimates are conflicting. We have therefore performed a meta-analysis on the diurnal variation of circulating IL-6. Studies were included if they reported IL-6 in plasma or serum recorded at least twice within 24 hours in the same individual. A systematic search resulted in the inclusion of 43 studies with 56 datasets, for a total of 1100 participants. Individual participant data were available from 4 datasets with a total of 56 participants. Mixed-effects meta-regression modelling confirmed that IL-6 varied across the day, the most conspicuous effect being a trough in the morning. These results stand in contrast to earlier findings of a peak in the evening or night, and suggest that diurnal variation should be taken into account in order to avoid confounding by time of day in studies of IL-6 in plasma or serum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0165799PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5104468PMC
June 2017

Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(6):e0156570. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227) in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i) the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), (ii) self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii) additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156570PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4907435PMC
July 2017

Health at the ballot box: disease threat does not predict attractiveness preference in British politicians.

R Soc Open Sci 2016 Mar 23;3(3):160049. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

According to disease avoidance theory, selective pressures have shaped adaptive behaviours to avoid people who might transmit infections. Such behavioural immune defence strategies may have social and societal consequences. Attractiveness is perceived as a heuristic cue of good health, and the relative importance of attractiveness is predicted to increase during high disease threat. Here, we investigated whether politicians' attractiveness is more important for electoral success when disease threat is high, in an effort to replicate earlier findings from the USA. We performed a cross-sectional study of 484 members of the House of Commons from England and Wales. Publicly available sexiness ratings (median 5883 ratings/politician) were regressed on measures of disease burden, operationalized as infant mortality, life expectancy and self-rated health. Infant mortality in parliamentary constituencies did not significantly predict sexiness of elected members of parliament (p = 0.08), nor did life expectancy (p = 0.06), nor self-rated health (p = 0.55). Subsample analyses failed to provide further support for the hypothesis. In conclusion, an attractive leader effect was not amplified by disease threat in the UK and these results did not replicate those of earlier studies from the USA concerning the relationship between attractiveness, disease threat and voting preference.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821282PMC
March 2016

Post-traumatic stress disorder and interleukin 6.

Lancet Psychiatry 2016 Mar;3(3):200-1

Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Uppsala University, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala, Sweden.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00022-5DOI Listing
March 2016

Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science".

Science 2016 Mar;351(6277):1037

Adams State University, Alamosa, CO, USA.

Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad9163DOI Listing
March 2016

Intrinsic functional connectivity of insular cortex and symptoms of sickness during acute experimental inflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2016 Aug 28;56:34-41. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Task-based fMRI has been used to study the effects of experimental inflammation on the human brain, but it remains unknown whether intrinsic connectivity in the brain at rest changes during a sickness response. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental inflammation on connectivity between areas relevant for monitoring of bodily states, motivation, and subjective symptoms of sickness. In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 52 healthy volunteers were injected with 0.6ng/kg LPS (lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, and participated in a resting state fMRI experiment after approximately 2h 45min. Resting state fMRI data were available from 48 participants, of which 28 received LPS and 20 received placebo. Bilateral anterior and bilateral posterior insula sections were used as seed regions and connectivity with bilateral orbitofrontal and cingulate (anterior and middle) cortices was investigated. Back pain, headache and global sickness increased significantly after as compared to before LPS, while a non-significant trend was shown for increased nausea. Compared to placebo, LPS was followed by increased connectivity between left anterior insula and left midcingulate cortex. This connectivity was significantly correlated to increase in back pain after LPS and tended to be related to increased global sickness, but was not related to increased headache or nausea. LPS did not affect the connectivity from other insular seeds. In conclusion, the finding of increased functional connectivity between left anterior insula and middle cingulate cortex suggests a potential neurophysiological mechanism that can be further tested to understand the subjective feeling of malaise and discomfort during a sickness response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.12.018DOI Listing
August 2016

Leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus volume: a meta-analysis.

F1000Res 2015 15;4:1073. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the effect to r = 0.12 [95% CI -0.13, 0.37] in the presence of heterogeneity and a subjectively estimated moderate to high risk of bias. There was no evidence that apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was an effect moderator, nor that the ratio of leukocyte telomerase activity to telomere length was a better predictor than leukocyte telomere length for hippocampus volume. This meta-analysis, while not proving a positive relationship, also is not able to disprove the earlier finding of a positive correlation in the one large study included in analyses. We propose that a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocamus volume may be mediated by transmigrating monocytes which differentiate into microglia in the brain parenchyma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.7198.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4670011PMC
December 2015

[Open data important part of future research methodology].

Authors:
Gustav Nilsonne

Lakartidningen 2014 Oct 29-Nov 11;111(44-45):1952-3

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2015

Diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural malignancies.

Biomed Res Int 2014 24;2014:419853. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, F46, Huddinge University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera from patients with pleural malignancies.

Study Design: Using two cohorts of patients, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: In pleural effusions, syndecan-1 distinguished malignant and benign diseases, with an odds ratio of 8.59 (95% CI 3.67 to 20.09). Furthermore, syndecan-1 in pleural effusions predicted a survival difference for patients with pleural metastatic disease and malignant mesothelioma of 11.2 and 9.2 months, respectively. However, no such effects were seen when syndecan-1 was measured in serum.

Conclusion: Soluble syndecan-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the cytopathological diagnosis and prognostication of malignant pleural effusions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/419853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4131558PMC
September 2015

[The bio terminology group recommends: Dare to nurture our professional language ].

Authors:
Gustav Nilsonne

Lakartidningen 2014 Feb 19-25;111(8):349

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2014

Hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin as key biomarkers in a specific two-step model to predict pleural malignant mesothelioma.

