Publications by authors named "Gursel Cok"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Contribution of Fluorine F-FDG PET/CT to Lung Cancer Diagnosis, Staging and Treatment Planning.

Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther 2018 Jun;27(2):73-80

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.

Objective: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death throughout the world, and the correct choice of treatment based on early diagnosis and staging increases the chance of survival. The present study aims to investigate the contribution of fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) to the management of lung cancer.

Methods: In this study, 50 patients who underwent F-FDG PET/CT for lung cancer diagnosis and staging between February 2012 and February 2014 were included. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary lung lesion along with other findings of F-FDG PET/CT and the results of histopathologic and conventional examinations were evaluated retrospectively. The mean survival time of patients was determined, and the findings were compared by using statistical methods.

Results: Histopathologic examinations revealed 51 lung cancers in 50 patients. The sensitivity, accuracy and positive predictive value of F-FDG PET/CT in detecting primary malignancy were 94%, 94%, 100%, respectively. Adenocarcinoma (n=23, 16.8±13.5) and squamous cell carcinoma (n=15, 17.9±5.6) did not differ significantly regarding their mean SUV values (p=0.2). A statistically significant positive correlation (r=0.4) was identified between tumor size and SUV value for 51 tumors (p=0.002). The F-FDG PET/CT result was true negative in nine, false positive in six, true positive in two, and false negative in four patients who underwent histopathologic evaluation of their lymph nodes. The F-FDG PET/CT changed treatment planning in 34% of the patients. No significant relationship was identified between SUV value of the tumor and patient survival in patients (p=0.118).

Conclusion: The present study concluded that PET/CT was an efficient method in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer since it provided useful information in addition to conventional methods. It was also observed that PET/CT scanning resulted in a change in therapeutic plans in the majority of patients. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between survival and the SUV of the primary mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/mirt.53315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996604PMC
June 2018

The role of apelin in the assessment of response to chemotherapyand prognosis in stage 4 nonsmall cell lung cancer.

Turk J Med Sci 2016 Nov 17;46(5):1353-1359. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, İzmir, Turkey.

Background/aim: Prediction of response to chemotherapy and prognosis bears clinical significance in patients with lung cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the association between apelin expression in tumor tissues and overall survival, progression-free survival, chemoresistance, and treatment response in stage 4 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: A total of 81 patients who received chemotherapy due to a biopsy-documented diagnosis of NSCLC between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. Bronchoscopic biopsy samples were examined immunohistochemically.

Results: Of the overall study population (n = 81), the mean age was 59.0 ± 9.2 years; 83% (n = 67) were male and 17% (n = 14) were female. All patients received chemotherapy. A total of 30 patients (37%) had no apelin positivity, while 21 (30%) had 1 +, 20 (25%) had 2 +, and 10 (12%) had 3 + apelin positivity. We detected no association between apelin positivity and overall survival, 6-month survival, or 1-year survival rates (P = 0.05, 0.74, and 0.63). Patients with apelin expression as compared to those without it had shorter overall survival (P = 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that apelin, an angiogenic factor, does not seem to provide significant prognostic information in this patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1411-9DOI Listing
November 2016

Expression of p63, TTF-1 and Maspin in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Their Effect on the Prognosis and Differential Diagnosis.

Turk Patoloji Derg 2015 ;31(3):163-74

Department of Pathology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, İZMİR, TURKEY.

Objective: Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer mortality. Antiapoptotic genes and protease inhibitors play an important role in the development of lung cancer.

Material And Method: p63, TTF-1 and maspin expression and their role in the differential diagnosis, overall survival, progression-free survival and other clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were investigated in 80 surgically-resected non-small cell lung carcinomas.

