Publications by authors named "Gurpreet Kaur"

320 Publications

Ameliorative Role of Diallyl Disulfide Against Glycerol-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Jan-Mar;13(1):129-135. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Introduction: This study investigated the role of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against glycerol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Moreover, the role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in DADS-mediated renoprotection has been explored.

Materials And Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were challenged with glycerol (50% w/v, 8 mL/kg intramuscular) to induce nephrotoxicity. Kidney injury was quantified by measuring serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, urea, potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. Renal oxidative stress was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione levels. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and periodic acid Schiff staining of renal samples was done to show histological changes. Glycerol-induced muscle damage was quantified by assaying creatine kinase (CK) levels in rat serum.

Results: Administration of glycerol resulted in muscle damage as reflected by significant rise in CK levels in rats. Glycerol intoxication led kidney damage was reflected by significant change in renal biochemical parameters, renal oxidative stress and histological changes in rat kidneys. Administration of DADS attenuated glycerol-induced renal damage. Notably, pretreatment with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR-γ antagonist, abolished DADS renoprotection in rats.

Conclusion: We conclude that DADS affords protection against glycerol-induced renal damage in rats. Moreover, PPAR-γ plays a key role in DADS-mediated renoprotective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_177_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142911PMC
December 2020

Cosmeceutical Aptitudes of Azelaic Acid.

Curr Drug Res Rev 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara, University, Punjab, India.

Background: Azelaic acid (AZA) is a white crystalline dicarboxylic acid naturally found in grains, rye and barley. AZA has substantial biological and therapeutic abilities (viz a viz) its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-keratinizing, anti-microbial properties, etc. which contribute to its applicability in the management of mild to harsh dermatological complications (acne, rosacea, dermatitis, hyper-pigmentation, carcinomas, etc.). AZA has shown its effectiveness against varied non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesions by normalizing the hyper-keratinization statie and attenuating the increased levels of microbial content. Topically AZA, either alone or in conjunction with other active moieties, has proved to be effective in preventing acne and several other hyper-pigmentary conditions.

Objectives: Chronic applicability of AZA has been evidenced with the effects like itching, burning, stinging, redness, etc. To deal with the former issues, research is being conducted to substitute the conventional formulations with novel preparations (liposome's, niosomes, micro sponges, lipid nanocarriers, etc.), which could enhance the overall pharmaceutical and pharmacological profile of the drug.

Conclusion: This article is an attempt to highlight the basic physiochemical properties of AZA, its physiological role (especially in dermatology), various commercial preparations and recent novel approaches that are in research with an aim to augment the therapeutic and safety profile of AZA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2589977513666210526122909DOI Listing
May 2021

Defect-Mediated Slow Carrier Recombination and Broad Photoluminescence in Non-Metal-Doped ZnInS Nanosheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 21;12(20):5000-5008. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Mohali, Punjab 140306, India.

Elemental doping has already been established to be one of the most effective approaches for band-gap engineering and controlled material response for improved photocatalytic activity. Herein atomically thin ZnInS (ZIS) nanosheets were doped with O and N separately, and the effects of doping were spectroscopically investigated for photocatalytic H evolution. Steady-state photoluminescence studies revealed an enhanced charge-carrier population in the doped systems along with a defect-state-induced broad peak in the red region of the spectra. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy demonstrated that the conduction-band-edge electrons are transferred on an ultrafast time scale to the inter-band-gap defect states. TA analysis suggests that O and N doping contributes to the defect state concentration and ensures an enhanced photocatalytic activity of the system. This detailed spectroscopic analysis uncovers the role of inter-band-gap defect states in the photocatalytic activity of ZIS and will open new avenues for the construction of nanosheet-based optical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01203DOI Listing
May 2021

Salicylic acid pre-treatment modulates Pb-induced DNA damage vis-à-vis oxidative stress in Allium cepa roots.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160 014, India.

The current study investigated the putative role of salicylic acid (SA) in modulating Pb-induced DNA and oxidative damage in Allium cepa roots. Pb exposure enhanced free radical generation and reduced DNA integrity and antioxidant machinery after 24 h; however, SA pre-treatment (for 24 h) ameliorated Pb toxicity. Pb exposure led to an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (HO) accumulation and enhanced superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical levels. SA improved the efficiency of enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate and guaiacol peroxidases [APX, GPX], superoxide dismutases [SOD], and catalases [CAT]) at 50-μM Pbconcentration. However, SA pre-treatment could not improve the efficiency of CAT and APX at 500 μM of Pb treatment. Elevated levels of ascorbate and glutathione were observed in A. cepa roots pre-treated with SA and exposed to 50 μM Pb treatment, except for oxidized glutathione. Nuclear membrane integrity test demonstrated the ameliorating effect of SA by reducing the number of dark blue-stained nuclei as compared to Pb alone treatments. SA was successful in reducing DNA damage in cell exposed to higher concentration of Pb (500 μM) as observed through comet assay. The study concludes that SA played a major role in enhancing defense mechanism and protecting against DNA damage by acclimatizing the plant to Pb-induced toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14151-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Study of EGFR mutations in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;11:e2021251. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

INHS ASVINI, Department of Pathology, Colaba, Mumbai, India.

