Publications by authors named "Guoqing Li"

319 Publications

Working Hours, Job Burnout, and Subjective Well-Being of Hospital Administrators: An Empirical Study Based on China's Tertiary Public Hospitals.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 25;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

(1) Purpose: To analyze the role of job burnout in connection with working hours and subjective well-being (SWB) among hospital administrators in China's tertiary public hospitals. (2) Methods: A multi-stage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was used to select 443 hospital administrators in six tertiary public hospitals for study. The data were collected and analyzed using the working hours measuring scale, Maslach burnout, and the subjective well-being schedule. Pearson correlation, structural equation model, and bootstrap tests were conducted to examine the association between job burnout, working hours, and SWB. (3) Results: Among the 443 respondents, 330 worked more than 8 h per day on average (76.2%), 81 had the longest continuous working time more than 16 h (18.7%), and 362 worked overtime on weekends (82.2%). The prevalence of job burnout in hospital administrators was 62.8%, among which, 59.8% have mild burnout and 3.00% have severe burnout. In the dimension of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal achievement, the proportion of people in high burnout was 21.0% (91/433), 15.0% (65/433), and 45.3% (196/433), respectively. Job burnout has a mediating effect between working hours and SWB, which accounted for 95.5% of the total effect. (4) Conclusion: Plagued by long working hours and severe job burnout, the hospital administrators in China's tertiary public hospitals may have low SWB. Working hours have a negative direct impact on job burnout and SWB, and an indirect impact on SWB through job burnout as a mediator. Targeted strategies should be taken to adjust working hours to promote the physical and mental health of hospital administrators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094539DOI Listing
April 2021

Microbial Metabolite Sodium Butyrate Attenuates Cartilage Degradation by Restoring Impaired Autophagy and Autophagic Flux in Osteoarthritis Development.

Front Pharmacol 2021 9;12:659597. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with multiple etiologies that affects individuals worldwide. No effective interventions are currently available to reverse the pathological process of OA. Sodium butyrate (NaB), a component of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), has multiple biological activities, including the attenuation of inflammation and anti-tumor activities in various diseases. However, whether the protective effects of NaB in OA are associated with the promotion of autophagy had not been investigated. Here, we explored the chondroprotective properties of NaB in an interleukin (IL)-1β-induced inflammatory chondrocyte model and an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) mouse model. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Safranin O, and immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the effects of NaB treatment on articular cartilage. An optimal NaB dose for chondrocyte treatment was determined cell counting kit-8 assays. Immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect autophagy in chondrocytes. Flow cytometry was utilized to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle activity, and apoptosis in chondrocytes. Western blot and immunostaining were performed to evaluate the protein expression levels of relevant indicators. We found that the administration of NaB by oral gavage could attenuate cartilage degradation. In parallel, NaB treatment could enhance the activation of autophagy, increase autophagic flux, decrease extracellular matrix degradation, and reduce apoptosis by restraining inflammation, ROS production, and cell cycle arrest in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes. The protective effects of NaB could be partially abolished by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA), which indicated that the protective effects of NaB against OA were partially governed by the enhancement of autophagy to restrain the formation of inflammatory mediators and ROS and regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in chondrocytes. In conclusion, NaB could attenuate OA progression by restoring impaired autophagy and autophagic flux the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, both and , implying that NaB could represent a novel therapeutic approach for OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.659597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062861PMC
April 2021

Haploinsufficiency in non-homologous end joining factor 1 induces ovarian dysfunction in humans and mice.

J Med Genet 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, NHC Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering at School of Life Sciences, Institute of Metabolism and Integrative Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Background: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common disease in women that leads to a reduced reproductive lifespan. The aetiology of POI is genetically heterogeneous, with certain double-strand break (DSB) repair genes being implicated in POI. Although non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is an efficient DSB repair pathway, the functional relationship between this pathway and POI remains unknown.

Methods And Results: We conducted whole-exome sequencing in a Chinese family and identified a rare heterozygous loss-of-function variant in non-homologous end joining factor 1 (): c.532C>T (p.R178*), which co-segregated with POI and irregular menstruation. The amount of NHEJ1 protein in the proband was half of the normal level, indicating a link between haploinsufficiency and POI. Furthermore, another rare heterozygous variant c.500A>G (p.Y167C) was identified in one of 100 sporadic POI cases. Both variants were predicted to be deleterious by multiple in silico tools. In vitro assays showed that knock-down of in human KGN ovarian cells impaired DNA repair capacity. We also generated a knock-in mouse model with a heterozygous variant equivalent to p.R178* in familial patients. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous -mutated female mice required a longer time to first birth, and displayed reduced numbers of primordial and growing follicles. Moreover, these mice exhibited higher sensitivity to DSB-inducing drugs. All these phenotypes are analogous to the progressive loss of ovarian function observed in POI.

Conclusions: Our observations in both humans and mice suggest that haploinsufficiency is associated with non-syndromic POI, providing novel insights into genetic counselling and clinical prevention of POI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107398DOI Listing
April 2021

Radiofrequency ablation reduces pain for knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Surg 2021 Apr 18:105951. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Trauma center, Affiliated Hospital of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Currently, there is poor evidence on the effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on pain and knee function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We performed a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effectiveness and safety of RFA on pain and knee function in individuals with knee OA.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, Ovid and MEDLINE were systematically searched (up to March 20, 2021) to obtain literature focusing on the impact of RFA on knee OA, using the following keywords and their synonyms: "radiofrequency ablation", "neurotomy", "knee" and "osteoarthritis". Two authors independently evaluated the quality of the RCTs according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version. Pooled effects of this meta-analysis were calculated using STATA version 13.0.