Results: The maximal tumor diameter range was 1.5-11 cm (mean: 4.06±1.8 cm). Forty-five (56.3%) tumors were adenocarcinoma, 23 (28.8%) squamous cell carcinoma, four (5%) large cell carcinoma, six (7.5%) large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, one (1.2%) sarcomatoid carcinoma while one was (1.2%) both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The patients with advanced TNM stage and a tumor diameter more than 3 cm had markedly poor survival. Immunohistochemically, p63 staining was present in 87.5% of squamous cell carcinomas, 4.3% of adenocarcinomas, 25% of large cell carcinomas, and 16.7% of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Similarly, maspin was positive in 66.7% of squamous cell carcinomas and 17.4% of adenocarcinomas. The TTF-1 staining rate was higher in adenocarcinomas (84.8%). There was no immunoreactivity in squamous cell carcinomas (p < 0.001). We found that p63 and TTF-1 had no significant effect on survival in either tumor group (p > 0.05) while maspin has a negative prognostic effect in adenocarcinoma (p=0.048).

Conclusion: This study suggests that p63 and TTF-1 are reliable markers in non-small cell lung carcinoma and can be used in differential diagnosis. Maspin has been identified as a prognostic marker in adenocarcinoma. However, more studies are required to elucidate the significance of maspin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5146/tjpath.2015.01305DOI Listing
October 2016

[Prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory tract infections, 2002-2014].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2015 Apr;49(2):188-200

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Izmir, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of respiratory viruses in pediatric and adult outpatients and inpatients who were admitted to hospital with the symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, during a 12-year period. A total of 5102 clinical samples (4372 nasopharyngeal swabs, 316 bronchoalveolar lavages, 219 transtracheal aspirates, 163 nasopharyngeal aspirates, 20 sputum, 10 nasal swabs) examined in our laboratory between January 1st 2002 and July 17th 2014, were evaluated retrospectively. Of the specimens, 1107 (21.7%) were obtained from outpatients and 3995 (78.3%) from hospitalized patients. Of the patients, 2851 (55.9%) were male and 2251 (44.1%) were female, while 1233 (24.2%) were adults and 3869 (75.8%) were children (age range: 1 day - 93 years; median: 3 years). Respiratory samples were investigated for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus type A and B (INF-A, INF-B), adenovirus (AdV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV types 1-4), human rhinoviruses (HRV), human coronaviruses (HCoV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and human bocavirus (HBoV). All specimens were tested by both direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA) and shell vial cell culture (SVCC) methods. In DFA assay the samples were initially screened by fluorescent-labeled polyclonal antibodies, and the positive ones were typed by using monoclonal antibodies (Light Diagnostics, Merck Millipore, USA). In SVCC, HEp-2, MDCK, A-549 and Vero cell lines were used for the isolation of viruses. In addition to these methods, real-time multiplex PCR methods (RealAccurate®, Respiratory RT PCR, PathoFinder, Netherlands and Seeplex® RV15 ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea) were used for the detection of respiratory viruses in samples (n= 2104) obtained from 2007 to 2014. Respiratory viruses were detected in a total of 1705 (33.4%) patients, of them 967 (19%) were male and 738 (14.4%) were female. Three hundred and eighteen (18.6%) of the 1705 patients were infected with multiple respiratory viruses. The most frequently observed co-infections were RSV+INF-A (40/318; 12.6%), and RSV+PIV (33/318; 10.4%). The rate of positivity for the respiratory viruses in pediatric and adult groups were 35.4% (1369/3869) and 27.3% (336/1233), respectively (p< 0.000). The most frequently detected virus in pediatric group was RSV (336/1369; 24.5%), followed by influenza viruses (314/1369; 22.9%), PIV (197/1369; 14.4%), HRV (118/1369; 8.6%), AdV (75/1369; 5.5%) and the others (49/1369; 3.6%). On the other hand the most frequently detected virus in adult group was influenza viruses (181/336; 53.8%) followed by AdV (37/336; 11%), RSV (24/336; 7.1%), PIV (24/336; 7.1%), HRV (23/336; 6.8%) and the others (9/336; 2.7%). The rate of multiple virus infections in pediatric and adult groups were 7.2% (280/3869) and 3% (38/1233), respectively. Most of the coinfections (280/318; 88%) were detected in children. Respiratory viruses were detected positive in 40.2% (445/1107) of outpatients, and in 31.5% (1260/3995) of inpatients (p< 0.000). The most frequent viruses detected in pediatric outpatients and inpatients were HRV and RSV, respectively, while influenza viruses were the first in line among both adult outpatients and inpatients. During the study period, a PIV-3 outbreak (n= 96) have emerged between December 2004-April 2005, and an influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 outbreak (n= 207) between November 2009-January 2010. When the seasonal distribution was considered, the isolation rates of 1705 respiratory viruses in winter, spring, summer and autumn were 44.4%, 27%, 8.3% and 20.3%, respectively. RSV was most frequently detected from December to March, influenza viruses from November to March, HRV from December to June, and mixed infections from January to February. In conclusion, the data of our study obtained in about 12-year period indicated that the prevalence of respiratory viruses in acute respiratory infections is 33.4%, and they typically active during the months of winter and early spring in our region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/mb.9024DOI Listing
April 2015

[Simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses and influenza A virus subtypes using multiplex PCR].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2014 Oct;48(4):652-60

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Izmir, Turkey.

This study was conducted to investigate the respiratory viruses and subtyping of influenza A virus when positive by multiplex PCR in patients with flu-like symptoms, after the pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from 700 patients (313 female, 387 male; age range: 24 days-94 yrs, median age: 1 yr) between December 2010 - January 2013 with flu-like symptoms including fever, headache, sore throat, rhinitis, cough, myalgia as defined by the World Health Organization were included in the study. Nucleic acid extractions (Viral DNA/RNA Extraction Kit, iNtRON, South Korea) and cDNA synthesis (RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kits, Fermentas, USA) were performed according to the manufacturer's protocol. Multiplex amplification of nucleic acids was performed using DPO (dual priming oligonucleotide) primers and RV5 ACE Screening Kit (Seegene, South Korea) in terms of the presence of influenza A (INF-A) virus, influenza B (INF-B) virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the other respiratory viruses. PCR products were detected by automated polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using Screen Tape multiple detection system. Specimens which were positive for viral nucleic acids have been further studied by using specific DPO primers, FluA ACE Subtyping and RV15 Screening (Seegene, South Korea) kits. Four INF-A virus subtypes [human H1 (hH1), human H3 (hH3), swine H1 (sH1), avian H5 (aH5)] and 11 other respiratory viruses [Adenovirus, parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1-4, human bocavirus (HBoV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rhinovirus types A and B, human coronaviruses (HCoV) OC43, 229E/NL63] were investigated with those tests. In the study, 53.6% (375/700) of the patients were found to be infected with at least one virus and multiple respiratory virus infections were detected in 15.7% (59/375) of the positive cases, which were mostly (49/59, 83%) in pediatric patients. RSV and rhinovirus coinfections were the most prevalent (18/29, 62.7%) dual infections. The distribution of 436 respiratory viruses identified from 375 patients were as follows; 189 (43.3%) RSV, 93 (21.4%) rhinovirus, 86 (19.8%) INF-A, seven (1.6%) INF-B, 22 (5%) PIV types 1-3, 14 (3.2%) HMPV, 11 (2.5%) HCoV, nine (2%) HBoV, and five (1.2%) adenovirus. Fifty-five (64%) out of 86 INF-A viruses were subtyped as hH3, 24 (27.9%) were sH1 and seven (8.1%) were hH1. Avian H5 was not detected in any samples. The overall prevalence rates of INF-A, INF-B, RSV and other respiratory viruses were 12%, 1%, 27%, and 14.6%, respectively. RSV was the most prevalent respiratory agent in pediatric (161/313, 51%) cases, while INF-A virus in adult (24/62, 38.7%) patients. Influenza viruses were detected as responsible pathogens in 13.3% (93/700) of the patients with flu-like symptoms. Among the cases, a 1-month-old baby was infected with three virus strains (INF-A hH1+INF-A sH1+HCoV OC43) and a 82-year-old patient was infected with two INF-A virus subtypes (hH3 + sH1). INF-A viruses were mostly detected (79/86) in winter period, from December to March. INF-A virus sH1, was the most prevalent subtype in flu cases till February 2011 (22/86), after replaced by INF-A virus hH3. Beginning from February 2012, a significant increase observed in the cases infected with INF-A virus subtype hH3 (39/86). In conclusion, the identification and surveillance of influenza virus types and subtypes circulating in populations have importance both for epidemiological data and selection of vaccine strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/mb.8221DOI Listing
October 2014