Introduction: Squamous carcinoma is the commonest malignancy of the head and neck region. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates downstream signaling pathways through its tyrosine kinase (TK) domains that play a role in cell proliferation and survival. EGFR mutations have been found to occur between exons 18 to 21 on chromosome 7. Limited studies are available on EGFR-TK mutations in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) globally. This study explores EGFR mutations in 30 HNSCC cases presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of two years.

Material And Methods: Fresh tumor tissue was collected from the resection specimens of cases of primary HNSCC. Cases with pre-operative therapy were not included. Parameters in the form of patients' age, gender, smoking/tobacco intake, site of the lesion were recorded. Tumor parameters after histopathological examination were recorded in the form of TNM stage, tumor grade. DNA was extracted from fresh tissue of all the cases. EGFR Mutation Analysis Kit assay was used to detect mutations of the gene. PCR was run and results were analyzed.

Results: Mutations were found in 6.7%of the patients. There was no significant association of the Mutation with the studied parameters.

Conclusion: mutations are present in a subset of patients of HNSCC. Patients having these mutations may benefit from targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/acr.2021.251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087393PMC
April 2021

Prevalence and molecular characterization of canine parvovirus.

Vet World 2021 Mar 9;14(3):603-606. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background And Aim: Canine parvovirus (CPV) belonging to family Parvoviridae causes hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs and heavy mortality in young dogs. The virus has three structural (VP1, VP2 and VP3) and two non-structural proteins (NS1 and NS2), VP2 being highly immunogenic. This study aims to study molecular epidemiology of CPV by sequence analysis of gene to determine the prevailing antigenic type(s) in the northern regions of India.

Materials And Methods: A total of 118 rectal swabs collected from dogs exhibiting clinical signs of CPV infection were processed for the isolation of DNA and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR (NPCR). A total of 13 NPCR products selected randomly were subjected to sequence analysis of gene.

Results: The percent positivity of CPV was found 28% and 70% by PCR and NPCR, respectively. Dogs with vaccination history against CPV too were found positive with a percent positivity of 24.10%. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of gene from these isolates revealed that most samples formed a clade with CPV-2a isolates.

Conclusion: Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis of gene in the studied regions of northern India revealed that CPV-2a was the most prevalent antigenic type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.603-606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076476PMC
March 2021

Microwave-assisted assembly of AgO-ZnO composite nanocones for electrochemical detection of 4-Nitrophenol and assessment of their photocatalytic activity towards degradation of 4-Nitrophenol and Methylene blue dye.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 27;416:125771. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India; SAIF/CIL, Panjab University Chandigarh, 160014, India. Electronic address:

4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) is an extensively utilized industrial chemical and one of major toxic water pollutant. Therefore, there is an urgent need to monitor the levels of 4-NP from environmental samples as well as its eradication are extremely important. Keeping this as a motivation, this research for the first-time reports microwave-assisted cost-effective synthesis of silver oxide (AgO)-zinc oxide (ZnO) composite nanocones (CNCs, 80-100 nm) for simultaneous electrochemical detection and photodegradation of 4-NP from aqueous solutions. The AgO-ZnO CNCs modified gold electrode was fabricated for electrochemical detection of 4-NP. Such fabricated sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 1.6 µA µMcm, wide linear detection range of 0.4-26 µM & 28-326 µM, and a low limit of detection of 23 nM. The sensor also exhibited good selectivity in real water samples. Also, an outstanding photocatalytic performance of AgO-ZnO CNCs was evaluated towards UV-assisted degradation of 4-NP and organic water pollutant dye, methylene blue. The AgO-ZnO CNCs exhibited excellent electro- and photocatalytic activities due to the formation of p-n nano-heterojunction comprising of p-type AgO and n-type ZnO semiconductor nanoparticles within the composite. Therefore, herein reported smart CNCs can be projected as applied nano-system for cost-effective and rapid simultaneous detection and removal of 4-NP from aqueous solutions. Such nano-system can be useful for industrial application where detection and removal of 4-NP is a key issue to resolve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125771DOI Listing
March 2021

Cell surface and extracellular proteins of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri as an effective mediator to regulate intestinal epithelial barrier function.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Dairy Microbiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, India.