Results: Eight RCTs were included for data extraction and meta-analysis. The present study indicated that there were significant differences between the two groups of patients who were treated or not treated with RFA on the pain intensity at 4 week (WMD= -0.504; 95% CI: -0.708 to -0.300; P < 0.001), 12 week (WMD= -0.280; 95% CI: -0.476 to -0.084; P = 0.005) and 24 week (WMD= -2.437; 95% CI: -4.742 to -0.132; P = 0.038). Furthermore, RFA was associated with improved outcome of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis index at 4 week (WMD= -3.189; 95% CI: -5.996 to -0.382, P = 0.026), 12 week (WMD= -3.706; 95% CI:-6.584 to -0.828, P =0.012) and 24 week (WMD= -2.437; 95% CI: -4.742 to -0.132). No serious adverse events were observed in all patients who received RFA (RD= -0.019; 95% CI: -0.053 to 0.016; P=0.294).

Conclusion: RFA showed better effectiveness in relieving pain and promoting function recovery in patients with knee OA. Considering the small sample size of the included studies, the results should be treated with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2021.105951DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison of different local analgesia protocols in postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty.

Braz J Anesthesiol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Yili Xinhua Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Yining, China.

Objectives: This study was to compare the effects of different local analgesia protocols on osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: Medical records of 148 osteoarthritis patients who underwent unilateral TKA between October 2016 and October 2017 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. All these patients were divided into three groups according to the pain management protocol (morphine, morphine + cocktail [100 mg ropivacaine, 10 mg morphine, and 30 mL 0.9% sodium chloride solution containing 2 mL betamethasone (4 mg)], or cocktail). The postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score, muscle strength, and complications were compared between the groups.

Results: At 6 and 12 hours post-operation, the VAS score in group C was significantly higher than that in group A or group B. In addition, the muscle (quadriceps femoris) strength score of group C (3.7 ± 2.8) was significantly higher than that in groups A and B at 6 and 12 hours post-operation. The VAS score and muscle strength score showed no significant differences among the three groups at 24 and 36 hours post-operation. The time of postoperative first void of group C was significantly shorter than that of groups A and B. Groups A or B had a significantly higher incidence of nausea and emesis compared with group C. The incidence of pruritus was higher in groups A or B than that in group C.

Conclusion: Epidural anesthesia combined with local analgesic cocktail injection is a preferable effective multimodal analgesia for TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjane.2020.12.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Novel IMB16-4 Compound Loaded into Silica Nanoparticles Exhibits Enhanced Oral Bioavailability and Increased Anti-Liver Fibrosis In Vitro.

Molecules 2021 Mar 11;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Background: Liver fibrosis, as a common and refractory disease, is challenging to treat due to the lack of effective agents worldwide. Recently, we have developed a novel compound, N-(3,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-2(3-nitrobenzenesulfonamide) benzamide (IMB16-4), which is expected to have good potential effects against liver fibrosis. However, IMB16-4 is water-insoluble and has very low bioavailability.

Methods: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were selected as drug carriers for the purpose of increasing the dissolution of IMB16-4, as well as improving its oral bioavailability and inhibiting liver fibrosis. The physical states of IMB16-4 and IMB16-4-MSNs were investigated using nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), HPLC, UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Results: The results show that MSNs enhanced the dissolution rate of IMB16-4 significantly. IMB16-4-MSNs reduced cytotoxicity at high concentrations of IMB16-4 on human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 cells and improved oral bioavailability up to 530% compared with raw IMB16-4 on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In addition, IMB16-4-MSNs repressed hepatic fibrogenesis by decreasing the expression of hepatic fibrogenic markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) in LX-2 cells.

Conclusions: These results provided powerful information on the use of IMB16-4-MSNs for the treatment of liver fibrosis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000840PMC
March 2021

Pivotal role of endothelial cell autophagy in sepsis.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 29;276:119413. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36 Sanhao Street, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, PR China. Electronic address:

Sepsis is a fatal organ dysfunction resulting from a disordered host response to infection. Endothelial cells (ECs) are usually the primary targets of inflammatory mediators in sepsis; damage to ECs plays a pivotal part in vital organ failure. In recent studies, autophagy was suggested to play a critical role in the ECs injury although the mechanisms by which ECs are injured in sepsis are not well elucidated. Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process that includes sequestrating plasma contents and transporting cargo to lysosomes for recycling the vital substrates required for metabolism. This pathway also counteracts microbial invasion to balance and retain homeostasis, especially during sepsis. Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is closely associated with endothelial function. The role of autophagy in sepsis may or may not be favorable depending upon conditions. In the present review, the current knowledge of autophagy in the process of sepsis and its influence on ECs was evaluated. In addition, the potential of targeting EC autophagy for clinical treatment of sepsis was discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119413DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of Ferroptosis Biomarker in AHH-1 Lymphocytes Associated with Low Dose Radiation.

Health Phys 2021 May;120(5):541-551

Key Discipline Laboratory of National Defense for Biotechnology in Uranium Mining and Hydrometallurgy, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: The impact of long-term low-dose radiation on human health has always been a concern. Long-term low-dose gamma radiation causes cells continuous injury and causes chromosomal mutations to greatly increase the chance of cancer. Because it is significant to identify biomarkers for long-term low-dose gamma radiation, we investigate the influence of low dose rate on the gene expressions in the AHH-1 lymphocytes cell line (AHH-1 cells) for long-term irradiation. Different dose rates (7, 14, 26, 34, and 43 μGy h-1) of irradiation from gamma radiation in uranium tailings powder were used to irradiate AHH-1 lymphocytes. We used flow cytometry to test the apoptosis of AHH-1 lymphocytes at different dose rates and irradiation times (7-84 d). It was found that 14 μGy h-1 is the most sensitive dose rate of AHH-1 lymphocyte irradiation. The 7-, 14-, and 21-d (2.4, 4.8, and 7.2 mGy) irradiation groups were sensitive, and the 84-d (28.8 mGy) irradiation group was insensitive to low dose gamma radiation. Microarray analysis was conducted on the significantly differentially expressed genes (p<0.05) in the 2.4, 4.8, 7.2, and 28.8 mGy irradiation groups. We found that TFRC1, SLC3A2, SLC39A8, FTH1, ACSL4, and GPX4 are significant genes with low-dose radiation and were constituents of the ferroptosis signaling pathway. In the range of 0-4.8 mGy radiation dose, the expressions of these genes were downregulated with increasing radiation dose, while in the range of 4.8-28.8 mGy, its expression increased with increasing radiation dose. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of these genes. The results were consistent with those from microarray analysis. Our findings indicate that expression of the TFRC, SLC3A2, SLC39A, FTH1, ACSL4, and GPX4 genes is sensitive to low-dose radiation, and they are main members of the ferroptosis signaling pathway. Therefore, there is a very important connection between ferroptosis and low-dose radiation, which has become a hot topic in international research. These results can provide reference to the effect of ferroptosis on human health with low-dose radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000001385DOI Listing
May 2021

