Publications by authors named "Guoqing Hu"

242 Publications

Electromagnetic Field-Programmed Magnetic Vortex Nanodelivery System for Efficacious Cancer Therapy.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 18:e2100950. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710069, China.

Effective delivery of anticancer drugs into the nucleus for pharmacological action is impeded by a series of intratumoral transport barriers. Despite the significant potential of magnetic nanovehicles in electromagnetic field (EF)-activated drug delivery, modularizing a tandem magnetoresponsive activity in a one-nanoparticle system to meet different requirements at both tissue and cellular levels remain highly challenging. Herein, a strategy is described by employing sequential EF frequencies in inducing a succession of magnetoresponses in the magnetic nanovehicles that aims to realize cascaded tissue penetration and nuclear accumulation. This nanovehicle features ferrimagnetic vortex-domain iron oxide nanorings coated with a thermo-responsive polyethylenimine copolymer (PI/FVIOs). It is shown that the programmed cascading of low frequency (Lf)-EF-induced magnetophoresis and medium frequency (Mf)-EF-stimulated magneto-thermia can steer the Doxorubicin (DOX)-PI/FVIOs to the deep tissue and subsequently trigger intracellular burst release of DOX for successful nuclear entry. By programming the order of different EF frequencies, it is demonstrated that first-stage Lf-EF and subsequent Mf-EF operation enables DOX-PI/FVIOs to effectively deliver 86.2% drug into the nucleus in vivo. This nanodelivery system empowers potent antitumoral activity in various models of intractable tumors, including DOX-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells with poor permeability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100950DOI Listing
July 2021

Disability-adjusted life years associated with population ageing in China, 1990-2017.

BMC Geriatr 2021 06 16;21(1):369. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, China.

Background: The Chinese population has aged significantly in the last few decades. Comprehensive health losses including both fatal and non-fatal health outcomes associated with ageing in China have not been detailed.

Methods: Based on freely accessible disability adjusted life years (DALYs) estimated by the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) 2017, we adopted a robust decomposition method that ascribes changes in DALYs in any given country across two time points to changes resulting from three sources: population size, age structure, and age-specific DALYs rate per 100,000 population. Using the method, we calculated DALYs associated with population ageing in China from 1990 to 2017 and examined the counteraction between the effects of DALYs rate change and population ageing. This method extends previous work through attributing the change in DALYs to the three sources.

Results: Population ageing was associated with 92.8 million DALYs between 1990 and 2017 in China, of which 65.8% (61.1 million) were years of life lost (YLLs). Males had comparatively more DALYs associated with population ageing than females in the study period. The five leading causes of DALYs associated with population ageing between 1990 and 2017 were stroke (23.6 million), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (18.3 million), ischemic heart disease (13.0 million), tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (6.1 million) and liver cancer (5.0 million). Between 1990 and 2017, changes in DALYs associated with age-specific DALY rate reductions far exceeded those related to population ageing (- 196.2 million versus 92.8 million); 57.5% (- 112.8 million) of DALYs were caused by decreases in rates attributed to 84 modifiable risk factors.

Conclusion: Population ageing was associated with growing health loss in China from 1990 to 2017. Despite the recent progress in alleviating health loss associated with population ageing, the government should encourage scientific research on effective and affordable prevention and control strategies and should consider investment in resources to implement strategies nationwide to address the future challenge of population ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02322-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207592PMC
June 2021

Machine learning assisted fast prediction of inertial lift in microchannels.

Lab Chip 2021 06;21(13):2544-2556

Department of Engineering Mechanics, State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Inertial effect has been extensively used in manipulating both engineered particles and biocolloids in microfluidic platforms. The design of inertial microfluidic devices largely relies on precise prediction of particle migration that is determined by the inertial lift acting on the particle. In spite of being the only means to accurately obtain the lift forces, direct numerical simulation (DNS) often consumes high computational cost and even becomes impractical when applied to microchannels with complex geometries. Herein, we proposed a fast numerical algorithm in conjunction with machine learning techniques for the analysis and design of inertial microfluidic devices. A database of inertial lift forces was first generated by conducting DNS over a wide range of operating parameters in straight microchannels with three types of cross-sectional shapes, including rectangular, triangular and semicircular shapes. A machine learning assisted model was then developed to gain the inertial lift distribution, by simply specifying the cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and particle blockage ratio. The resultant inertial lift was integrated into the Lagrangian tracking method to quickly predict the particle trajectories in two types of microchannels in practical devices and yield good agreement with experimental observations. Our database and the associated codes allow researchers to expedite the development of the inertial microfluidic devices for particle manipulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1lc00225bDOI Listing
June 2021

Media Reports about Violence against Medical Care Providers in China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 12;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.