PLoS One 2013 21;8(8):e72030. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Division of Pathology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is challenging. The first available diagnostic material is often an effusion and biochemical analysis of soluble markers may provide additional diagnostic information. This study aimed to establish a predictive model using biomarkers from pleural effusions, to allow early and accurate diagnosis.

Patients And Methods: Effusions were collected prospectively from 190 consecutive patients at a regional referral centre. Hyaluronan, N-ERC/mesothelin, C-ERC/mesothelin, osteopontin, syndecan-1, syndecan-2, and thioredoxin were measured using ELISA and HPLC. A predictive model was generated and validated using a second prospective set of 375 effusions collected consecutively at a different referral centre.

Results: Biochemical markers significantly associated with mesothelioma were hyaluronan (odds ratio, 95% CI: 8.82, 4.82-20.39), N-ERC/mesothelin (4.81, 3.19-7.93), CERC/mesothelin (3.58, 2.43-5.59) and syndecan-1 (1.34, 1.03-1.77). A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin, and combining a threshold decision rule with logistic regression, yielded good discrimination with an area under the ROC curve of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00) in the model generation dataset and 0.83 (0.74-0.91) in the validation dataset, respectively.

Conclusions: A two-step model using hyaluronan and N-ERC/mesothelin predicts mesothelioma with high specificity. This method can be performed on the first available effusion and could be a useful adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of mesothelioma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072030PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749097PMC
April 2014

Microenvironment-Dependent Phenotypic Changes in a SCID Mouse Model for Malignant Mesothelioma.

Front Oncol 2013 9;3:203. Epub 2013 Aug 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden ; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.

Background And Aims: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive, therapy-resistant tumor. Mesothelioma cells may assume an epithelioid or a sarcomatoid phenotype, and presence of sarcomatoid cells predicts poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated differentiation of mesothelioma cells in a xenograft model, where mesothelioma cells of both phenotypes were induced to form tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

Methods: Xenografts were established and thoroughly characterized using a comprehensive immunohistochemical panel, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) of chromosome 3, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy.

Results: Epithelioid and sarcomatoid cells gave rise to xenografts of similar epithelioid morphology. While sarcomatoid-derived xenografts had higher growth rates, the morphology and expression of differentiation-related markers was similar between xenografts derived from both phenotypes. aCGH showed a convergent genotype for both xenografts, resembling the original aggressive sarcomatoid cell sub-line.

Conclusion: Human mesothelioma xenografts from sarcomatoid and epithelioid phenotypes converged to a similar differentiation state, and genetic analyses suggested that clonal selection in the mouse microenvironment was a major contributing factor. This thoroughly characterized animal model can be used for further studies of molecular events underlying tumor cell differentiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2013.00203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3739415PMC
August 2013

Variation in drug sensitivity of malignant mesothelioma cell lines with substantial effects of selenite and bortezomib, highlights need for individualized therapy.

PLoS One 2013 20;8(6):e65903. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Malignant mesothelioma cells have an epithelioid or sarcomatoid morphology, both of which may be present in the same tumor. The sarcomatoid phenotype is associated with worse prognosis and heterogeneity of mesothelioma cells may contribute to therapy resistance, which is often seen in mesothelioma. This study aimed to investigate differences in sensitivity between mesothelioma cell lines to anti-cancer drugs. We studied two novel drugs, selenite and bortezomib and compared their effect to four conventional drugs. We also investigated the immunoreactivity of potential predictive markers for drug sensitivity; Pgp, MRP-1, ERCC1, RRM1, TS, xCT and proteasome 20S subunit.

Materials And Methods: We treated six mesothelioma cell lines with selenite, bortezomib, carboplatin, pemetrexed, doxorubicin or gemcitabine as single agents and in combinations. Viability was measured after 24 and 48 hours. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect predictive markers.

Results: As a single agent, selenite was effective on four out of six cell lines, and in combination with bortezomib yielded the greatest response in the studied mesothelioma cell lines. Cells with an epithelioid phenotype were generally more sensitive to the different drugs than the sarcomatoid cells. Extensive S-phase arrest was seen in pemetrexed-sensitive cell lines. MRP-1 predicted sensitivity of cell lines to treatment with carboplatin and xCT predicted pemetrexed effect.

Conclusions: The observed heterogeneity in sensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines with different morphology highlights the need for more individualized therapy, requiring development of methods to predict drug sensitivity of individual tumors. Selenite and bortezomib showed a superior effect compared to conventional drugs, motivating clinical testing of these agents as future treatment regime components for patients with malignant mesothelioma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0065903PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3688685PMC
February 2014

Learning in a simple biological system: a pilot study of classical conditioning of human macrophages in vitro.

Behav Brain Funct 2011 Nov 18;7:47. Epub 2011 Nov 18.

Karolinska Institutet, Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.

Recent advances in cell biology and gene regulation suggest mechanisms whereby associative learning could be performed by single cells. Therefore, we explored a model of classical conditioning in human macrophages in vitro. In macrophage cultures, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; unconditioned stimulus) was paired once with streptomycin (conditioned stimulus). Secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used as response measure. At evocation, conditioning was not observed. Levels of IL-6 were higher only in those cultures that had been exposed to LPS in the learning phase (p's < .05), regardless whether they received the conditioned stimulus or not at evocation.However, habituation was evident, with a 62% loss of the IL-6 response after three LPS presentations (p < .001). If further experiments confirm that simple learning can occur in immune cells, this may have bearings not only on immune regulation, but also on the brain response to molecular signals detected in the periphery. Importantly, whether capacities for simple learning in single cells extend beyond habituation, and how this would be demonstrated, remain open questions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-7-47DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3247862PMC
November 2011