First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa 'canadensis' causing blackleg on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Pathology, Wuhan, China, Wuhan, HuBei, China, 430070;

Oilseed rape ( L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China. It is widely cultivated in China, with winter oilseed rape in Yangtze River basin and in southern China, and spring oilseed rape in northern China. In August 2017, a survey for spp. on spring oilseed rape was conducted in Minle county, Zhangye city, Gansu Province, China. The symptoms typical of blackleg on basal stems of oilseed rape were observed in the field. A large number of black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) were present on the lesions (Fig. 1A). The disease incidence of basal stem infection in the surveyed field was 19%. A total of 19 diseased stems were collected to isolate the pathogen. After surface sterilizing (75% ethanol for 30 s, 5% NaOCl for 60 s, followed by rinsing in sterilized water three times), diseased tissues were cultured on acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates at 20°C for 7 days. Twelve fungal isolates were obtained. All fungal isolates produced typical tan pigment on PDA medium, and produced pycnidia after two weeks (Fig. 1B). Colony morphological characteristics indicated that these isolates might belong to . To confirm identification, multiple PCR was conducted using the species-specific primers LmacF, LbigF, LmacR (Liu et al. 2006). Genomic DNA of each isolate was extracted using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method. DNA samples of isolate UK-1 and isolate W10 (Cai et al. 2015) were used as references. Only a 444-bp DNA band was detected in all 12 isolates and W10, whereas a 333-bp DNA band was detected only in the UK-1 isolate (Fig. 1C). PCR results suggested that these 12 isolates all belong to . In addition, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of these 12 isolates was analyzed for subspecies identification (Vincenot et al. 2008). Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence showed that five isolates (Lb1134, Lb1136, Lb1138, Lb1139 and Lb1143) belonged to 'brassicae' (Lbb) with 78% bootstrap support, and the other seven isolates (Lb1135, Lb1137, Lb1140, Lb1141, Lb1142, Lb1144 and Lb1145) belonged to 'canadensis' (Lbc) with 95% bootstrap support (Fig. 1D). Two Lbb isolates (Lb1134 and Lb1136) and two Lbc isolates (Lb1142 and Lb1144) were randomly selected for pathogenicity testing on cultivar Zhongshuang No. 9 (Wang et al. 2002). Conidial suspensions (10 μL, 1 × 107 conidia mL-1) of these four isolates were inoculated on needle-wounded cotyledons (14-day-old seedling), with 10 cotyledons (20 wounded sites) per isolate. A further 10 wounded cotyledons were inoculated with water and served as controls. Seedlings were maintained in a growth chamber at 20°C with 100% relative humidity and a 12-h photoperiod. After 7 days, cotyledons inoculated with the four isolates showed necrotic lesions in the inoculated wounds. Control cotyledons had no symptoms (Fig. 2). Fungi re-isolated from the infected cotyledons showed similar colony morphology as the original isolates. Therefore, 'brassicae' and 'canadensis' appear to be the pathogens causing the observed blackleg symptoms on spring oilseed rape in Gansu, China. In previous studies, 'brassicae' has been found in many crops in China, including oilseed rape (Liu et al. 2014; Cai et al. 2015), Chinese radish () (Cai et al. 2014a), ssp. var. (Cai et al. 2014b), broccoli ( var. ) (Luo et al. 2018), ornamental kale ( var. ) (Zhou et al. 2019a), var. (Zhou et al. 2019b), var. (Deng et al. 2020) and Chinese cabbage ( subsp. ) (Yu et al. 2021 accepted). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 'canadensis' causing blackleg on in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2735-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Identification and Characterization of the ATG8, a Marker of Eimeria tenella Autophagy.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 12;30(1):e017020. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, P R China.

Autophagy plays an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis through degradation of denatured proteins and other biological macromolecules. In recent years, many researchers focus on mechanism of autophagy in apicomplexan parasites, but little was known about this process in avian coccidia. In our present study. The cloning, sequencing and characterization of autophagy-related gene (Etatg8) were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), western blotting (WB), indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results have shown 375-bp ORF of Etatg8, encoding a protein of 124 amino acids in E. tenella, the protein structure and properties are similar to other apicomplexan parasites. RT-qPCR revealed Etatg8 gene expression during four developmental stages in E. tenella, but their transcriptional levels were significantly higher at the unsporulated oocysts stage. WB and IFA showed that EtATG8 was lipidated to bind the autophagosome membrane under starvation or rapamycin conditions, and aggregated in the cytoplasm of sporozoites and merozoites, however, the process of autophagosome membrane production can be inhibited by 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, we found that E. tenella has a conserved autophagy mechanism like other apicomplexan parasites, and EtATG8 can be used as a marker for future research on autophagy targeting avian coccidia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612021002DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of soil conservation measures on wind erosion control in China: A synthesis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;778:146308. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

College of Surveying and Geo-informatics, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045, China.