The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of cell surface and extracellular proteins in regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) function. Eight potentially probiotic L. reuteri strains were evaluated for presence of mapA gene and its expression on co-culturing with the Caco-2 cells. The ability of untreated (Viable), heat-inactivated, 5 M LiCL treated L. reuteri strains as well as their cell-free supernatant (CFS) to modulate expression of IEB function genes (hBD-2, hBD-3, claudin-1 and occludin) was also evaluated. Caco-2 cells were treated with cell surface and extracellular protein extracts and investigated for change in expression of targeted IEB function genes. The results showed that mapA gene is present in all the tested L. reuteri strains and expression of mapA and its receptors (anxA13 and palm) increase significantly on co-culturing of L. reuteri and Caco-2 cells. Also, up-regulated expression of IEB function genes was observed on co-culturing of L. reuteri (viable, heat-inactivated and CFS) and their protein extracts with Caco-2 cells in contrast to down-regulation observed with the pathogenic strain of Salmonella typhi. Therefore, this study concludes that the cell surface and extracellular protein from L. reuteri act as an effective mediator molecules to regulate IEB function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02318-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Development of a time of flight spectrometer based on position sensitive multi-wire proportional counters for fission fragment mass distribution studies.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):033309

Inter University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067, India.

Characteristics and performance of a time of flight (TOF) spectrometer developed for performing fission mass distribution studies are presented. The spectrometer contains two TOF arms based on multi-wire proportional counters (MWPCs). Each arm has two MWPCs to form a start-stop detection system for TOF measurements. The start detector has an active area of 4 × 4 cm. The stop detector is a two-dimensional position sensitive MWPC with an active area of 16 × 11 cm. Salient features of the MWPCs are the use of reduced sub-millimeter wire pitches of 0.635 and 0.317 mm in the electrodes along with the use of gold plated tungsten wires of diameters 10 and 20 µm. A delay line for position electrodes is prepared using chip inductors and capacitors. Ten different configurations of MWPC were investigated for the start detector, which involved the use of three and four electrode geometries, use of different wire pitches, and use of aluminized mylar for timing electrodes. Performance results close to micro-channel plate detectors have been observed with some designs of MWPC, displaying rise times better than 2 ns with an estimated inherent time resolution of ∼100 ps FWHM. A position resolution of ∼1 mm (FWHM) has been observed. Design features of the MWPCs and their test performance results are described in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0029603DOI Listing
March 2021

Preparation, development and characterization of Leucaena leucocephala galactomannan (LLG) conjugated sinapic acid: A potential colon targeted prodrug.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 22;178:29-40. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India. Electronic address:

Sinapic acid (SA), a widely prevalent hydroxycinnamic acid, possess numerous biological activities owing to its antioxidant property. The present study was aimed to prepare colon targeted polysaccharidic/polymeric ester prodrug of SA (a microbially triggered system) using Leucaena leucocephala galactomannan (LLG) as a polysaccharidic carrier. The polymeric conjugates of SA-LLG were found to exhibit an increase in % yield and DS with increase in amount of SA and volume of thionyl chloride. The degree of depolymerization of SA-LLG prodrug batches were evaluated using optimized concentration of galactomannase. The SA-LLG prodrug was characterized employing UV and FTIR spectroscopy, H NMR and XRD. In vitro release study of the optimized prodrug batch (SL10) suggested stable nature of SA-LLG conjugate under acidic (pH 1.2) and alkaline conditions (pH 6.8). The treatment of prodrug with galactomannase (15 mg/mL) followed by esterase (10 U/mL) enzyme released approximately 81% of SA after 24 h. The cell viability results revealed that free SA and SA-LLG were found to have similar antiproliferative potential against human colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116 cells). Our investigation revealed that polysaccharidic prodrug, SA-LLG, has the potential for colon targeting of SA and thus can be employed for the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.132DOI Listing
May 2021

Therapeutic potential of essential oil based microemulsions: Reviewing state-of-the-art.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab) . India.

A pre-eminent emulsion based micellar drug delivery system, "microemulsion", comprising of drug in oil or water phase, stabilized by surfactants and co-surfactants, has been evidenced to have phenomenal role in number of applications. Oils play an important role in formation of ME and increase the drug absorption at the site of action. Oils employed in microemulsion formulation solubilize lipophilic drug. As concept of "natural" therapies is recently gaining importance amongst researchers all over the world, scientists are employing essential oil as an organic component in this system. The active components of essential oils include flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes and polyunsaturated of mega-6-fatty acids. These oils are enriched with characteristic intrinsic properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, etc. bestows an enhanced supremacy to whole microemulsion system. This mini-review is the first to document various types of essential oils employed in microemulsion systems and highlight their therapeutic potential and applications as drug delivery vehicles. Key inferences from this study suggest: 1) Clove oil is the most explored oil for incorporation into microemulsion based system, followed by peppermint and Tea Tree Oil (TTO). 2) Penetration enhancing effects of these oils is due to the presence of terpenic constituents. 3) Essential oil based microemulsions protect volatility of ethereal oils and protect them from degradation in presence of light, air, temperature. 4) These systems may also be explored for their applications in different industries like aromatherapy, food, drink, fragrance, flavour, cosmeceutical, soap, petroleum and pharmaceutical industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201818666210217161240DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of In vitro and In vivo Protective Efficacy of Bauhinia variegata Against Leishmania donovani in Murine Model.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose: Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the ignored parasitic infection affecting millions of people globally. Currently, available treatment options are unsatisfactory because of high cost and side effects of the leishmanicidal drugs. Therefore, herbal medicines provide a promising choice for the detection of efficient and novel leishmanicidal therapeutics which can rejuvenate the immune response of the host with less adverse effects. The objective of the present study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo effect of hydroethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (HEBV) against Leishmania donovani.