Hypersensitivity to chemotherapeutics: a cross sectional study with 35 desensitisations.

Int J Clin Oncol 2015 Apr 25;20(2):395-404. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Department of Chest Diseases, Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey,

Background: Chemotherapy is one of the main treatments for lung cancer, and in these patients, discontinuation of treatment due to uncontrollable hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) is an important problem.

Aim: To determine the frequency of HSRs during chemotherapy and to review current approaches.

Methods: We did a cross sectional study in patients undergoing chemotherapy for lung cancer in a reference chemotherapy unit from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients who developed immediate-HSRs or delayed-HSRs to chemotherapeutics and gave consent were included into study. The effectiveness of a standardised 12-step "rapid drug desensitisation" (RDD) procedure was investigated in patients with immediate-HSRs.

Results: In total, 1,099 cycles of chemotherapy were administered to 292 patients in 1 year. We observed ten HSRs, during ten cycles in ten patients (~3 % of the patients). Two HSRs were delayed-type, eight were immediate-type at grade 1-3. Of those with immediate-type HSR, five patients with grade 2-3, and additional two referred patients with grade 4 HSRs were successfully given their culprit drug in 35 cycles of chemotherapy with 12-step or modified 20-step RDD protocol.

Conclusions: HSRs to chemotherapeutics are not so rare. Premedication alone does not prevent such reactions. The results of RDD treatment look promising for continuing treatment with the culprit chemotherapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-014-0722-2DOI Listing
April 2015

Clinical characteristics of patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a retrospective study of 44 cases.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013 ;14(7):4365-8

Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is considered a subtype of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Recently BAC has been variously termed adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, lepidic predominant invasive adenocarcinoma, and invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. The aim of the study was to analyze and detect prognostic factors of patients with BAC over a 7-year period.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective single-center study included 44 patients with BAC. The impact on survival of fifteen variables (gender, age, smoking status, cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, fever, chest pain, sputum, metastasis number, Karnofsky performance status, pT, pN, TNM stage, cytotoxic chemoterapy) were assessed.

Results: Median age was 55 years (38-83). Most patients were male (63.6%) and stage IV (59.1%). Twenty-one patients (47.7%) received cytotoxic chemotherapy (platinum-based regimens) for metastatic disease. Objective response rate was 33.3% (4 partial, 3 complete responses). Stable disease was observed in nine in patients (42.8%). Disease progression was noted in 5 (23.8%). The median OS for all patients was 12 months (95%CI, 2.08-22.9 months). Independent predictors for overall survival were: Karnofsky performance status (HR:3.30, p 0.009), pN (HR:3.81, p 0.018), TNM stage (HR:6.49, p 0.012) and hemoptysis (HR:2.31, p 0.046).

Conclusions: Karnofsky performance status, pN, TNM stage and hemoptysis appear to have significant impact on predicting patient survival in cases of BAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.7.4365DOI Listing
March 2014

Role of 14-3-3σ in resistance to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Cell Biol Int 2013 Jan 14;37(1):78-86. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Department of Medical Biology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova 35100 Izmir, Turkey.