Improper, unprofessional, or misleading media reports about violence against medical care providers (typically doctors and nurses) may provoke copycat incidents. To examine whether media reports about violence against medical care providers in China follow professional journalism recommendations, we identified 10 influential incidents of violence against medical care providers in China through a systematic strategy and used standardized internet-based search techniques to retrieve media reports about these events from 2007-2017. Reports were evaluated independently by trained coders to assess adherence to professional journalism recommendations using a 14-item checklist. In total, 788 eligible media reports were considered. Of those, 50.5% and 47.3%, respectively, failed to mention the real and complete names of the writer and editor. Reports improperly mentioned specific details about the time, place, methods, and perpetrators of violence in 42.1%, 36.4%, 45.4%, and 54.6% of cases, respectively. Over 80% of reports excluded a suggestion to seek help from professional agencies or mediation by a third party and only 3.8% of reports mentioned the perspectives of all three key informants about an event: medical care providers, patients, and hospital administrators. Of those that mentioned medical care providers, patient, and/or hospital administrator perspectives, less than 20% indicated they had obtained the interviewee's consent to include their perspective. We concluded that most reports about violence against medical care providers in the Chinese media failed to strictly follow reporting recommendations from authoritative media bodies. Efforts are recommended to improve adherence to professional guidelines in media reports about violence against medical care providers in China, as adherence to those guidelines is likely to reduce future violent events against medical care providers like doctors and nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998756PMC
March 2021

Changes in Six-Month Prevalence of Circulatory System Diseases among People Aged 20 Years and Older between 2013 and 2018 in Hunan, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 5;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.

Recent changes in population-based prevalence for circulatory system diseases (CSDs) remain unreported either nationally or locally for China. Data were from the two-round health service household interview survey of Hunan Province, China, in 2013 and 2018. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine prevalence differences across socio-demographic variables. The overall age-standardized prevalence of CSDs increased substantially between 2013 and 2018 for inhabitants aged 20 years and older (14.25% vs. 21.25%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.24-2.04). Hypertensive disease was the most prevalent type of CSD, accounting for 87.24% and 83.83% of all CSDs in 2013 and in 2018, respectively. After controlling for other socio-demographic factors, the prevalence of CSDs was significantly higher in 2018 (adjusted OR = 1.40), urban residents (adjusted OR = 1.43), females (adjusted OR = 1.12) and older age groups (adjusted OR = 5.36 for 50-59 years, 9.51 for 60-69 years, 15.19 for 70-79 years, and 12.90 for 80 years and older) than in 2013, rural residents, males and the youngest age group (20-49 years). The recent increase in the overall age-standardized CSD prevalence and the large prevalence disparities across urban/rural residents, sex and age groups merit the attention of policymakers and researchers. Further prevention efforts are needed to curb the increasing tendency and to reduce the prevalence of disparities across socio-demographic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967526PMC
March 2021

YAP1/TEAD1 upregulate platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta to promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Jul 19;156:20-32. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, United States. Electronic address:

We have previously demonstrated that the transcription co-factor yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) de-differentiation. Yet, the role and underlying mechanisms of YAP1 in neointima formation in vivo remain unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of VSMC-expressed YAP1 in vascular injury-induced VSMC proliferation and delineate the mechanisms underlying its action. Experiments employing gain- or loss-of-function of YAP1 demonstrated that YAP1 promotes human VSMC proliferation. Mechanistically, we identified platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) as a novel YAP1 target gene that confers the YAP1-dependent hyper-proliferative effects in VSMCs. Furthermore, we identified TEA domain transcription factor 1 (TEAD1) as a key transcription factor that mediates YAP1-dependent PDGFRβ expression. ChIP assays demonstrated that TEAD1 is enriched at a PDGFRB gene enhancer. Luciferase reporter assays further demonstrated that YAP1 and TEAD1 co-operatively activate the PDGFRB enhancer. Consistent with these observations, we found that YAP1 expression is upregulated after arterial injury and correlates with PDGFRβ expression and VSMC proliferation in vivo. Using a novel inducible SM-specific Yap1 knockout mouse model, we found that the specific deletion of Yap1 in adult VSMCs is sufficient to attenuate arterial injury-induced neointima formation, largely due to inhibited PDGFRβ expression and VSMC proliferation. Our study unravels a novel mechanism by which YAP1/TEAD1 promote VSMC proliferation via transcriptional induction of PDGFRβ, thereby enhancing PDGF-BB downstream signaling and promoting neointima formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2021.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217227PMC
July 2021