Methods: The in vitro efficacy and cytotoxicity of HEBV was checked against L. donovani and THP1 human macrophages. Further HEBV (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt.) were given orally to inbred BALB/c mice infected with L. donovani for 2 weeks and euthanized on 14th post treatment day. Various parameters like parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, T cells, Th1/Th2 cytokines, histological and biochemical tests were investigated.

Results: HEBV showed marked antileishmanial activity with cell cycle arrest at sub-G0/G1 phase. HEBV was found to be more effective at higher dose in declining parasite concentration in the spleen as compared to the lower dose. Moreover, the extract augmented the DTH reaction and T cell responses in the infected mice. Oral administration of HEBV caused the enhancement of disease-suppressing Th1 cytokines and suppression of disease-progressing Th2 cytokines with no toxicities.

Conclusion: Thus, HEBV showed the antileishmanial efficacy through the generation of pro-inflammatory immunity of the host which further suggests the mechanistic exploration of it as a leishmanicidal therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00326-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Microcapillary LAMP for rapid and sensitive detection of pathogen in bovine semen.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Jan 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Division of Bacteriology & Mycology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.

A microcapillary-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (µcLAMP) has been described for specific detection of infectious reproductive pathogens in semen samples of cattle without sophisticated instrumentation. , serovar Pomona and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) cultures were mixed in bovine semen samples. The µcLAMP assay is portable, user-friendly, cost-effective, and suitable to be performed as a POC diagnostic test. We have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of µcLAMP for detection of , and BoHV-1 in bovine semen samples comparable to PCR and qPCR assays. Thus, µcLAMP would be a promising field-based test for monitoring various infectious pathogens in biological samples.HighlightsDetect infectious organism in bovines semenReduction in carryover contamination is an important attribute, which may reduce the false-positive reaction.µcLAMP is a miniaturized form, which could be performed with a minimum volume of reagents.The µcLAMP assay is portable, user-friendly, and suitable to be performed as a POC diagnostic test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2020.1863225DOI Listing
January 2021

Concurrent Energy- and Electron-Transfer Dynamics in Photoexcited Mn-Doped CsPbBr Perovskite Nanoplatelet Architecture.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jan 22;12(1):302-309. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali, Punjab 160062, India.

Mn-doped perovskites have already been widely explored in the context of interesting optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Such fascinating traits showcased by them explain the huge augmentation in the device efficiency, directing their widespread application in the field of solar cells, energy- harvesting sectors, and light-emitting diodes. However, the underlying photophysics governing the overall charge carrier dynamics in Mn-doped CsPbBr nanoplatelets (NPLs) has never been discussed and therefore demands an in-depth investigation. Herein, fluorescence up-conversion and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy are employed for gaining a comprehensive understanding of the excited-state dynamics and the fundamental energy/charge-transfer processes for two-dimensional CsPbBr nanoplatelets (NPLs) and their Mn-doped counterparts. The up-conversion measurement clearly suggests the possibility of energy-transfer pathways in the Mn-doped CsPbBr NPLs. Interestingly, strong indication of charge transfer (CT) in Mn-doped CsPbBr NPLs was unambiguously established by an ultrafast TA approach. Our investigation clearly suggests that both the probable processes the ultrafast energy and electron transfers noticeable in the Mn-doped CsPbBr NPLs are utterly competitive and rapid owing to the highly confined nature of the two-dimensional NPLs. This extensive probing of concurrent charge/energy-transfer processes may pave help clarify unresolved anomalies in Mn-doped perovskites, which may prove advantageous for a wide range of practical applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03267DOI Listing
January 2021

Tetrabutylammonium Bromide (TBAB) Catalyzed Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles.

Molecules 2020 Dec 14;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry, Indus International University, V.P.O. Bathu, Distt. Una, Himachal Pradesh 174301, India.

During the last two decades, tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) has gained significant attention as an efficient metal-free homogeneous phase-transfer catalyst. A catalytic amount of TBAB is sufficient to catalyze various alkylation, oxidation, reduction, and esterification processes. It is also employed as an efficient co-catalyst for numerous coupling reactions. It has also acted as an efficient zwitterionic solvent in many organic transformations under molten conditions. In this review, we have summarized the recent developments on TBAB-catalyzed protocols for the efficient synthesis of various biologically promising heterocyclic scaffolds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764977PMC
December 2020

Toxicity profiling of metallosurfactant based ruthenium and ruthenium oxide nanoparticles towards the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Chemosphere 2021 May 19;270:128650. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Bio and Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, 125 001, Haryana, India.