The efficacies of chemotherapeutic agents are often limited by side effects and acquired drug resistance. We have investigated whether the differential expression pattern of 14-3-3σ affects cisplatin response in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Two pairs of parental/cisplatin resistant cell lines (A549/CRA549 and Calu1/CR-Calu1) and clinical lung cancer biopsy samples were analysed for 14-3-3σ expression. Cell viability was assessed by WST assay; and 14-3-3σ expression was suppressed by siRNA transfection. 14-3-3σ mRNA expression increased in CR-A549 and CR-Calu1 compared with their cisplatin-sensitive parental A549 and Calu1 cell lines. But when 14-3-3σ expression was suppressed, elevated cisplatin response was seen in A549 and CR-Calu1 cell lines. Increased 14-3-3σ expression might also account for reduced cisplatin response in vivo, since, 14-3-3σ expression in clinical biopsy samples obtained from lung cancer patients undergoing cisplatin-based chemotherapy significantly higher in the non-responder compared with the responder group. We therefore propose that increased 14-3-3σ expression is correlated with cisplatin response in non-small cell lung cancer cells; monitoring its expression might become useful in the future in predicting poor outcome to cisplatin treatment and/or the verification of acquired cisplatin resistance in lung cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10006DOI Listing
January 2013

Can we use CT pulmonary angiography as an alternative to echocardiography in determining right ventricular dysfunction and its severity in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism?

Jpn J Radiol 2013 Mar 21;31(3):172-8. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Department of Chest Disease, School of Medicine, Ege University, Bornova, 35100 Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: Our aim was to investigate the role of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and massive pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively involved a total of 61 patients. In CTPAs, pulmonary arterial obstruction index (PAOI), right ventricular/left ventricular diameter ratio (RV/LV), and superior vena cava (SVC) diameters were calculated, followed by echocardiography (ECHO), and clinical results were evaluated based on the reports available.

Results: CTPA findings that included PAOI, RV/LV ratio, and SVC diameter were, respectively, 54.9 ± 22.7 %, 1.58 ± 0.51, and 20.3 ± 0.2 mm in patients with RVD on ECHO, whereas corresponding values were, respectively, 37.8 ± 24.2 %, 1.32 ± 0.47, and 18.4 ± 3.3 mm in those without RVD (respectively, p = 0.006, p = 0.038, and p = 0.026). PAOI was 63.3 ± 22.0 % in patients among whom massive PTE was detected and 43.1 ± 23.9 % in the group without massive PTE (p = 0.01). As for mortality; given an RV/LV ratio >1.0, this ratio had 100 % sensitivity and 35.6 % specificity, whereas given a PAOI of ≥50 %, sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 % and 57.8 %, respectively.

Conclusion: We concluded that in the patients with PTE, PAOI ≥50 % and RV/LV >1.0 in CTPA could be helpful to demonstrate RVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-012-0164-6DOI Listing
March 2013

Cisplatin resistance induced by decreased apoptotic activity in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines.

Cell Biol Int 2012 Mar;36(3):261-5

Department of Medical Biology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

We have investigated defective steps in apoptosis that might account for the development of resistance. For this purpose, A549 and Calu1 NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer) cell lines were treated with cisplatin to obtain resistant sub-lines. Gene expression profiles and the phosphorylation status of the BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-XL-antagonist, causing cell death) protein were determined for each cell line. Cell death and cytochrome c release were analysed after treating cell lines with their appropriate cisplatin doses. Gene expression of BAD, Bid, caspases 4 and 6 were clearly decreased in the resistant cell lines, and the differential phosphorylation status of BAD also seemed to play a role in the development of cisplatin resistance. Since this is a new cisplatin-resistant Calu1 cell line, it is noteworthy that DNA fragmentation, apoptotic cell ratio and cytochrome c levels were most decreased in the CR-Calu1 cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CBI20110329DOI Listing
March 2012

Predictors of clinical outcome in acute pulmonary embolism: Correlation of CT pulmonary angiography with clinical, echocardiography and laboratory findings.