Soil conservation measures (SCM) are believed to be effective in terms of wind erosion control. Currently, most studies regarding the efficacy of SCM in erosion control are based on data of individual experimental sites. A comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of SCM and related impacting factors at large scale is lacking. A synthesis was conducted in this study based on data compiled from field experiments in major eroded regions of China in order to fully evaluate the efficacy of various SCM practices in erosion reduction, and further assess how their efficacy varied under different environmental conditions. Two main SCM categories were identified, i.e. agricultural measures (AM) used for both crop production and erosion control, and vegetation measures (VM) used for erosion control only. The results showed that SCM could lead to a significant reduction of wind erosion by over a half (0.51). The reduction of wind erosion under VM (0.56) was significantly higher than AM (0.46). Specifically, most AM and all the VM investigated in this study were beneficial for wind erosion control. Multiple cropping was the only practice that significantly increased the wind erosion rate compared to the conventional treatment. We further found that the effectiveness of SCM highly dependent on precipitation, temperature, soil organic carbon concentration, soil water content, soil type, elevation, and vegetation coverage. The responses of the efficacy of AM and VM to these environmental conditions also differed. Another important finding is that the lowest efficacy of SCM in erosion control was observed in regions with the highest erosion risk, indicating the greater challenge in erosion reduction in these regions. The efficacy of SCM quantified in this study can be used as an essential reference for the adoption of SCM in China and the environmental conditions should also be considered carefully when designing a SCM application framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146308DOI Listing
March 2021

Promotion of tomato growth by the volatiles produced by the hypovirulent strain QT5-19 of the plant gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 20;247:126731. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology and Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Our previous study identified a hypovirulent strain QT5-19 of Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of the plant gray mold disease, and found that QT5-19 can produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with high antifungal activity and high control efficacy against B. cinerea. However, impact of the QT5-19 VOCs on plant growth remains unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of the QT5-19 VOCs on tomato growth, and to elucidate the mechanisms for the plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity of the QT5-19 VOCs. Results showed that compared to the control treatment, the QT5-19 VOCs significantly (P < 0.05) promoted tomato growth, and the PGP activity of the QT5-19 VOCs acted in dose- and time-dependent manners. Results also showed that the values of photosynthetic assimilation, stomatal conductance and transpiration, water use efficiency and chlorophyll content in the treatments of the QT5-19 VOCs were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the corresponding values in the control treatment. The QT5-19 VOCs up-regulated expression of the genes for expansins (EXP2, EXP9 and EXP18), IAA (SlIAA1, SlIAA3 and SlIAA9), cytokinins (SlCKX1) and gibberellins in leaves and/or roots, whereas down-regulated expression of the gene ACO1 for ethylene in both organs. Moreover, enhanced accumulation of auxins and decreased accumulation of ethylene were observed in tomato roots in the treatment of the QT5-19 VOCs, compared to the control treatment. These results suggest that the QT5-19 VOCs probably promote tomato growth through improving photosynthesis and biosynthesis of expansins and IAA, and reducing ethylene biosynthesis. This study suggests that QT5-19 is a versatile biocontrol control agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126731DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of Outcomes Between Anti-Nuss Operation and Modified Anti-Nuss Operation Using a Flexible Plate for Correcting Pectus Carinatum: A Retrospective Study.

Front Surg 2020 15;7:600755. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The anti-Nuss procedure has gradually been found to have several shortcomings in clinical practice. Accordingly, our department previously designed and introduced a new steel plate. However, there is limited evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Thus, we aim to compare the efficacy and safety of the conventional anti-Nuss operation with those of a modified anti-Nuss operation using a flexible plate. Patients with pectus carinatum who underwent surgery between January 2014 and August 2019 were consecutively enrolled in this single-center, retrospective study. In all, 53 patients underwent the modified procedure using the new steel plate (new procedure group), whereas 43 underwent the conventional anti-Nuss procedure (traditional procedure group). Outcome analysis was performed using SPSS to compare the intraoperative and postoperative short-term outcomes. All patients in the new procedure group had shorter operation duration (75.23 ± 11.90 vs. 82.45 ± 9.30 min, = 0.008), postoperative hospitalizations (3.42 ± 0.95 vs. 4.64 ± 1.53 days, = 0.039), and plate removal surgery durations (40.60 ± 3.47 vs. 60.30 ± 9.75 min, = 0.041) than patients in the traditional procedure group. There were no significant differences in the length of incision, postoperative Haller index, cost, postoperative surgical outcome, and incidence of complications between the two groups. Our data reveal that the main clinical outcomes were similar for after anti-Nuss operation and modified anti-Nuss operation. However, the modified procedure for pectus carinatum had a shorter operation duration, postoperative hospitalization, and plate removal surgery duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.600755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920095PMC
February 2021

First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa 'brassicae' causing Black Leg on Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Protection, Wuhan, Hubei , China;

Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt] is a major leafy vegetable crop grown in China and eastern Asia (Fordham and Hadley 2003). In December 2018, black leg symptoms were observed on of "Qingza No.3" of Chinese cabbage during harvest, Chibi (29°46'37.38''N, 114°05'6.88''E), Hubei, China. Symptoms were first noted in late Nov. as black spots on leaf petioles and basal stems. Then, black spots enlarged as oval or irregular-shaped grayish lesions. Finally, lesions enlarged and coalesced with black pycnidia were observed, and some diseased leaves became blighted. The disease incidence was about 80% in three fields surveyed (~2 ha in total). Diseased plant tissues were surface-sterilized, and incubated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates at 20°C for 4 days. Three fungal isolates, namely EP9-19, EP9-22 and EP9-26, were obtained from five of the diseased samples; all produced fluffy, white aerial mycelia and a yellow pigment on PDA. After 14 days, black-brown and globose pycnidia were produced, approximately 150 μm in diameter (n = 50). In addition, pink pycnidiospore ooze was observed on the top of pycnidium after 20-day culturing on a V8-juice (20%) agar. Conidia were cylindrical and hyaline, with the mean size of 4.6 × 2.7 μm (n = 50). Two fungal species have been reported to cause blackleg on Brassica crops (Williams and Fitt 1999), i.e. Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa. The former is much more destructive, but is not present in China. These isolates had morphological characteristics matching those of L. biglobosa (Williams and Fitt 1999). The genomic DNA of isolate EP9-22 was extracted and sequenced for its actin, β-tubulin and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA as described by Vincenot et al. (2008). Sequences of ITS (GenBank accession no. MN238766), actin (MN242213) and β-tubulin (MN242214) for isolate EP9-22 showed 100%, 99.67%, and 97.93% identity to the corresponding regions of L. biglobosa 'brassicae' strain IBCN89 (Vincenot et al. 2008). In addition, the phylogenetic analysis also indicated that isolate EP9-22 belonged to L. biglobosa 'brassicae'. The pathogenicity test was performed according to established protocols (Balesdent et al., 2005). Cotyledons of the 15-day-old Chinese cabbage seedlings (cultivars Xiaoza No.55 and Hualiangzao No.5) were wound inoculated with 10 μl pycnidiospore suspension (1 × 107 conidia/ml) of the three isolates, with 20 cotyledons per isolate, respectively, and 20 cotyledons wound inoculated with sterile water served as a control group. The treated seedlings were maintained at 20°C and 100% relative humidity with a 12-h photoperiod. The experiment was repeated twice. At 7 days after inoculation, necrotic lesions became visible surrounding inoculation sites for the three isolates, while the control group remained healthy. Fungal isolates showing a similar colony morphology to the originals were re-isolated from ten diseased cotyledons but not from the control cotyledons. Based on these results, L. biglobosa 'brassicae' was shown to be the causal agent of blackleg on Chinese cabbage in China. We believe that this disease has historically often been misidentified as 'anthracnose' by local famers. The threat from L. biglobosa to the production of Chinese cabbage has been assessed. This accurate identification of the causal pathogen is a critical first step towards the development of disease management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-20-1938-PDNDOI Listing
February 2021

LAMP Detection and Identification of the Blackleg Pathogen 'brassicae'.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Protection, Wuhan, HuBei, China.

Blackleg of oilseed rape is a damaging invasive disease caused by the species complex (Lm)/ (Lb), which are composed of at least two and seven phylogenetic subclades, respectively. Generally, Lm is more virulent than Lb, however, under certain conditions, Lb can cause a significant yield loss in oilseed rape. Lb 'brassicae' (Lbb) has been found to be the causal agent for blackleg of oilseed rape in China, whereas Lm and Lb 'canadensis' (Lbc) were frequently detected in imported seeds of oilseed rape, posing a risk of spread into China. In order to monitor the blackleg-pathogen populations, a diagnostic tool based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was developed using a 615-bp-long DNA sequence from Lbb that was derived from a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay. The LAMP was optimized for temperature and time, and tested for specificity and sensitivity using the DNA extracted from Lbb, Lbc, Lm, and 10 other fungi. The results showed that the optimal temperature and time were 65°C and 40 min, respectively. The LAMP primer set was specific to Lbb and highly sensitive as it detected the Lbb DNA as low as 132 fg per reaction. The LAMP assay was validated using the DNA extracted from mycelia and conidia of a well-characterized Lbb isolate, and its utility was evaluated using the DNA extracted from leaves, stems, pods and seeds of oilseed rape. The LAMP assay developed herein will help for monitoring populations of the blackleg pathogens in China and developing strategies for management of the blackleg disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-08-20-1819-REDOI Listing
February 2021

High-Quality Genome Resource of strain CanS41 by Oxford Nanopore Long-Read Sequencing.

Plant Dis 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Northwest A&F University, 12469, Plant Protection, Yangling China, Yangling, China, 712100;

is a necrotrophic mycoparasitic fungus with excellent biological control ability against numerous fungal plant pathogens. Here, we performed genomic sequencing of strain CanS41 using Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology. We generated a high-quality genome assembly (>99.99% accuracy), which comprised 26 contigs containing 60.68 Mb sequences with a GC content of 48.55% and a repeat content of 8.38%. The N50 contig length is 3.02 Mb. In total, 20,818 protein-coding genes were identified and functionally annotated. Genes encoding secreted proteins and carbohydrate-active enzymes as well as secondary metabolic gene clusters were also identified and analyzed. In summary, the high-quality genome assembly and gene annotation provided here will allow further exploration of biological functions and enhance biological control ability of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2615-ADOI Listing
February 2021

Sparse self-attention aggregation networks for neural sequence slice interpolation.

BioData Min 2021 Feb 1;14(1):10. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 95 Zhongguancun East Road, Beijing, 100190, China.

Background: Microscopic imaging is a crucial technology for visualizing neural and tissue structures. Large-area defects inevitably occur during the imaging process of electron microscope (EM) serial slices, which lead to reduced registration and semantic segmentation, and affect the accuracy of 3D reconstruction. The continuity of biological tissue among serial EM images makes it possible to recover missing tissues utilizing inter-slice interpolation. However, large deformation, noise, and blur among EM images remain the task challenging. Existing flow-based and kernel-based methods have to perform frame interpolation on images with little noise and low blur. They also cannot effectively deal with large deformations on EM images.

Results: In this paper, we propose a sparse self-attention aggregation network to synthesize pixels following the continuity of biological tissue. First, we develop an attention-aware layer for consecutive EM images interpolation that implicitly adopts global perceptual deformation. Second, we present an adaptive style-balance loss taking the style differences of serial EM images such as blur and noise into consideration. Guided by the attention-aware module, adaptively synthesizing each pixel aggregated from the global domain further improves the performance of pixel synthesis. Quantitative and qualitative experiments show that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art approaches.

Conclusions: The proposed method can be considered as an effective strategy to model the relationship between each pixel and other pixels from the global domain. This approach improves the algorithm's robustness to noise and large deformation, and can accurately predict the effective information of the missing region, which will greatly promote the data analysis of neurobiological research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13040-021-00236-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852179PMC
February 2021

Effect of Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Gene on Stable Expression Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Early Aseptic Loosening of Hip Prosthesis of Mouse.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 Mar 19;63(3):232-239. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Orthopaedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, 830054, Xinjiang, China.