In the present study, a facile method was used to synthesize the ruthenium and ruthenium oxide (RuO) nanoparticles (NPs) derived from three different metallosurfactants. Firstly, three metallosurfactants were fabricated i.e. RuCTAC (Bishexadecyltrimethylammonium ruthenium tetrachloride), RuDDA (Bisdodecylamine ruthenium dichloride), and RuHEXA (Bishexadecylamine ruthenium dichloride) and characterized by CHN, FTIR, and HNMR. These metallosurfactants were further utilized to fabricate the mixed type of NPs (Ru and RuO NPs) using the biocompatible microemulsion technique and NPs were then characterized. Subsequently, the nanotoxicity of mixed NPs (Ru & RuO) was studied towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The detailed study of nanotoxicity against the S. cerevisiae cells was done by employing optical microscopy, FESEM, anti-yeast activity assay, circular dichroism, and gel electrophoresis techniques. FESEM and optical microscopy analyses indicated that RuCTAC nanosuspension (Ns) has the most toxic effect on the S. cerevisiae cells. FESEM analysis confirmed the harmful impact of Ru and RuO NPs on the S. cerevisiae cells. From the FESEM analysis, complete alteration in the morphology, cell membrane breakage, and formation of the holes on the cell wall of S. cerevisiae was affirmed in presence of all three types of Ns i.e. RuCTAC, RuDDA, and RuHEXA Ns. Genotoxicity of the NPs was confirmed by circular dichroism and gel electrophoresis and it was found that RuCTAC and RuHEXA Ns have the most damaging influence on the yeast genomic DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128650DOI Listing
May 2021

Thiolated okra chitosan nanoparticles: preparation and optimisation as intranasal drug delivery agents.

J Microencapsul 2020 Dec 23;37(8):624-639. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India.

Aim: The preparation of thiolated okra gum by use of full factorial design to optimise the reaction conditions.

Methods: Thiolated gum was obtained by esterification optimised by full factorial design. The effect of varying the thiolated Okra concentration, chitosan concentration, pH, and stirring speed on particle size, entrapment efficiency and zeta potential was observed using Box-Behnken design.

Results: Maximum yield and degree of substitution were obtained at reaction time of 152 min, 6.73 ml of thioglycolic acid and 70 °C of temperature. The optimised calculated parameters were thiolated okra concentrations of (0.07% w/v), chitosan concentration (0.05% w/v), pH (3), stirring speed (4430 rpm), which yielded nanoparticles of size 294.3 ± 0.3 nm, 43.57 ± 1.21% entrapment and 23.29 ± 2.3 mV of Zeta potential.

Conclusion: NPs were observed to be promising for brain targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652048.2020.1836057DOI Listing
December 2020

Revealing Interplay of Defects in SnO Quantum Dots for Blue Luminescence and Selective Trace Ammonia Detection at Room Temperature.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 19;12(43):49227-49236. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Kalpakkam 603102, India.

Defect chemistry in SnO is well established for resistive sensors but remains to be elusive for photoluminescence (PL) sensors. It demands a comprehensive understanding of the role of cationic and oxygen defects as well as the creation of abundant such defects to provide a selective PL signal. To accomplish it, SnO quantum dots (QDs ∼ 2.4 nm) are prepared without a capping agent along with other dimensions. Then, the relationship of defects with the blue-emission PL is unfolded by electron energy loss spectroscopy, lifetime measurements, X-ray absorption, and Raman spectroscopic measurements. The defects acting as Lewis acid sites are utilized for selective ammonia detection. Huge enhancements of the obscured blue luminescence at 2.77 and 2.96 eV from the SnO QDs are observed because of interaction with ammonia. The linear variation of PL intensities with analyte concentrations and the recovery of the sensor are elaborated with detection up to 5 ppm. The interplay of defects in SnO is further established theoretically for site-specific interactions with ammonia by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Thus, the unique mechanism revealed for the superlative performance of the PL sensor with uncapped SnO QDs provides a novel platform for defect-engineering-based optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c13896DOI Listing
October 2020

Optimization and utilization of single chain metallocatanionic vesicles for antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against .

J Mater Chem B 2020 10;8(40):9304-9313

Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Currently, bacterial infection due to multi-drug-resistant bacteria is one of the foremost problems in public health. Photodynamic therapy plays a significant role against bacterial infection, without causing any side effects. But the photosensitizers are associated with many drawbacks, which lessen their photodynamic efficiency. In this context, the current study describes the synthesis of new metallocatanionic vesicles and employs them in photodynamic therapy. These vesicles were synthesized by using a single-chain cationic metallosurfactant (CuCPC I) and sodium oleate (NaOl) as an anionic component. These vesicles were characterized from conductivity, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy measurements. Methylene blue (MB) was used as a photosensitizer and its singlet oxygen quantum yield in the presence of these vesicles was determined by irradiating with 650 nm wavelength laser light. These vesicles play a dual-functional role, one helping in delivering the photosensitizer and the second doubling their singlet oxygen production capability due to the presence of metal ions. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) was studied against E. coli bacteria (Gram-negative bacteria). These vesicles also inherit their antibacterial activity and MB-encapsulated metallocatanionic vesicles on irradiation have shown 100% killing efficiency. In summary, we offer metallocatanionic vesicles prepared via a facile approach, which encapsulate a photosensitizer and can be used to combat E. coli infection through photodynamic therapy. We envisage that these synthesized metallocatanionic vesicles will provide a new modification to the catanionic mixture family and could be used for various applications in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb01551bDOI Listing
October 2020

Hot Carrier Relaxation in CsPbBr-Based Perovskites: A Polaron Perspective.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Oct 1;11(20):8765-8776. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali, Punjab 160062, India.