Acad Radiol 2011 Jan 30;18(1):47-53. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

Department of Radiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Rationale And Objectives: The aims of this study were to retrospectively evaluate whether computed tomographic (CT) parameters were predictors of in-hospital mortality within 30 days of CT imaging and to compare CT parameters with clinical, echocardiographic, and laboratory findings in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE).

Materials And Methods: A total of 122 patients (61 women, 61 men; mean age, 64 ± 15 years) with CT scans positive for acute PE were reviewed. Two independent readers who were blinded to clinical outcomes scored pulmonary artery obstructions, evaluated cardiovascular measurements, and assessed qualitative findings. Reports of echocardiographic, clinical, and laboratory findings and clinical outcome were reviewed. Results were correlated with patient outcomes using Wilcoxon's rank-sum, χ², and Student's t tests. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of patient outcomes.

Results: Thirteen patients (11%) died related to PE within 30 days in the hospital. There were significant differences in the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to inspired fraction of oxygen and in heart rate between survivors and nonsurvivors (P < .05). No CT or echocardiographic predictor was associated with mortality.

Conclusions: The ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to inspired fraction of oxygen and heart rate strongly predicted mortality due to PE. Neither CT pulmonary angiographic variables nor echocardiography could successfully predict in-hospital mortality in patients with acute PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2010.08.024DOI Listing
January 2011

Postoperative radiotherapy in the management of resected non-small-cell lung carcinoma: 10 years' experience in a single institute.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 Feb 20;76(2):433-9. Epub 2009 Apr 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Celal Bayar University Medical School, Manisa, Turkey.

Purpose: This study reports the long term outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with resection for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods And Materials: A total of 98 patients with resected NSCLC who received postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) between January 1994 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. The most frequently performed surgical procedure was lobectomy (59 patients), followed by pneumonectomy (25), wedge resection (8), and bilobectomy (6). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered as an adjuvant treatment in 71 patients, after a wedge resection in 8 patients, and after an R1 resection in 19 patients. The PORT was administered using a Co-60 source in 86 patients and 6-MV photons in 12 patients. A Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were calculated.

Results: Stages included I (n =13), II (n = 50), IIIA (n = 29), and IIIB (n = 6). After a median follow-up of 52 months median survival was 61 months. The 5-year overall survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free survival rates for the whole group were 50%, 78%, and 55% respectively. The RT dose, Karnofsky performance status, age, lateralization of the tumor, and pneumonectomy were independent prognostic factors for OAS; anemia and the number of involved lymph nodes were independent prognostic factors for LC.

Conclusions: Doses of PORT of greater than 54 Gy were associated with higher death rate in patients with left-sided tumor, which may indicate a risk of radiation-induced cardiac mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.02.010DOI Listing
February 2010

Patient attitudes towards chemotherapy and survival: a prospective observational study in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2009 Nov 4;66(2):250-6. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Cancer Institute & Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

This multicenter, non-interventional, prospective, observational study aimed to determine whether patients' attitude to chemotherapy is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are treated with gemcitabine-platinum. Chemonaive patients (n=1895) with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC not amenable to curative surgery or radiotherapy were treated with a combination of gemcitabine plus cisplatin/carboplatin and followed for a maximum of 18 months. Patients' attitude to treatment was measured on a 5-point scale and responses were used to assign patients to one of the three need categories: A, maximum extension of survival with the acceptance of high toxicity (60.0% of patients); B, maximum extension of survival only if coupled with normal lifestyle (26.1%); C, relief of symptoms (13.8%). Median survival varied significantly among the need categories (A=13.00 months, B=15.70 months, C=15.33 months; log-rank test P=0.0415). Patient attitude to treatment (need categories) was not a significant prognostic factor for survival after adjusting for known prognostic factors (P=0.0503). After adjusting for baseline differences, patients in this study had a significantly lower risk of death than patients in three randomized trials (hazard ratio 0.879; 95% confidence interval: 0.775, 0.998; P=0.0458). In conclusion, in this observational study, patient attitude to chemotherapy was not an independent prognostic factor of survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2009.01.022DOI Listing
November 2009