The research aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in the early aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis and whether IL-1Ra can be expressed in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, the IL-1Ra gene was firstly connected to the lentiviral vector LV5, and the lentiviral vector LV5-home-IL1Ra was obtained by recombination. Then the recombinant LV5-home-IL1Ra was co-transfected with the virus-assisted plasmid into 293 T cells and packaged to produce lentivirus. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were infected with packaged lentiviruses. The relative expression of IL-1Ra mRNA in BMSCs was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. The expression of IL-1Ra protein in BMSCs was detected by western blot transfer electrophoresis. Peripheral venous blood samples from 108 patients and healthy subjects underwent total hip replacement were collected to detect the levels of plasma biomarkers procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP), N-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (NTX), osteoprotegerin (OPG), TNGα, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and IL-1β. The recombinant lentivirus vector IL-1Ra was successfully constructed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Lentivirus-mediated IL-1Ra gene could efficiently transfection bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and the cell growth density reached about 80% at 72 h after infection. The transfection rate was about 90%, and the fluorescence was enhanced. The relative mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-1Ra in the BMSCs-IL-1Ra group were significantly higher than those in the BMSCs group and the BMSCs-con group (P < 0.01). The late loosening group of IL-1β was significantly higher than the stable prosthesis group and the healthy group (P < 0.05). The ROC curve showed that IL-1 background had strong diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, which was similar to the X-ray score of osteolysis and had the most significant diagnostic significance. Lentivirus-transfected exogenous IL-1Ra can be expressed stably in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and IL-1β, an antagonist of IL-1Ra, plays an important role in the early aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-020-00297-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Dental pulp stem cells overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor facilitate the repair of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jan 7;12(1):30. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and recurrent disease without satisfactory treatment strategies. Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) transplantation has been proposed as a potential therapy for UC. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of the rat hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene transduced into DPSCs for UC.

Methods: The therapeutic effects of HGF-DPSCs transplanted intravenously into a rat model of UC induced by 5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) were compared with the other treatment groups (LV-HGF group, DPSCs group and GFP-DPSCs group). Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the localization and proliferation of HGF-DPSCs at the site of colon injury. The expression levels of inflammatory factors were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The oxidative stress markers were detected by ELISA. DAI scores and body weight changes were used to macroscopically evaluate the treatment of rats in each group.

Results: Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays showed that HGF-DPSCs homed to colon injury sites and colocalized with intestinal stem cell (ISC) markers (Bmi1, Musashi1 and Sox9) and significantly promoted protein expression (Bmi1, Musashi1, Sox9 and PCNA). Anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-β and IL-10) expression was the highest in the HGF-DPSCs group compared with the other treatment groups, while the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and INF-γ) was the lowest. Additionally, the oxidative stress response results showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression decreased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression increased, especially in the HGF-DPSCs group. The DAI scores showed a downward trend with time in the five treatment groups, whereas body weight increased, and the changes were most prominent in the HGF-DPSCs group.

Conclusions: The study indicated that HGF-DPSCs can alleviate injuries to the intestinal mucosa by transdifferentiating into ISC-like cells, promoting ISC-like cell proliferation, suppressing inflammatory responses and reducing oxidative stress damage, which provides new ideas for the clinical treatment of UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02098-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792189PMC
January 2021

Giant enhancement of exciton diffusivity in two-dimensional semiconductors.

Sci Adv 2020 Dec 18;6(51). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors bear great promise for application in optoelectronic devices, but the low diffusivity of excitons stands as a notable challenge for device development. Here, we demonstrate that the diffusivity of excitons in monolayer MoS can be improved from 1.5 ± 0.5 to 22.5 ± 2.5 square centimeters per second with the presence of trapped charges. This is manifested by a spatial expansion of photoluminescence when the incident power reaches a threshold value to enable the onset of exciton Mott transition. The trapped charges are estimated to be in a scale of 10 per square centimeter and do not affect the emission features and recombination dynamics of the excitons. The result indicates that trapped charges provide an attractive strategy to screen exciton scattering with phonons and impurities/defects. Pointing towards a new pathway to control exciton transport and many-body interactions in 2D semiconductors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb4823DOI Listing
December 2020

Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of aspartyl protease inhibitor from Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2020 12 10;22:100464. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Guangdong Provincial Zoonosis Prevention and Control Key Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510542, China. Electronic address:

Aspartyl protease inhibitors (APIs) from parasitic intestinal nematodes are highly immunogenic and have been suggested as potential vaccine antigens. Ac-API-1 from Ancylostoma caninum showed strong immunogenicity and its polyclonal antibodies could specifically recognize the excretory/secretory products of adult worms. However, little is known about molecular characteristics and biological function of API from Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Ace-API). In this study, the Ace-API mature peptide coding sequence was cloned and expressed, and molecular characteristics of its full length sequence were analyzed. Ace-API cDNA was 684 bp in length, which encoded 228 amino acids. The similarity of the Ace-API amino acid sequence to Ac-API-1 and Adu-API-1 was 96.93% and 96.49%, respectively, and they clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. Escheria coli-expressed recombinant protein was mainly soluble in the supernatant of bacterial cell lysate. Western blot showed that Ace-API protein had good reactivity to the serum of infected dogs. Pepsin inhibition assay revealed that the recombinant protein had inhibitory activity on pepsin. Immunofluorescence results demonstrated that Ace-API was mainly localized to the epidermis, excretory glands, and pseudocoelomic fluid of the adult. Using the quantitative real-time PCR, the expression of Ace-api mRNA in adults was significantly higher than that in the third stage (L3) larvae. Together, these data indicate that Ace-API is secreted extracellularly by the parasite, and might play a role in protecting the parasite against the proteolytic digestion by the host proteases, which stimulate further studies to explore this protein as a potential hookworm vaccine candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2020.100464DOI Listing
December 2020

Characterization of a novel genomovirus in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea.

