Publications by authors named "Gurpreet Singh"

470 Publications

Multiobjective Optimization of Chemically Assisted Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) on Inconel 625 Tubes Using Genetic Algorithm: Modeling and Microstructural Analysis.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jul 23;13(8). Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology, Mikolajczyka 5, 45-271 Opole, Poland.

The demand for the surface integrity of complex structures is drastically increasing in the field of aerospace, marine and automotive industry. Therefore, Inconel alloy, due to its superior attributes, has a wide scope for the improvement in surface integrity. To achieve the precise surface finish and enhance the process performance, process optimization is necessary. In current paper, chemically assisted MAF process parameters were optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA) approach during finishing of Inconel 625 tubes. Regression models were developed for improvement in internal surface finish (PIISF), improvement in external surface finish (PIESF), and material removal (MR) using Design expert software. Then, the surface microstructure of Inconel 625 tubes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA analysis predicts that processing time and abrasive size have the highest percentage contribution in improving the surface finish and material removal. Multioptimization results suggested to set the level of processing time (A) at 75 min, surface rotational speed (B) at 60 RPM, weight % of abrasives (C) at 30%, chemical concentration (D) at 500 gm/lt and abrasive size (E) at 40 microns to obtain optimal parameters for PIISF, PIESF and MR responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13081168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331377PMC
July 2022

Neuropsychological, behavioral, and quality-of-life outcomes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease treated with nonmyeloablative matched sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplantation: A case series.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 Jul 26:e29893. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background/objectives: Despite advances in the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD), cerebrovascular and cognitive insults can have lifelong consequences. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established curative therapy, and recent studies have demonstrated efficacy with reduced toxicity nonmyeloablative (NMA) regimens, but little is known about neuropsychological outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe neuropsychological, behavioral, and quality-of-life outcomes with medical correlates in children with SCD who received an NMA matched sibling donor (MSD) HCT.

Design/methods: Retrospective cohort analysis of nine recipients with hemoglobin SS SCD who underwent MSD HCT using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) NMA protocol.

Results: Mean full-scale intellectual functioning (FSIQ) was average pre-HCT (FSIQ = 92.1, SD 9.0; n = 8) and 2 years post-HCT (mean FSIQ = 96.6; SD 11.1; N = 9). Neuropsychological functioning was largely average across all cognitive domains, and no pre/post-HCT differences were found to be statistically significant given the small sample size. However, effect sizes revealed moderate improvements in processing speed (Cohen's d = .72) and verbal memory (Cohen's d = .60) post-HCT, and declines in measures of attention (Cohen's d = -.54) and fine motor speed and dexterity (Cohen's d = -.94). Parents endorsed better quality of life (Cohen's d = .91), less impact of SCD on their family, and less worry about their child's future (Cohen's d = 1.44).

Conclusion: Neuropsychological functioning in a sample of children and adolescents treated uniformly with NMA MSD HCT remained stable or improved in most cognitive domains, and improvements in quality of life and family functioning were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29893DOI Listing
July 2022

Rapid and sensitive detection of ovarian cancer biomarker using a portable single peak Raman detection method.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 21;12(1):12459. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Translational Biophotonics Laboratory, Institute of Bioengineering and Bioimaging, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore.

Raman spectroscopy (RS) is a widely used non-destructive technique for biosensing applications because of its ability to detect unique 'fingerprint' spectra of biomolecules from the vibrational bands. To detect these weak fingerprint spectra, a complex detection system consisting of expensive detectors and optical components are needed. As a result, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method were used to increase the Raman signal multifold beyond 10 times. However, complexity of the entire Raman detection system can be greatly reduced if a short wavelength region/unique single spectral band can distinctly identify the investigating analyte, thereby reducing the need of multiple optical components to capture the entire frequency range of Raman spectra. Here we propose the development of a rapid, single peak Raman technique for the detection of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC)s through haptoglobin (Hp), a prognostic biomarker. Hp concentration in ovarian cyst fluid (OCF) can be detected and quantified using Raman spectroscopy-based in vitro diagnostic assay. The uniqueness of the Raman assay is that, only in the presence of the analyte Hp, the assay reagent undergoes a biochemical reaction that results in product formation. The unique Raman signature of the assay output falls within the wavenumber region 1500-1700 cm and can be detected using our single peak Raman system. The diagnostic performance of our Raman system had 100.0% sensitivity, 85.0% specificity, 100.0% negative predictive value and 84.2% positive predictive value when compared to gold standard paraffin histology in a proof-of-concept study on 36 clinical OCF samples. When compared to blood-based serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) levels, the Raman system-based assay had higher diagnostic accuracy when compared to CA125, especially in early-stage EOCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13859-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9304383PMC
July 2022