Effectiveness of gemcitabine as second-line chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

Tuberk Toraks 2008 ;56(1):74-80

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

The role of a second-line chemotherapy after an initial treatment with a platinum-based regimen remains largely undefined. In this retrospective clinical effectiveness study, gemcitabine as monotherapy was evaluated in the second-line chemotherapy in 34 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases that had been previously received chemotherapy and did not respond to the treatment or presented with relapses. Gemcitabine was given intravenous at a dose of 1250 mg/m2 on days one, eight every three weeks. Median age was 50 years and squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy (44.1%). No patient had a complete response, 7 (20.6%) patients had a partial response. The median survival was 29 weeks. The 1-year survival probability was estimated at 26.5%. Median time to disease progression was 13 weeks. Gemcitabine was well tolerated in this patient population. Among totally 119 chemotherapy cycles, we observed grade 3 and 4 toxicities only in 2.5% of cycles. As a result of the study, single agent gemcitabine is found to be tolerable and to have moderate effectiveness in the second-line chemotherapy in NSCLC. It should be placed among treatment options.
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April 2009

Pleural fluid neopterin levels in tuberculous pleurisy.

Clin Biochem 2007 Aug 27;40(12):876-80. Epub 2007 Apr 27.

Department of Chest Disease, School of Medicine, Ege University, Bornova, 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Objectives: Neopterin is produced by stimulated macrophages under the influence of gamma interferon of lymphocyte origin. It is regarded as a biochemical marker of cell-mediated immune response. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of pleural fluid neopterin levels in tuberculous pleurisy in comparison with adenosine deaminase activity.

Design And Methods: Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and neopterin levels were measured in 16 patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TP) and 19 patients with malignant pleurisy (MP). ADA activity was determined by a colorimetric method, whereas neopterin levels were determined by a reversed-phase liquid chromatography technique. All values were given as median (min-max).

Results: The mean age was 45.43+/-20.39 years in the TP group and 60.42+/-11.02 years in the MP group (p=0.026). The median pleural fluid ADA activity was 51.75 U/L (3.50-62.40 U/L) in the TP group and was 2.30 U/L (1-8.20 U/L) in the MP group. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The median pleural fluid neopterin levels were 13.15 nmol/L (1.86-59.50 nmol/L) and 2.44 nmol/L (0.92-27.60 nmol/L) in the TP group and the MP group, respectively (p=0.021). In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of pleural fluid neopterin concentrations, receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis was performed.

Conclusion: Pleural fluid neopterin concentration is significantly higher in TP when compared to MP, however when compared, its clinical use as a diagnostic marker is not valuable as ADA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2007.04.009DOI Listing
August 2007

[Comparing cisplatin plus etoposide with combination of mitomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients].

Tuberk Toraks 2006 ;54(2):161-7

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Cisplatin-etoposide (CE) and mitomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin (MIC) combinations are active conventional regimens in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this retrospective study, we compared response rates, survival, duration of response, time-to-progression and toxicity of CE with MIC regimens in treatment of previously untreated patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC. We first determined the patients with NSCLC who had stage IIIB or IV and received CE or MIC between January 1997 and December 2002 in our clinic. Out of the eligible patients, 45 received MIC, 167 received CE. In addition 45 MIC patients, we included 46 of the 167 CE patients in the study by selecting one patient of every three patient randomly. In CE protocol, cisplatin 80 mg/m(2) on day 1 and etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1, 2, 3 (every three weeks); in MIC protocol, mitomycin 6 mg/m(2), ifosfamide 3 g/m(2), cisplatin 50 mg/m(2) on day 1 (every three weeks) were performed. For statistical analysis, chi-square, t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and logistic regression analysis were used by SPSS 11.5 computer program. The overall response rate was 33.3% in the MIC arm and 34.8% in the CE arm. A respective median survival was 28 weeks for the MIC arm and 35 weeks for the CE arm. Median duration of response and time to progression in each groups were 23 and 14 weeks in MIC arm and 32 and 22 weeks respectively. There was no statistical difference for response rates, duration of survival and response, time top progression and toxicity between the two arms. We consider that the combinations of MIC and CE have similar activity and they can be used confidently in advanced NSCLC.
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October 2006

Tc-99m MIBI SPECT in prediction of prognosis in patients with small cell lung cancer.