Virology 2021 Jan 24;553:111-116. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

The State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China; The Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.

This study characterized a single-stranded circular DNA virus in Botrytis cinerea-namely, Botrytis cinerea genomovirus 1 (BcGV1). The genome of BcGV1 was 1710 nucleotides (nts) long, possessing two ORFs, encoding a putative replication initiation protein (Rep) and a hypothetical protein. The Rep contained seven conserved motifs. The two ORFs were separated by two intergenic regions; the large intergenic region (LIR) contained 259 nts while the small intergenic region (SIR) contained 95 nts. A nonanucleotide, TAACAGTAC, in the LIR was predicted to be associated with the initiation of viral replication. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed by Reps, BcGV1 belongs to the family Genomoviridae, forming an independent branch, indicating that BcGV1 may belong to a new genus. BcGV1 could be detected in 6.7% of tested B. cinerea strains, suggesting that BcGV1 may be widely distributed in the Chinese B. cinerea population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.11.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Experimental Investigation of the Matrix Pore Size Distribution and Inner Surface Fractal Dimension of Different-Structure High Rank Coals.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Jan;21(1):529-537

Guangzhou Municipal Engineering Design & Research Institute Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510000, China.

To investigate the nanopore characteristics of different-structure high-rank coal matrices, four samples were collected from the Zhaozhuang Mine, a typical mine highly prone to coal and gas outbursts in Shanxi Province, China, and the nanopore size distribution was measured using a lowtemperature nitrogen adsorption method for these four samples. Based on the nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the inner surface fractal dimensions of micropores, meso- and macropores, and full-scale matrix pores were estimated using a Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FFH) fractal model, and the relationships between the fractal dimensions and pore parameters were discussed. The inner surface of the high-rank coal matrix is heterogeneous. The inner surface fractal dimensions of micropores () and full-scale matrix pores () can be arranged in a descending sequence for the differentstructure coals: mylonitized coal > granulated coal > cataclastic coal > intact coal, while the inner surface fractal dimensions of meso- and macropores (₂) are in an ascending sequence. With the increasing deformation degree of coals, some macropores and mesopores are transformed into smaller pores, such as micropores; the total pore volume (PV) and total specific surface area (SSA) increase; the SSA percentage and PV percentage of meso- and micropores increase; and those of macropores decrease. The average pore width (APW) is positively correlated with ₂ and negatively correlated with and . The tectonic deformation enhances the irregularity of micropores and the heterogeneity of the whole coal matrix pores and decreases the inner surface roughness of meso- and macropores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.18516DOI Listing
January 2021

Polyploidization is accompanied by synonymous codon usage bias in the chloroplast genomes of both cotton and wheat.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(11):e0242624. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

The Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaption, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) of both nuclear and organellar genes can mirror the evolutionary specialization of plants. The polyploidization process exposes the nucleus to genomic shock, a syndrome which promotes, among other genetic variants, SCUB. Its effect on organellar genes has not, however, been widely addressed. The present analysis targeted the chloroplast genomes of two leading polyploid crop species, namely cotton and bread wheat. The frequency of codons in the chloroplast genomes ending in either adenosine (NNA) or thymine (NNT) proved to be higher than those ending in either guanidine or cytosine (NNG or NNC), and this difference was conserved when comparisons were made between polyploid and diploid forms in both the cotton and wheat taxa. Preference for NNA/T codons was heterogeneous among genes with various numbers of introns and was also differential among the exons. SCUB patterns distinguished tetraploid cotton from its diploid progenitor species, as well as bread wheat from its diploid/tetraploid progenitor species, indicating that SCUB in the chloroplast genome partially mirrors the formation of polyploidies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242624PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676672PMC
January 2021

Autophagy induced by monensin serves as a mechanism for programmed death in Eimeria tenella.

Vet Parasitol 2020 Nov 5;287:109181. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Monensin (Mon), the first ionophoric antibiotic has widely been used for the treatment and prevention of coccidiosis in poultry until recently, however, at present; its efficacy has been compromised with the emergence of many Mon-resistant strains. Knowledge of the mode of the action of anti-parasitic agents is as important as for other antimicrobials, especially for discovery and long term use of the existing drugs. However, little is known about anti-parasitic drug: monensin's, mechanism of action and physiological alteration in Eimeria tenella. In this study, we explored Mon effects on the viability of Mon-Sensitive GZ (MonS-GZ) and Mon-Resistant GZ (MonR-GZ) Eimeria tenella strains using trypan blue staining and investigated Mon-induced autophagy using Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that monensin leads to programmed death of E. tenella parasites by inducing autophagy as a mechanism of anticoccidial action. Mon-induced autophagy was indicated by the decreased sporozoites survival rate, ATG8 over expression and localization, and intracellular vacuolar structures and autophagosomes formation in MonS-GZ strain while in MonR-GZ strains autophagy pathway was not triggered. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) effectively blocked programmed cell death and saved the MonS-GZ sporozoites. These findings indicated that autophagy serves as a potentially important mechanism of E. tenella cell death in response to Mon and disruption of the autophagy pathway may lead to emergence of drug resistance against this anti-parasitic drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2020.109181DOI Listing
November 2020

Recent advances in studies of molecular hydrogen in the treatment of pancreatitis.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 24;264:118641. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No.36 Sanhao Street, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, PR China. Electronic address:

Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by acinar cell injury and is associated with the abnormal release of trypsin, which results in high mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). The inflammatory response, impaired autophagic flux, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and their interactions are involved in the development of pancreatitis. Molecular hydrogen (H) is a novel antioxidant that possesses the features of selective scavenging of oxygen free radicals and nontoxic metabolites and has been shown to be efficacious for treating infection, injury, tumors, ischemia-reperfusion organ injury, metabolic disease and several other diseases. Recent studies have found that H is also useful in the treatment of pancreatitis, which may be related to the mechanism of antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, regulation of immunity and regulation of molecular pathways. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and the research progress and potential mechanisms of H against pancreatitis to provide theoretical bases for future research and clinical application of H therapy for pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118641DOI Listing
January 2021