Effects of Left Bundle Branch Block and Pacemaker Implantation on Left Ventricular Systolic Function After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) and left bundle branch block (LBBB) frequency after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and their effect on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remain controversial. We evaluated the incidence of PPI and new-onset LBBB after TAVI and their impact on LVEF at 6-month follow-up. Moreover, the impact of right ventricular (RV) pacing burden on changes in LVEF after TAVI was analyzed. The electrocardiograms of 377 patients (age 80 ± 7 years, 52% male) treated with TAVI were collected at baseline, after the procedure, at discharge, and at each outpatient follow-up. LVEF was measured at baseline before TAVI and 6 months after the procedure. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the occurrence of LBBB, the need for PPI, or the absence of new conduction abnormalities. In patients with PPI, the influence of RV pacing burden on LVEF was analyzed. New-onset LBBB after TAVI occurred in 92 patients (24%), and PPI was required in 55 patients (15%). In patients without new conduction abnormalities, LVEF significantly increased during follow-up (56 ± 14% to 61 ± 12%, p <0.001). Patients with a baseline LVEF ≤50% presented with a significant recovery in LVEF, although the recovery was less pronounced in patients with new-onset LBBB. Moreover, patients with a baseline LVEF ≤50% who received PPI showed an improvement in LVEF at 6 months regardless of the RV pacing burden. New-onset LBBB hampers the recovery of LVEF after TAVI. Among patients with an LVEF ≤50%, pressure overload relief counteracts the effects of new-onset LBBB or RV pacing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.06.014DOI Listing
July 2022

Expression of Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) as a Correlate of Concern in Triple-negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2022 Jul 22;30(6):446-452. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Departments of Immunopathology.

Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a highly aggressive cancer with poor outcome and lacking specific diagnostic, prognostic, or targeted therapeutic strategies, constitutes roughly 20% of all breast cancer cases. TNBC cells lack receptors for estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor. The effort continues to find a suitable correlate that could serve as a TNBC biomarker, or as therapeutic target, or both.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study was performed with 88 TNBC and 74 non-TNBC patients who had undergone mastectomy/lumpectomy with axillary clearance for carcinoma breast. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out for levels of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), encoded by F2RL1 gene, and staining scores were calculated, based on intensity and percentage positivity.

Results: PAR2 levels were markedly upregulated in TNBC patients, compared with patients with other breast cancer subtypes. Amongst different non-TNBC subtypes, higher expression was noted in luminal B (88.8%) and HER2+ (100%), compared with luminal A (52.5%). PAR2 levels were significantly high in TNBC patients with age more than 40 years than corresponding patients of non-TNBC group (P=0.0017). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant increase in levels of PAR2 expression in lymph node negative (P=0.0096) and early stage (P=0.005) of TNBC versus non-TNBC patients. PAR2 staining of ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma revealed lower expression in invasive component.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that PAR2 levels constitute a correlate of concern for TNBC, tying in with a recent report that higher levels of F2RL1 gene expression correlate with poorer disease-free, as well as overall survival in TNBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAI.0000000000001025DOI Listing
July 2022

A Smart Solution for Cancer Patient Monitoring Based on Internet of Medical Things Using Machine Learning Approach.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 24;2022:2056807. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is a huge, exciting new phenomenon that is changing the world of technology and innovating various industries, including healthcare. It has specific applications and changes in the medical world based on what can be done for clinical workflow models. The first and most fundamental thing that IoMT does in healthcare is to bring a flood of new data into medical processes. In this study, an efficient Internet of Medical Things based cancer detection model was proposed. In fact, for many, new fitness monitors and watches are one of the best examples on the Internet; these mobile, portable, wearable devices can record real-time heart rate, blood pressure, and eye movement of cancer patients. These details are sent to doctors or anywhere else. The proposed method leads to a kind of big data renaissance in the health service. The proposed model gets more accuracy while comparing with the existing models. This will help the doctors to analyze the patients' health report and provides better treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2056807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9249483PMC
June 2022

Tc-99m-tamoxifen: A novel diagnostic imaging agent for estrogen receptor-expressing breast cancer patients.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2022 May;28(3):275-284

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

PURPOSE The aim of the study was to radiolabel, characterize, and perform in vitro and in vivo assessment of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tamoxifen for screening ER expressing lesions in breast cancer patients. METHODS In this study, tamoxifen has been radiolabeled with Tc-99m via Tc-99m-tricarbonyl core. The characterization and quality control tests of Tc-99m-tamoxifen were performed. In vitro recep- tor binding and blocking studies were performed in both positive control (MCF-7) and negative control cell lines (MDA-MB-231). Normal biodistribution studies were performed in female Wistar albino rats. The pilot clinical studies were performed in 4 ER-expressing breast cancer patients. Of the 4 patients, 1 was on tamoxifen therapy. All 4 patients had also undergone Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography. RESULTS Tamoxifen was radiolabeled with Tc-99m via Tc-99m-tricarbonyl core with more than 95% radio- chemical yield. Mass spectra showed a peak corresponding to the molecular weight of Tc-99m- tricarbonyl and Tc-99m-tamoxifen. The site of binding of Tc-99m-tricarbonyl with tamoxifen was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The Tc-99m-tamoxifen showed 30% binding with MCF-7 and only 1%-2% receptor binding with MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Also, the percentage of receptor binding was drastically reduced (up to 72%) when ER was saturated with 50 times the excess molar ratio of unlabeled tamoxifen. In a pilot patient study, Tc-99m-tamoxifen uptake was observed in primary and metastatic lesions. However, no uptake was observed in a patient who was on tamoxifen therapy. The uptake of F-18-FDG was noted in all the patients. CONCLUSION Tamoxifen was radiolabeled with an in-house-synthesized Tc-99m-tricarbonyl core. The radio- labeled complex has been characterized and evaluated for receptor specificity in in vitro and in vivo studies. Also, this is the first clinical study using Tc-99m-tamoxifen for imaging ER. More patients need to be evaluated to further explore the role of Tc-99m-tamoxifen in ER-expressing lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/dir.2022.201051DOI Listing
May 2022

The medicinal perspective of 2,4-thiazolidinediones based ligands as antimicrobial, antitumor and antidiabetic agents: A review.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2022 Jun 17:e2100517. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, India.