Ann Nucl Med 2006 May;20(4):269-75

Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the degree of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake and its retention in delayed imaging in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was correlated with the response to multiagent chemotherapy and to investigate if there was a relationship between the survival time of patients with SCLC and Tc-99m MIBI SPECT tumor uptake parameters at the time of diagnosis.

Methods: Between 1998 and by December 2004, 40 patients with SCLC were studied with Tc-99m MIBI SPECT at the time of diagnosis. The patients were classified by a follow-up CT as good responders (complete or partial remission) and poor responders (stable disease or progressive disease). Following i.v. administration of 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI, SPECT imaging at 30 minutes (early) and 2 hours (delayed) was performed. Regions of interests were placed over the tumors and contralateral normal lung tissue on one transverse section. The uptake ratio of the lesion to that in the contralateral normal lung was obtained from early images (early ratio; ER) as well as delayed images (delayed ratio; DR). The retention index (RI%) was measured as: RI% = [(DR-ER)/ER] x 100. Tc-99m MIBI tumor uptake parameters were compared with chemotherapeutic response and survival time.

Results: Of 40 patients, 29 patients were good responders (72.5%) and 11 patients were poor responders (27.5%). RI% of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT in the group of good response was significantly higher than in that with poor response (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to ER or DR values. Four of 40 patients were still alive with disease (10%). The patient survival time varied from 1 to 70 months (mean survival time = 12.9 +/- 13.4 months). There was no significant difference between the survival time of patients with respect to ER or DR of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT imaging. When median RI% was accepted as a cut-off value (-3.85%), patients with higher RI% values had a longer survival time (12 months) when compared with those with low RI% (8 months), p < 0.05.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that Tc-99m MIBI SPECT could accurately predict the chemotherapy response in patients with SCLC. RI% of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT is recommended to differentiate patients with a poor response to chemotherapy and good responders, and RI% of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT appears as the only parameter that may be useful in predicting the survival of patients with SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02984643DOI Listing
May 2006

Respiratory impairment due to asbestos exposure in brake-lining workers.

Environ Res 2003 Mar;91(3):151-6

Chest Disease Department, School of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

There is extensive evidence that exposure to asbestos causes pulmonary parenchymal fibrosis, pleural disease, and malignant neoplasm in asbestos-exposed workers. However, few data concerning brake-lining workers are available in the literature. In this study, we aimed to assess the long-term effects of chrysotile asbestos exposure on lung function and the risk of asbestos-related diseases in brake-lining workers. Seventy-four asbestos-exposed workers who processed brake-lining products and 12 unexposed office workers were offered pulmonary function tests (spirometry and transfer factor) in 1992 and 1999. In 1999, the mean duration of asbestos exposure was 10.00+/-4.07 and 11.02+/-4.81 years (7-31 years) in nonsmoking and smoking asbestos workers, respectively. Transfer factor (T(L), CO) and transfer coefficient (K(CO)) decline were significant in the 7-year follow-up in both smoking and nonsmoking asbestos workers. However, lung function indices of the control group, whom were all current smokers; were also found to be decreased, including FEF(75), T(L), CO and K(CO). We found minimal reticular changes in 10 asbestos workers who were all current smokers, they underwent high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest and we found that they had peribronchial thickening resulting from smoking. As a conclusion, even in the absence of radiographic asbestosis, T(L), CO and K(CO) may decrease after a mean 10-year duration of exposure to asbestos in brake-lining workers and this is more noticeable with cigarette burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0013-9351(02)00063-4DOI Listing
March 2003
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