Long-standing interpretations for the exceptional photovoltaic and optoelectronic properties showcased by the perovskite family pertain to the underlying complicated interplay of polaron formation and hot carrier cooling. This Perspective primarily focuses on reassessing the existing status of polaron studies conducted on CsPbBr-based systems in particular, in the framework of transient absorption investigations. The role of the key aspect that is ultimately accountable for deciding the fate of polaron formation, i.e., the carrier-longitudinal optical phonon coupling, has been comprehensively evaluated in terms of diverse factors which affect this Fröhlich interaction-mediated coupling. The study provides a detailed discussion regarding the alterations in lattice polarity, surrounding dielectric medium, lattice temperature, and system dimensionality which can influence the charge screening extent and thereby the polaron formation. Such studies concerning strategies for achieving easily attainable modulations in polaron formation in CsPbBr-based systems are highly relevant for technological advancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02339DOI Listing
October 2020

A multiple T cell epitope comprising DNA vaccine boosts the protective efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Sep 17;20(1):677. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

CSIR-Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, 160036, India.

Background: Approximately 80% - 90% of individuals infected with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remain protected throughout their life-span. The release of unique, latent-phase antigens are known to have a protective role in the immune response against Mtb. Although the BCG vaccine has been administered for nine decades to provide immunity against Mtb, the number of TB cases continues to rise, thereby raising doubts on BCG vaccine efficacy. The shortcomings of BCG have been associated with inadequate processing and presentation of its antigens, an inability to optimally activate T cells against Mtb, and generation of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, BCG vaccination lacks the ability to eliminate latent Mtb infection. With these facts in mind, we selected six immunodominant CD4 and CD8 T cell epitopes of Mtb expressed during latent, acute, and chronic stages of infection and engineered a multi-epitope-based DNA vaccine (C6).

Result: BALB/c mice vaccinated with the C6 construct along with a BCG vaccine exhibited an expansion of both CD4 and CD8 T cell memory populations and augmented IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine release. Furthermore, enhancement of dendritic cell and macrophage activation was noted. Consequently, illustrating the elicitation of immunity that helps in the protection against Mtb infection; which was evident by a significant reduction in the Mtb burden in the lungs and spleen of C6 + BCG administered animals.

Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that a C6 + BCG vaccination approach may serve as an effective vaccination strategy in future attempts to control TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05372-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495405PMC
September 2020

Tuning the surface using palladium based metallosurfactant for hydrogen evolution reaction.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jan 29;582(Pt B):894-905. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh 160012, India. Electronic address:

Synthesis of a novel electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is highly demanding for renewable energy production. This research reports the design and development of novel palladium based metallosurfactant (PdCPC(I)) that belongs to the unique class of inorganic-organic hybrid with striking structural features that are explored for the first time in the HER. The formation of the micelle, molecular orientation and surface characteristics of the metallosurfactant are calculated by conductivity and contact angle measurements. The reduction of palladium in metallomicelles during electrolysis accelerates the HER. Metallosurfactant makes the substrate hydrophilic, which in turn enhances the activity of the modified substrate. The 269 mV and 400 mV (vs RHE) overpotential is required to achieve the 10 mA cm of current density for PdCPC(I) and CPC, respectively. Tafel slope of PdCPC(I) is 57 mV dec, which signifies that the reaction follows the Volmer- Heyrovsky mechanism in the presence of catalyst. The presence of the palladium in the core of the micelle is certified by ICPMS study. The present electrocatalyst also demonstrates 40 h of electrochemical durability. This work opens the doors toward the enhancement of HER, which fulfills the dreams for future energy resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.08.090DOI Listing
January 2021

Influence of Defects and HO on the Hydrogenation of CO to Methanol over Pt Nanoparticles in UiO-67 Metal-Organic Framework.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Oct 24;142(40):17105-17118. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Sem Sælandsvei 26, N-0315 Oslo, Norway.