2,4-Thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD), commonly known as glitazone, is a ubiquitous heterocyclic pharmacophore possessing a plethora of pharmacological activities and offering a vast opportunity for structural modification. The diverse range of biological activities endowed with a novel mode of action, low cost, and easy synthesis has attracted the attention of medicinal chemists. Several researchers have integrated the TZD core with different structural fragments to develop a wide range of lead molecules against various clinical disorders. The most common sites for structural modifications at the 2,4-TZD nucleus are the N-3 and the active methylene at C-5. The review covers the recent development of TZD derivatives such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antidiabetic agents. Various 2,4-TZD based agents or drugs, which are either under clinical development or in the market, are discussed in the study. Different synthetic methodologies for synthesizing the 2,4-TZD core are also included in the manuscript. The importance of various substitutions at N-3 and C-5 and the mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships are also discussed. We hope this study will serve as a valuable tool for the scientific community engaged in the structural exploitation of the 2,4-TZD core for developing novel drug m\olecules for life-threatening ailments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202100517DOI Listing
June 2022

Insilico prediction and pharmacokinetic studies on glucosinolates as potential drug and key inhibitor molecule for lanosterol-14α-demethylase, fungal membrane biosynthesis.

Authors:
Gurpreet Singh

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Biotechnology, Lyallpur Khalsa College, Jalandhar.

Background: Glucosinolates (b-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are a water-soluble organic anion with sulfur- and nitrogen-containing glycosides which are found in abundance in Cruciferous plants. Ergosterol (ERG13) lanosterol-14α-demethylase protein has been targeted for inihibition studies as a key regulator enzyme of fungal membrane biosynthesis.

Objectives: To understand the molecular mechanism of inhibition of Ergosterol (ERG13) lanosterol-14α-demethylase by various phytochemicals from brassicals i.e. glucosinolates and their potential role as putative drug molecules Methodology: In this study, insilico analysis were performed to predict the molecular basis of various glucosinolates as a potential inhibitor of lanosterol-14α-demethylase protein which is a key regulator of fungal membrane biosynthesis and their pharmacodynamics and toxicity profile. 3d Structures of various glucosinolates were retrieved from Pubchem and the target protein, lanosterol-14α-demethylase (Pdb ID- 4lxj) was retrieved from the RCSB protein data bank. Molecular docking and interactions were carried out using the PyRx software using AutoDOCK tool bar with default parameters. DruLiTo, ORISIS web servers were used to predict various drug likeliness predictions and Lipinski's Rule of 5 whereas admetSAR was used for prediction of toxicity and PASS Program was used to study the antifungal and antimicrobial properties of these compounds.

Results: This study shows that among the different compounds screened, gluconasturtiin, Glucotropaeolin), Indolylmethyl-Glucosinolate showed highest binding energies of -8.7 kcal/mol, -8.5 kcal/mol, -8.3 kcal/mol with the lanosterol-14α-demethylase respectively. Further all the compounds follow the Lipinski rule as well as they are found to be non-carcinogenic and non-cytotoxic in nature. These compounds also show the antifungal properties.

Conclusion: This study thus reveals that various glucosinolates interact with the ERG13 enzyme at various aminoacid positions which behaves a catalytic site thus indicates the probable mechanism of inactivation and subsequently these can be used as potential drug molecules. Invitro studies can be taken to further examine the utility of these compounds as antifungal agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163819666220615142933DOI Listing
June 2022

Prognostic Implications of Change in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Am J Cardiol 2022 Aug 9;177:90-99. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Turku Heart Center, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Reduced left ventricular (LV) systolic function is associated with worse prognosis in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We aimed to examine the changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after TAVI among patients with varying baseline LVEF. Moreover, variables associated with lack of LVEF improvement were identified and the association with long-term outcomes was investigated. A total of 560 patients (age 80 ± 7 years, 53% men) with severe AS who underwent transfemoral TAVI between 2007 and 2019 were selected. LVEF was assessed from transthoracic echocardiography at baseline (before TAVI) and at 6 and 12 months after TAVI. Patients were stratified according to baseline LVEF: (1) LVEF ≥50%, (2) LVEF 40% to 49%, and (3) LVEF <40%. The clinical end point was ≥5% LVEF improvement. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Patients with baseline LVEF<40% showed greater increase in LVEF than those with baseline LVEF 40% to 49% and LVEF ≥50% (from 33% ± 6% to 43% ± 10%, p <0.001; from 45% ± 3% to 52% ± 8%, p <0.001; and from 58% ± 5% to 59% ± 7%, p = 0.012, respectively, p for interaction <0.001). Coronary artery disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06 to 3.06], p = 0.031), myocardial infarction (OR 2.07 [95% CI 1.19 to 3.61], p = 0.010), and permanent pacemaker (OR: 1.93 [95% CI 1.25 to 3.00], p = 0.003) were independently associated with the lack of ≥5% LVEF improvement. During a median follow-up of 3.8 (interquartile range 2.6 to 5.2) years, 176 patients died (31%). Patients with ≥5% LVEF improvement had similar outcomes compared with those with <5% LVEF improvement (log-rank p = 0.89). In conclusion, patients with severe AS and baseline LVEF <40% had the greatest improvement in LVEF at 1-year follow-up after TAVI. Coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and permanent pacemaker were associated with lack of LVEF improvement. However, LVEF improvement at 12 months was not associated with long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.04.060DOI Listing
August 2022

Prognostic implications of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in moderate aortic stenosis.