Color-switchable hybrid dots/hydroxyethyl cellulose ink for anti-counterfeiting applications.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jan 13;251:117084. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

School of Printing and Packaging, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, PR China. Electronic address:

Many anti-counterfeiting inks have been explored recently, most of them are commonly involved in weak fastness, high cost and long-term toxicity, impeding their real-life applications. Herein, an environment-friendly and inexpensive anti-counterfeiting ink with excellent fastness is reported. The untifake ink is developed by combining hybrid dots (silicon/carbon) with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) binder. Interestingly, the HEC binder can effectively prevent from aggregation-induced quenching of hybrid dots. Subsequently, the customized patterns are successfully transferred onto different surfaces of various substrates including cotton fabric, cellulosic paper, glass, metal, silicon wafer and PET film, using the as-prepared ink by screen-printing technique, exhibiting that the hybrid dots/HEC ink possesses widespread practicability. Notably, fluorescent color of these patterns can be switchable by adjusting environmental pH-value, further imparting the as-prepared ink with excellent covert performance. This new fluorescent hybrid dots/HEC ink will be promising candidates for high-level anti-counterfeiting applications including food packaging, apparel and documents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117084DOI Listing
January 2021

Variation in from plantations in YunNan Province in southwestern China across a climatic gradient.

IMA Fungus 2020 15;11:22. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding (SKLTGB), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), Haidian District, Beijing, 100091 China.

The accommodates many important pathogens of woody plants, including . Recently, were isolated from diseased plant parts from surveys of plantations in the YunNan Province, China. The aims of this study were to identify these isolates and to evaluate their pathogenicity to . A total of 166 isolates of were obtained from six regions in the YunNan Province, of which 76 were from × hybrids, 49 from trees, and 41 isolates were from other unknown species or hybrids. Isolates were identified by comparing DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal RNA locus (ITS), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (), β-tubulin 2 () and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit () genes, and combined with their morphological characteristics. Eleven species were identified, including , , , , , and six novel species described as , , , , and . The dominant species across the regions were , and , representing 31.3, 25.3 and 19.9% of the total isolates, respectively. Species diversity and composition changed across the different climatic zones, despite their relatively close geographic proximity and the fact that some of the species have a global distribution. All the species were pathogenic to one-year-old plants of an × clone and seed-derived plants, but showed significant inter- and intra-species variation in aggressiveness amongst isolates. The study provides a foundation for monitoring and management of through selection and breeding of in the YunNan Province of southwestern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-020-00043-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560076PMC
October 2020

Occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. in household, shelter, breeding, and pet market dogs in Guangzhou, southern China.

Sci Rep 2020 10 20;10(1):17736. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. are common intestinal protozoans that infect humans and animals worldwide. A survey that assessed the prevalence, molecular characteristics, and zoonotic potential of these pathogens was conducted on a variety of dogs in Guangzhou, southern China. A total of 651 canine stool samples from household (n = 199), shelter (n = 149), breeding (n = 237), and pet market dogs (n = 66) were collected from eight districts in Guangzhou. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. were detected by PCR amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. Giardia duodenalis-positive specimens were further assigned into assemblages using the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and Blastocystis sp. were found in 21 (3.2%), 20 (3.1%), and 35 (5.4%) samples, respectively. The overall prevalence of shelter dogs (40.28%, 60/149) was significantly higher than that of household (3.0%, 6/199), breeding (2.1%, 5/237), and pet market dogs (7.5%, 5/66) (χ = 154.72, df = 3, P < 0.001). Deworming in the past 12 months had a strong protective effect on the risk of contracting parasite infections (P < 0.001). No significant differences were detected between age or sex groups (P > 0.05). Dog-specific C. canis (n = 19) and zoonotic C. parvum (n = 2) were the only two Cryptosporidium species. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of three G. duodenalis assemblages: dog-specific assemblages D (n = 14) and C (n = 5), and cat-specific F (n = 1). Zoonotic Blastocystis ST3 (n = 28) was the dominant subtype, followed by ST1 (n = 6) and ST10 (n = 1). To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale investigation on the occurrence and molecular characteristics of Blastocystis sp. in dogs in China. Our results indicated that the dogs seemed to play a negligible role as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis transmission to humans, but they are potential novel suitable hosts of Blastocystis sp. A strict sentinel surveillance system of dogs should be established to minimise the zoonotic risk of spreading blastocystosis among humans and dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74299-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576217PMC
October 2020

The combined antibacterial effects of sodium new houttuyfonate and berberine chloride against growing and persistent methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.

BMC Microbiol 2020 10 19;20(1):317. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Background: Infections caused by drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, especially vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA), leave clinicians with limited therapeutic options for treatment. Persister cells is a leading cause of recalcitrant infection and antibiotic treatment failure, and there is no drug in clinical use that specifically targets persister cells currently. Here, we report a promising combination therapy of sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH) and berberine chloride (BBR) which is able to eradicate both growing and persistent drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Results: The susceptibility test showed SNH exhibited anti-MRSA activity with MIC at 64 μg/mL, while BBR showed weak anti-MRSA activity with MIC at 512 μg/mL. MICs of BBR in combination with 1/2 MIC SNH decreased by 4 to 64 folds compared with MICs of BBR alone. The results of time-killing assays revealed that the combined use of sub-MIC SNH and BBR offered an in vitro synergistic action against growing MRSA (including pathogenic MRSA) and VISA strains. More importantly, the combination of SNH and BBR was able to eradicate VISA Mu50 and pathogenic MRSA persister cells. The synergistic effect is likely related to the interruption of the cell membrane caused by SNH, which is confirmed by scanning electron microscope and membrane potential and permeability analysis.

Conclusions: Our study provide a promising clinical curative strategy for combating drug-resistant S. aureus infections, especially for recalcitrant infections caused by persister cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-02003-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574187PMC
October 2020