In catalysts for CO hydrogenation, the interface between metal nanoparticles (NPs) and the support material is of high importance for the activity and reaction selectivity. In Pt NP-containing UiO Zr-metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), key intermediates in methanol formation are adsorbed at open Zr-sites at the Pt-MOF interface. In this study, we investigate the dynamic role of the Zr-node and the influence of HO on the CO hydrogenation reaction at 170 °C, through steady state and transient isotope exchange experiments, HO cofeed measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The study revealed that an increased number of Zr-node defects increase the formation rates to both methanol and methane. Transient experiments linked the increase to a higher number of surface intermediates for both products. Experiments involving either dehydrated or prehydrated Zr-nodes showed higher methanol and methane formation rates over the dehydrated Zr-node. Transient experiments suggested that the difference is related to competitive adsorption between methanol and water. DFT calculations and microkinetic modeling support this conclusion and give further insight into the equilibria involved in the competitive adsorption process. The calculations revealed weaker adsorption of methanol in defective or dehydrated nodes, in agreement with the larger gas phase concentration of methanol observed experimentally. The microkinetic model shows that [Zr(μ-O)] and [Zr(μ-OH)(μ-O)(OH)(HO)] are the main surface species when the concentration of water is lower than the number of defect sites. Lastly, although addition of water was found to promote methanol desorption, water does not change the methanol steady state reaction rate, while it has a substantial inhibiting effect on CH formation. These results indicate that water can be used to increase the reaction selectivity to methanol and encourages further detailed investigations of the catalyst system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c07153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586342PMC
October 2020

Nursing students' perceptions of and experiences coping with stress in clinical practice.

Int J Nurs Educ Scholarsh 2020 Aug 17;17(1). Epub 2020 Aug 17.

College of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Objectives Clinical practice is a major component of nursing education wherein significant learning takes place. Nursing students experience stress in clinical practice which can have a negative impact on their learning. Guided by Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping, this study explored nursing students' perceptions of and experiences with coping with stress in clinical practice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten undergraduate nursing students. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results The themes of: Learning about self, Knowing self, Value of social support, and Relationships with clinical instructors reflect participants' descriptions of coping with stress. Students cognitive and behavioral strategies, including reflection, help them understand their stress and decide how to reduce its effects. Conclusions Supportive and respectful relationships are essential for a student to learn and cope effectively with stressful situations. Implications for improving the clinical instructor's role to enhance students' coping with stress in clinical practice are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijnes-2020-0005DOI Listing
August 2020

Ultrafast Charge Delocalization Dynamics of Ambient Stable CsPbBr Nanocrystals Encapsulated in Polystyrene Fiber.

Chemistry 2021 Jan 2;27(2):683-691. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali, Punjab, 160062, India.

CsPbBr nanocrystals (NCs) encapsulated in a transparent polystyrene (PS) fiber matrix (CsPbBr @PS) have been synthesized to protect the NCs. The ultrafast charge delocalization dynamics of the embedded NCs have been demonstrated, and the results are compared with the pristine CsPbBr in toluene. The electrospinning method was employed for the preparation of CsPbBr @PS fibers by using a polystyrene solution doped with pre-synthesized CsPbBr and characterized by XRD, HRTEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Energy level diagrams of CsPbBr and PS suggest that CsPbBr @PS fibers make a type I core-shell structure. The carrier cooling for CsPbBr @PS fibers is found to be much slower than pure CsPbBr NCs. This observation suggests that photoexcited electrons from CsPbBr NCs get delocalized from the conduction band of the perovskite to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the PS fiber matrix. The CsPbBr @PS fibers possess remarkable stability under ambient conditions as well as in water over months. The clear understanding of charge carrier relaxation dynamics of CsPbBr confined in PS fibers could help to design robust optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202003254DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Confinement on the Exciton and Biexciton Dynamics in Perovskite 2D-Nanosheets and 3D-Nanocrystals.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Aug 23;11(15):6344-6352. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali, Punjab 160062, India.

The performance of the high-end optoelectronic devices is essentially influenced by the intrinsic relaxation mechanisms pursued by the hot carriers. Therefore, the key toward achieving progression in such fields lies in developing a complete understanding of the involved carrier cooling dynamics. In this work, an endeavor has been made to highlight the difference in the cooling mechanisms in 2D CsPbBr nanosheets (NSs) and their 3D counterpart nanocrystals (NCs) with the aid of femtosecond broad-band pump-probe spectroscopy, varying the excitation energies. The exciton and biexciton dynamics in both systems are found to be retarded upon increasing the excitation energy. However, in contrast to 3D NCs, carrier cooling is found to be faster in the 2D system, regardless of the excitation energy used, attributing this to less efficient charge screening by Fröhlich interaction in low-dielectric medium. A similar trend is replicated in the biexciton formation rate since the formation is also found to be faster in NSs compared to NCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01853DOI Listing
August 2020

Physical mapping of introgressed chromosome fragment carrying the fertility restoring (Rfo) gene for Ogura CMS in Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss.