Heart 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands

Objective: To investigate the prognostic impact of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in patients with moderate aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved LV systolic function.

Methods: Patients with a first diagnosis of moderate AS (aortic valve area >1.0 and ≤1.5 cm) and preserved LV systolic function (LV ejection fraction ≥50%) were identified. LV diastolic function was evaluated using echocardiographic criteria according to the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines. Clinical outcomes were defined as all-cause mortality and a composite of all-cause mortality and aortic valve replacement (AVR).

Results: Of 1247 patients (age 74±10 years, 47% men), 535 (43%) had LV diastolic dysfunction at baseline. Patients with LV diastolic dysfunction showed significantly higher mortality rates at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow-up (13%, 30% and 41%, respectively) when compared with patients with normal LV diastolic function (6%, 17% and 29%, respectively) (p<0.001). On multivariable analysis, LV diastolic dysfunction was independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.368; 95% CI 1.085 to 1.725; p=0.008) and the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and AVR (HR 1.241; 95% CI 1.035 to 1.488; p=0.020).

Conclusions: LV diastolic dysfunction is independently associated with all-cause mortality and the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and AVR in patients with moderate AS and preserved LV systolic function. Assessment of LV diastolic function therefore contributes significantly to the risk stratification of patients with moderate AS. Future clinical trials are needed to investigate whether patients with moderate AS and LV diastolic dysfunction may benefit from earlier valve intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2022-320886DOI Listing
June 2022

Health related quality of life in children with sickle cell disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Blood Rev 2022 May 25:100982. Epub 2022 May 25.

Hematology, Oncology, Transplant Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, 28 Oki Dr NW, Calgary, AB T3B 6A8, Canada; Department of Oncology, Division of Psychosocial Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada. Electronic address:

This review had three aims: 1) describe the measures used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in pediatric patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease (SCD); 2) document the biopsychosocial factors related to HRQL in pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD; and 3) complete a meta-analysis comparing HRQL in pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD to healthy controls. Included studies were published in English, quantitatively assessed HRQL as a primary aim, in both SCD and controls, and included participants between 0 and 21 years of age. The final review included 66 articles, with a total of 8642 participants with SCD, 4 months-21 years of age, and 62,458 controls, 5-27 years of age. HRQL was predominately measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core and Sickle Cell Disease Module. Meta-analyses revealed children with SCD had significantly worse HRQL compared to healthy controls (standardized mean difference = -0.93, 95% CI = -1.25, -0.61, p < 0.00001). Worse HRQL was associated with more severe SCD, female sex, and pain. The findings indicate that children with SCD are at risk for worse HRQL compared to their healthy peers and their HRQL may be impacted by several biopsychosocial factors. Future research is needed to examine how sociocultural factors uniquely impact this population and their overall quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2022.100982DOI Listing
May 2022

Music as an aid to Allay Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgeries under Spinal Anesthesia.

Noise Health 2022 Jan-Mar;24(112):7-12

Department of Anaesthesia, GGS Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

Introduction: Patients undergoing surgery are anxious owing to the surgery, anesthesia, and unfamiliar environment of the operation theater. This anxiety can hamper the health and recovery of the patients. Among various nonpharmacologic modalities available, music can be used as a coping strategy to change uncomfortable conditions to the pleasant ones.

Aims: To evaluate the role of music on perioperative anxiety, hemodynamic parameters, and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries under spinal anesthesia.

Settings And Design: Tertiary care hospital, randomized control trial.

Materials And Methods: : The study was conducted after approval by Hospital Ethical Committee on 70 adult patients of either gender scheduled to undergo lower limb surgeries under spinal anesthesia. In group M (n = 35), patients listened to standard relaxation music, and in group C (n = 35), patients listened to standard operation theater noise tape through noise canceling headphones. The intraoperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Perioperative anxiety was assessed using visual analog scale for anxiety. Sedation score was observed using observer's assessment of alertness/sedation scale. Patient's satisfaction was also assessed in both the groups.

Statistical Analysis: Student t test, Chi-squared test, and paired sample t test.

Results: : In group M, heart rate was lower when compared with group C. The difference was statistically significant at 10 minutes of assessment (P = 0.003) and statistically highly significant (P < 0.001) for rest of the time period. Statistically significant lower respiratory rate was there in group M when compared with group C (P = 0.05). Patients were more satisfied in the music group when compared with control group.

Conclusion: The potential of music therapy can be used to allay patient anxiety, stabilize hemodynamics, and improve patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/nah.nah_58_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239141PMC
June 2022

Characterization of caspase-2 inhibitors based on specific sites of caspase-2-mediated proteolysis.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2022 May 31:e2200095. Epub 2022 May 31.

Institute of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Since the discovery of the caspase-2 (Casp2)-mediated ∆tau314 cleavage product and its associated impact on tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, the design of selective Casp2 inhibitors has become a focus in medicinal chemistry research. In the search for new lead structures with respect to Casp2 selectivity and drug-likeness, we have taken an approach by looking more closely at the specific sites of Casp2-mediated proteolysis. Using seven selected protein cleavage sequences, we synthesized a peptide series of 53 novel molecules and studied them using in vitro pharmacology, molecular modeling, and crystallography. Regarding Casp2 selectivity, AcITV(Dab)D-CHO (23) and AcITV(Dap)D-CHO (26) demonstrated the best selectivity (1-6-fold), although these trends were only moderate. However, some analogous tetrapeptides, most notably AcDKVD-CHO (45), showed significantly increased Casp3 selectivities (>100-fold). Tetra- and tripeptides display decreased or no Casp2 affinity, supporting the assumption that a motif of five amino acids is required for efficient Casp2 inhibition. Overall, the results provide a reasonable basis for the development of both selective Casp2 and Casp3 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202200095DOI Listing
May 2022

Hybrid Deep Learning Approach for Automatic Detection in Musculoskeletal Radiographs.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Information Contents, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 01897, Korea.

The practice of Deep Convolution neural networks in the field of medicine has congregated immense success and significance in present situations. Previously, researchers have developed numerous models for detecting abnormalities in musculoskeletal radiographs of upper extremities, but did not succeed in achieving respectable accuracy in the case of finger radiographs. A novel deep neural network-based hybrid architecture named ComDNet-512 is proposed in this paper to efficiently detect the bone abnormalities in the musculoskeletal radiograph of a patient. ComDNet-512 comprises a three-phase pipeline structure: compression, training of the dense neural network, and progressive resizing. The ComDNet-512 hybrid model is trained with finger radiographs samples to make a binary prediction, i.e., normal or abnormal bones. The proposed model showed phenomenon outcomes when cross-validated on the testing samples of arthritis patients and gives many superior results when compared with state-of-the-art practices. The model is able to achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) equal to 0.894 (sensitivity = 0.941 and specificity = 0.847). The Precision, Recall, F1 Score, and Kappa values, recorded as 0.86, 0.94, 0.89, and 0.78, respectively, are better than any of the previous models'. With an increasing appearance of enormous cases of musculoskeletal conditions in people, deep learning-based computational solutions can play a big role in performing automated detections in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology11050665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9138246PMC
April 2022

Secondary metabolites produced by Macrophomina phaseolina, a fungal root endophyte of Brugmansia aurea, using classical and epigenetic manipulation approach.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Microbial Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu, 180001, India.

Endophytic fungi are rich sources of structurally complex chemical scaffolds with interesting biological activities. However, their metabolome is still unknown, making them appealing for novel compound discovery. To maximize the number of secondary metabolites produced from a single microbial source, we used the "OSMAC (one strain-many compounds) approach." In potato dextrose medium, M. phaseolina produced phomeolic acid (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), and a volatile compound 1,4-benzene-diol. Incorporating an epigenetic modifier, sodium valproate, affected the metabolite profile of the fungus. It produced 3-acetyl-3-methyl dihydro-furan-2(3H)-one (3) and methyl-2-(methyl-thio)-butyrate (4), plus volatile chemicals: butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), di-methyl-formamide, 3-amino-1-propanol, and 1,4-benzenediol, 2-amino-1-(O-methoxyphenyl) propane. The structure of compounds 1-4 was established with the help of spectroscopic data. This study revealed first-time compounds 1-4 in the fungus M. phaseolina using a classical and epigenetic manipulation approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-022-00976-3DOI Listing
May 2022

Assessment of donor cell engraftment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell disease: A review of current and future methods.

Am J Hematol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Pediatrics and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only established curative treatment for sickle cell disease (SCD), a debilitating red blood cell (RBC) disorder with significant prevalence worldwide. Accurate assessment of RBC engraftment following HSCT is essential to evaluate the status of the graft and can enable early intervention to treat or prevent graft rejection. Currently, chimerism measurement is performed on whole blood samples, which mainly reflect white blood cell (WBC) chimerism. This approach has limitations in assessing engraftment in patients with SCD because RBCs engraft non-linearly with WBCs. Direct measures of RBC chimerism exist but are not routinely used. In this review, we critically examine the current methodologies for assessing donor engraftment; highlight the limitations of these different methods, and present emerging and novel technologies with the potential to improve clinical monitoring of RBC engraftment post-HSCT for SCD. Promising alternative methodologies include RBC-specific flow cytometry, RBC-specific RNA analysis, and quantification of plasma cell-free DNA derived specifically from nucleated RBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26599DOI Listing
May 2022

Characteristics of the new multiple rogue wave solutions to the fractional generalized CBS-BK equation.

J Adv Res 2022 May 13;38:131-142. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Mathematics, Sant Baba Bhag Singh University, Jalandhar 144030, India.

Introduction: The multiple Exp-function scheme is employed for searching the multiple soliton solutions for the fractional generalized Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff-Bogoyavlensky- Konopelchenko equation.

Objectives: Moreover, the Hirota bilinear technique is utilized to detecting the lump and interaction with two stripe soliton solutions.

Methods: The multiple Exp-function scheme and also, the semi-inverse variational principle will be used for the considered equation.

Results: We have obtained more than twelve sets of solutions including a combination of two positive functions as polynomial and two exponential functions. The graphs for various fractional-order are designed to contain three dimensional, density, and -curves plots. Then, the classes of rogue waves-type solutions to the fractional generalized Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff-Bogoyavlensky- Konopelchenko equation within the frame of the bilinear equation, is found.