Theor Appl Genet 2020 Oct 13;133(10):2949-2959. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Key Message: Rfo is located on a radish chromosome fragment (~ 108 Kb), which is seated in the middle of a pretty large C genome translocation at the distal region of chromosome A09 of B. juncea. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is used to produce hybrids in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Fertility restorers for this CMS were developed by cross-hybridizing B. juncea (AABB; 2n = 36) with B. napus (AACC; 2n = 38) carrying radish Rfo gene. This hybrid production system is normally stable, but many commercial mustard hybrids show male sterile contaminants. We aimed to identify linkage drag associated with Rfo by comparing hybridity levels of 295 handmade CMS x Rfo crosses. Although Rfo was stably inherited, hybridity was < 85 percent in several combinations. Genome re-sequencing of five fertility restorers, mapping sequencing reads to B. juncea reference and synteny analysis with Raphanus sativus D81Rfo genomic region (AJ550021.2) helped to detect ~ 108 Kb of radish chromosome (R) fragment substitution in all fertility restorers. This radish segment substitution was itself located amidst a large C genome translocation on the terminal region of chromosome A09 of B. juncea. The size of alien segment substitution varied from 11.3 (NTCN-R9) to 22.0 Mb (NAJR-102B-R). We also developed an in silico SSR map for chromosome A09 and identified many homoeologous A to the C genome exchanges in the introgressed region. A to the R genome exchanges were rare. Annotation of the substituted fragment showed the gain of many novel genes from R and C genomes and the loss of B. juncea genes from the corresponding region. We have developed a KASPar marker for marker-aided transfer of Rfo and testing hybridity levels in seed production lots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-020-03648-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Temperature-Dependent Interplay of Polaron Formation and Hot Carrier Cooling Dynamics in CsPbBr Nanocrystals: Role of Carrier-Phonon Coupling Strength.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Aug 21;11(15):6206-6213. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali, Punjab 160062, India.

Photovoltaic devices with CsPbBr nanocrystals as the working layer are generally subjected to wide variance of extreme temperatures during operation. Thus, the underlying photophysics, which is undeniably a temperature-dependent entity, demands intricate understanding. In this finding, with the assistance of temperature-dependent transient absorption spectroscopy, an endeavor has been made to disentangle the detrimental conflict between polaron formation and hot carrier relaxation for CsPbBr nanocrystal systems. Carrier relaxation pathways are seen to diverge drastically upon varying the lattice temperature from 300 to 5 K. Acquired results indicate the involvement of polarons for retarded carrier cooling dynamics observed at 300 K, whereas its absence at lower temperatures (<200 K) provides the basis for relatively quicker cooling. Additionally, despite the expected participation from the polaron due to the onset of strong carrier-longitudinal optical phonon coupling at 200 K, the reason for its absence in the cooling dynamics at 200 K has been revealed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01724DOI Listing
August 2020

Central composite designed solid dispersion for dissolution enhancement of fluvastatin sodium by kneading technique.

Ther Deliv 2020 05 3;11(5):313-328. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India.

This research is focused on enhancing aqueous solubility and dissolution of fluvastatin sodium (FSS) through solid dispersion (FSS-SD) production using polyethylene glycol 6000 and polyvinyl pyrollidone K-30 by kneading technique. Central composite design explored the influence of polyethylene glycol 6000 and polyvinyl pyrollidone K-30 on T and Q90. The aqueous saturation solubility of FSS (8.7 ± 1.12 μg/ml) was amplified 20-fold in FSS-SD (179 ± 4.16 μg/ml). Cumulative drug release from FSS and optimized FSS-SD were 27.49 and 87.4% within 90 min, respectively. FSS-SD production using kneading technique offers great prospective in maximizing FSS's solubility and dissolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/tde-2020-0025DOI Listing
May 2020

Fumaric acid protect the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: owing to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory action and aid in recast the liver function.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2020 10 21;393(10):1911-1920. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Pharmacology, Amar Shaheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bela, Ropar, Punjab, 140111, India.

In the modern world, indiscriminate human activities impelled environmental toxicity through heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) that poses significant health hazards to the flora and fauna. Multiple mechanisms such as oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotic cell death, and chromosomal aberrations underlie the Cd-induced organ toxicity with the liver and kidneys bearing most of the brunt. Fumaric acid (FA) is an organic acid (CHO) omnipresent in nature and attributed with such properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemopreventive, anti-psoriatic, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective) that may bestow relief in Cd-induced liver damage. Hence, in the present study, the protective effects of FA were determined in Cd-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Wistar rats were chronically exposed to Cd (5 mg/kg, p.o.) to induce liver dysfunction. The rats were subjected to FA (1.25, 2.5, 5 mg/kg; p.o.) pre-treatment for 28 days to observe effects on liver and serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, enzymatic activities, and hepatic damage (liver histopathology). Body weights, feed/water intake, body mass index (BMI), and non-invasive parameters (FIB-4 score; AST/ALT ratio) were quantified. Cd-triggered hepatic injury in rats through oxidative stress, derangement of hepatic serum biomarkers (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, and platelet count), and pathogenic alteration in non-invasive parameters. FA pre-treatment significantly protected rat livers against Cd toxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and improving the hepatic serum biomarkers and non-invasive parameters. In a histopathological analysis, FA prevented Cd-accrued hepatocellular damage. Fumaric acid showed potential to avert hepatic injury against cadmium in rats. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-01900-7DOI Listing
October 2020