Conclusion: Finally, a direct method which is called the semi-inverse variational principle method was used to obtain solitary waves of this considered model. These results can help us better understand interesting physical phenomena and mechanism. The dynamical structures of these gained lump and its interaction soliton solutions are analyzed and indicated in graphs by choosing suitable amounts. The existence conditions are employed to discuss the available got solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2021.09.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091935PMC
May 2022

Caspase-2 Inhibitor Blocks Tau Truncation and Restores Excitatory Neurotransmission in Neurons Modeling FTDP-17 Tauopathy.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2022 05 6;13(10):1549-1557. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

Synaptic and cognitive deficits mediated by a severe reduction in excitatory neurotransmission caused by a disproportionate accumulation of the neuronal protein tau in dendritic spines is a fundamental mechanism that has been found repeatedly in models of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and traumatic brain injury. Synapses thus damaged may contribute to dementia, among the most feared cause of debilitation in the elderly, and currently there are no treatments to repair them. Caspase-2 (Casp2) is an essential component of this pathological cascade. Although it is believed that Casp2 exerts its effects by hydrolyzing tau at aspartate-314, forming Δtau314, it is also possible that a noncatalytic mechanism is involved because catalytically dead Casp2 is biologically active in at least one relevant cellular pathway, that is, autophagy. To decipher whether the pathological effects of Casp2 on synaptic function are due to its catalytic or noncatalytic properties, we discovered and characterized a new Casp2 inhibitor, compound [p (Casp2) = 8.12], which is 123-fold selective versus Casp3 and >2000-fold selective versus Casp1, Casp6, Casp7, and Casp9. In an in vitro assay based on Casp2-mediated cleavage of tau, compound blocked the production of Δtau314. Importantly, compound prevented tau from accumulating excessively in dendritic spines and rescued excitatory neurotransmission in cultured primary rat hippocampal neurons expressing the P301S tau variant linked to FTDP-17, a familial tauopathy. These results support the further development of small-molecule Casp2 inhibitors to treat synaptic deficits in tauopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00100DOI Listing
May 2022

Self-supporting carbon-rich SiOC ceramic electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and aqueous supercapacitors.

RSC Adv 2021 Oct 3;11(56):35440-35454. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University Manhattan KS 66506 USA

Fabrication of precursor-derived ceramic fibers as electrodes for energy storage applications remains largely unexplored. Within this work, three little known polymer-derived ceramic (PDC)-based fibers are being studied systemically as potential high-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy devices. We report fabrication of precursor-derived SiOC fibermats one-step spinning from various compositions of siloxane oligomers followed by stabilization and pyrolysis at 800 °C. Electron microscopy, Raman, FTIR, XPS, and NMR spectroscopies reveal transformation from polymer to ceramic stages of the various SiOC ceramic fibers. The ceramic samples are a few microns in diameter with a free carbon phase embedded in the amorphous Si-O-C structure. The free carbon phase improves the electronic conductivity and provides major sites for ion storage, whereas the Si-O-C structure contributes to high efficiency. The self-standing electrodes in lithium-ion battery half-cells deliver a charge capacity of 866 mA h g with a high initial coulombic efficiency of 72%. As supercapacitor electrode, SiOC fibers maintain 100% capacitance over 5000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra05968hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9042965PMC
October 2021

Computational Design of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Drug Delivery Systems: A Comprehensive Review.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab India.

Background: Nowadays, biomedical research has been focusing on the design and development of new drug delivery systems that provide efficient drug targeting. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted wide interest and play an indispensable role as a drug carrier. Drug delivery systems based on MIPs have been frequently cited in the literature. They are cross-linked polymers that contain binding sites according to the complementary structure of the template molecules. They possess distinctive features of structure predictability and site recognition specificity. Versatile applications of MIPs include purification, biosensing, bioseparation, artificial antibodies, and drug delivery. An ideal MIPs should include features such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stability.

Objective: In this article, we elaborate the historic growth, synthesis, and preparation of different MIPs and present an updated summary of recent advances in the development of new drug delivery system which are based on this technique. Their potential to deliver drugs in a controlled and targeted manner will also be discussed.

Conclusion: MIPs possess unique advantages, such as lower toxicity, and fewer side effects, and good therapeutic potential. They offer administration of drugs by different routes, i.e., oral, ocular or transdermal. Despite several advantages, biomedical companies are hesitant to invest in MIPs based drug delivery system due to the limited availability of chemical compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201819666220427134549DOI Listing
April 2022

Angiogenesis versus Metabolic Imaging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients - A Comparative Study.

Indian J Nucl Med 2022 Jan-Mar;37(1):54-60. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: The comparison of angiogenesis imaging (Ga-68-DOTA-Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic Acid [RGD]) positron emission tomography/computed tomography [PET/CT]) with metabolic imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET/CT) in primary staging and response assessment to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients.

Methods: In this prospective study, 85 female patients with LABC were subjected to two PET/CT studies (Ga-68-DOTA-RGD and F-18 FDG) within 1 week of each other. Thirty patients had repeat studies 4 weeks after completing eight cycles of NACT. Response assessment was done by RECIST 1.1 criteria.

Results: Ga-68-DOTA-RGD and F-18 FDG uptake in the primary tumor were seen in all patients. Ipsilateral axillary and internal mammary lymph nodes were detected in 77 (90.5%) versus 80 (94.1%) and 22 (25.8%) versus 27 (31.7%) patients on Ga-68-DOTA-RGD and F-18 FDG scans, respectively. Ipsilateral supra-clavicular lymph nodes and skeletal lesions were noted in 17 (20%) versus 21 (24.7%) patients and 23 (27.0%) versus 24 (28.2%) patients on Ga-68-DOTA-RGD versus F-18 FDG studies, respectively. However, the Ga-68-DOTA-RGD did not show uptake in F-18 FDG avid liver lesions (LLs) in 10 patients, adrenal lesion in one patient, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 patients, lung nodules, and pleural soft-tissue deposits, each in one patient. In response assessment, 23 and 25 patients had concordance with RECIST1.1 criteria on F-18 FDG and Ga-68-DOTA-RGD scans, respectively. However, there were discordant results in four patients on Ga-68-DOTA-RGD scan and two patients on F-18 FDG scans.

Conclusion: Metabolic imaging is better in primary staging and chemotherapy response assessment than angiogenesis imaging in LABC patients. The latter may miss the metastatic soft-tissue deposits, adrenal, and LLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnm.ijnm_53_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9037866PMC
March 2022

In vitro effect of PIK3CA/mTOR inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer subtype cell lines.

Breast Dis 2022 ;41(1):241-247

Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector-12, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Agents targeting the PI3K pathway in triple negative breast cancer did not show any significant efficacy so far mostly because of the complex nature of these targeted inhibitors. Targeting the cancer cells with the combination of inhibitors may help in decelerating the regulatory pathways further achieving optimum clinical benefit. In this study, we investigated the effect of PIK3CA and mTOR inhibition in-vitro in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines.

Objective And Methods: Three TNBC cell lines; MDA MB231, MDA MB468, and MDA MB453 were subtyped using immunohistochemistry and were screened for hotspot mutations in PIK3CA and AKT1. All cell lines were treated with different concentrations of inhibitors; PI3K inhibitor (BKM 120), mTOR inhibitor (AZD 8055), and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (BEZ 235), and cell viability was assessed by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide), Trypan blue and Annexin-V/PI Assays.

Results: Using immunohistochemistry, TNBC cell lines were subtyped as; mesenchymal subtype-specific cell line (MDA MB231), basal subtype-specific cell line (MDA MD468), and Luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype-specific cell line (MDA MB453). PIK3CA hot spot mutation (p.H1047R) in exon 20 was identified in the Luminal androgen receptor subtype (MDA MB453 cells) cell line. Cell viability assays showed that the Mesenchymal subtype-specific cell line (MDA MB231) was the most resistant to all inhibitors and the Luminal Androgen subtype (MDA MB453 cells) cell line was more sensitive to BKM120 (PI3K inhibitor) inhibition compared to other subtypes.

Conclusions: This study identified that the Luminal androgen receptor subtype of triple-negative breast cancer with PIK3CA mutation may be targeted with PIK3CA inhibitors with a favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BD-210066DOI Listing
April 2022

Development and Use of a Reproducible Framework for Spatiotemporal Climatic Risk Assessment and its Association with Decadal Trend of Dengue in India.

Indian J Community Med 2022 Jan-Mar;47(1):50-54. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Introduction: The study aimed to develop a reproducible, open-source, and scalable framework for extracting climate data from satellite imagery, understanding dengue's decadal trend in India, and estimating the relationship between dengue occurrence and climatic factors.

Materials And Methods: A framework was developed in the Open Source Software, and it was empirically tested using reported annual dengue occurrence data in India during 2010-2019. Census 2011 and population projections were used to calculate incidence rates. Zonal statistics were performed to extract climate parameters. Correlation coefficients were calculated to estimate the relationship of dengue with the annual average of daily mean and minimum temperature and rainy days.

Results: Total 818,973 dengue cases were reported from India, with median annual incidence of 6.57 per lakh population; it was high in 2019 and 2017 (11.80 and 11.55 per lakh) and the Southern region (8.18 per lakh). The highest median annual dengue incidence was observed in Punjab (24.49 per lakh). Daily climatic data were extracted from 1164 coordinate locations across the country for the decadal period (4,249,734 observations). The annual average of daily temperature and rainy days positively correlated with dengue in India ( = 0.31 and 0.06, at < 0.01 and 0.30, respectively).

Conclusion: The study provides a reproducible algorithm for bulk climatic data extraction from research-level satellite imagery. Infectious disease models can be used to understand disease epidemiology and strengthen disease surveillance in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijcm.ijcm_862_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971875PMC
March 2022

Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Patients with Moderate Aortic Stenosis.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2022 Aug 15;35(8):791-800.e4. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Turku Heart Center, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Moderate aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with an increased risk for adverse events. Although reduced left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) is associated with worse outcomes in patients with severe AS, its prognostic value in patients with moderate AS is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic implications of LV GLS in patients with moderate AS.

Methods: LV GLS was evaluated using speckle-tracking echocardiography in patients with moderate AS (aortic valve area 1.0-1.5 cm) and reported as absolute (i.e., positive) values. Patients were divided into three groups: LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50% (group 1), LVEF ≥ 50% but LV GLS < 16% (group 2), and LVEF ≥ 50% and LV GLS ≥ 16% (group 3). The LV GLS value of 16% was based on spline curve analysis. The primary end point was all-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 760 patients (mean age, 71 ± 12 years; 61% men) were analyzed. During a median follow-up period of 50 months (interquartile range, 26-94 months), 257 patients (34%) died. Patients with LVEF < 50% and LVEF ≥ 50% but LV GLS < 16% showed significantly higher mortality rates at 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up (82%, 71%, and 58%; and 92%, 77%, and 58%, respectively) compared with those with LVEF ≥ 50% and LV GLS ≥ 16% (96%, 91%, and 85%, respectively; P < .001). Long-term outcomes were not different between patients with LVEF < 50% and those with LVEF ≥ 50% but LV GLS < 16% (P = .592). LV GLS discriminated higher risk patients even among those with LVEF ≥ 60% (P < .001) or those who were asymptomatic (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, LVEF < 50% (hazard ratio, 2.384; 95% CI, 1.614-3.522; P < .001) and LVEF ≥ 50% but LV GLS < 16% (hazard ratio, 2.467; 95% CI, 1.802-3.378; P < .001) were independently associated with all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: In patients with moderate AS, reduced LV GLS is associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality, even if LVEF is still preserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2022.03.008DOI Listing
August 2022

Evaluation of Dexmedetomidine as an Adjuvant to Ropivacaine in Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Postoperative Analgesia in Unilateral Infraumbilical Surgeries-A Randomized Prospective Trial.

Asian J Anesthesiol 2022 03 1;60(1):19-25. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Anesthesia and ICU, GGS Medical College, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been demonstrated to be an effective module of multimodal analgesic treatments for infra-umbilical surgeries with limited duration of action. Various adjuvants have been studied to increase the efficacy of this technique. Herein, we evaluated the analgesic efficacy of dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine in TAP block for unilateral infra-umbilical surgeries under spinal anesthesia.

Methods: The study was conducted on 60 adult patients with the age of 18-65 years, who were planned for unilateral infra-umbilical surgeries under spinal anesthesia. These patients are randomly divided into 2 groups (30 each). In group A, 20 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine with 1 mL of normal saline, and in group B, 20 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine with 0.5 μg/kg (1 mL) dexmedetomidine was given in ultrasound-guided TAP block. Duration, quality of analgesia, and total analgesic consumption were noted. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) by using Student's t-test and chi-square test.

Results: The mean duration of analgesia was significantly longer in group B than group A (842.50 ± 38.74 min and 435.17 ± 25.75 min, respectively). Verbal numerical rating scale was persistently low in both groups, except at the 7th hour and 20th hour in group A and the 12th hour in group B. Total analgesic consumption and number of analgesics doses during 24 hours after surgery were also lower in group B.

Conclusions: The addition of dexmedetomidine as adjuvant to 0.25% ropivacaine for TAP block significantly increases the duration and quality of analgesia without any significant adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6859/aja.202203_60(1).0003DOI Listing
March 2022

Association between aflatoxin M1 excretion in milk and indicators of rumen fermentation in bovines.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2022 Mar 1;54(2):121. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, India, 141004.

Aflatoxins and its metabolites negatively impact the ruminant health and production. The present cross-sectional study was aimed to determine the effect of aflatoxins on rumen fermentation by deducing the correlation between the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) excretion in milk and indicators of rumen fermentation in bovines. The indicators of rumen fermentation were taken into account and correlated with AFM1 concentration in milk of 120 bovines (cattle (n = 82) and buffalo (n = 38)). The AFM1 in milk samples (n = 120) was quantified by ELISA kit. The correlation analysis revealed that with increase in excretion of AFM1 in milk, the pH (r = 0.38), methylene blue reduction time (MBRT) (r = 0.43), sedimentation activity time (SAT) (r = 0.31) and ammonia nitrogen content (r = 0.34) of rumen liquor increase, whereas the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) content (r =  - 0.25), total bacterial count (TBC) (r =  - 0.43) and total protozoal count (TPC) (r =  - 0.14) of rumen liquor decrease. The results of the present study suggest that the presence of aflatoxins in rumen could have negative effect on the process of rumen fermentation. Therefore, the prevention of primary entry point(s) of AFB1 through the feed of bovines is important for the animal health as well as public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-022-03123-9DOI Listing
March 2022

Correction to: Contraception for married adolescents (15-19 years) in India: insights from the National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS-4).

Reprod Health 2022 Feb 28;19(1):53. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies (AMCHSS), Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-022-01327-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8883694PMC
February 2022

Left ventricular remodelling patterns in patients with moderate aortic stenosis.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2022 Feb 18. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Aims: Moderate aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Because outcomes in patients with AS are ultimately driven by the condition of the left ventricle (LV) and not by the valve, assessment of LV remodelling seems important for risk stratification. This study evaluated the association between different LV remodelling patterns and outcomes in patients with moderate AS.

Methods And Results: Patients with moderate AS (aortic valve area 1.0-1.5 cm2) were identified and stratified into four groups according to the LV remodelling pattern: normal geometry (NG), concentric remodelling (CR), concentric hypertrophy (CH), or eccentric hypertrophy (EH). Clinical outcomes were defined as all-cause mortality and a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality and aortic valve replacement (AVR). Of 1931 patients with moderate AS (age 73 ± 10 years, 52% men), 344 (18%) had NG, 469 (24%) CR, 698 (36%) CH, and 420 (22%) EH. Patients with CH and EH showed higher 3-year mortality rates (28% and 32%, respectively) when compared with patients with NG (19%) (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, CH remained independently associated with mortality (HR 1.258, 95% CI 1.016-1.558; P = 0.035), whereas both CH (HR 1.291, 95% CI 1.088-1.532; P = 0.003) and EH (HR 1.217, 95% CI 1.008-1.470; P = 0.042) were associated with the composite endpoint of death or AVR.

Conclusion: In patients with moderate AS, those who develop CH already have an increased risk of all-cause mortality. Assessment of the LV remodelling patterns may identify patients at higher risk of adverse events, warranting closer surveillance, and possibly earlier intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeac018DOI Listing
February 2022
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