Lymphocyte may be a reference index of the outcome of cancer patients with COVID-19.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 18;13(6):7733-7744. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Background: The novel coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) is an international concern as it spreads through human populations and across national and international borders.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we consecutively included all cancer patients who had been identified as having a nucleic acid-confirmed COVID-19 from two designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. COVID-19 patients without cancer were also enrolled for comparison. The clinical data were gathered from the medical records from Jan 14 to March 12, 2020.

Results: Among the 117 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19, the median age was 63 years and 48.7% were male. Male sex, hematologic cancer, dyspnea on admission, and anti-cancer therapies were associated with an increased risk of mortality in cancer patients with COVID-19. We found that elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8 were associated with a poorer prognosis in cancer patients with COVID-19, but no statistically significant association was found in patients without cancer. In addition, IL-2R and IL-6 markedly decreased in cancer patients who recovered from COVID-19. However, lymphocyte subsets were diminished in cancer patients who died from COVID-19, including total T cells, total B cells, helper T (Th) cells and suppressor T (Ts) cells.

Conclusions: Cancer patients with COVID-19 were associated with high mortality (23.9%). A decrease in lymphocyte subsets and higher levels of cytokines were associated with a higher risk of severe outcome and could be utilized as the reference index to predict the survival outcome of cancer patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034957PMC
March 2021

Factors Influencing Depression and Mental Distress Related to COVID-19 Among University Students in China: Online Cross-sectional Mediation Study.

JMIR Ment Health 2021 Feb 22;8(2):e22705. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Centre for Health Behaviours Research, Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: The COVID-19 epidemic may elevate mental distress and depressive symptoms in various populations in China.

Objective: This study investigates the levels of depression and mental distress due to COVID-19, and the associations between cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial factors, and depression and mental distress due to COVID-19 among university students in China.

Methods: A large-scale online cross-sectional study (16 cities in 13 provinces) was conducted among university students from February 1 to 10, 2020, in China; 23,863 valid questionnaires were returned. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression. Structural equation modeling was performed to test mediation and suppression effects.

Results: Of the 23,863 participants, 47.1% (n=11,235) reported high or very high levels of one or more types of mental distress due to COVID-19; 39.1% (n=9326) showed mild to severe depression. Mental distress due to COVID-19 was positively associated with depression. All but one factor (perceived infection risks, perceived chance of controlling the epidemic, staying at home, contacted people from Wuhan, and perceived discrimination) were significantly associated with mental distress due to COVID-19 and depression. Mental distress due to COVID-19 partially mediated and suppressed the associations between some of the studied factors and depression (effect size of 6.0%-79.5%).

Conclusions: Both mental distress due to COVID-19 and depression were prevalent among university students in China; the former may have increased the prevalence of the latter. The studied cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to COVID-19 may directly or indirectly (via mental distress due to COVID-19) affect depression. Interventions to modify such factors may reduce mental distress and depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901598PMC
February 2021

Deficiency of the novel high mobility group protein HMGXB4 protects against systemic inflammation-induced endotoxemia in mice.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(7)

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912;

Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in intensive care units, which results from a severely dysregulated inflammatory response that ultimately leads to organ failure. While antibiotics can help in the early stages, effective strategies to curtail inflammation remain limited. The high mobility group (HMG) proteins are chromosomal proteins with important roles in regulating gene transcription. While HMGB1 has been shown to play a role in sepsis, the role of other family members including HMGXB4 remains unknown. We found that expression of HMGXB4 is strongly induced in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elicited inflammation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Genetic deletion of protected against LPS-induced lung injury and lethality and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced lethality in mice, and attenuated LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in cultured macrophages. By integrating genome-wide transcriptome profiling and a publicly available ChIP-seq dataset, we identified HMGXB4 as a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of the proinflammatory gene, (inducible nitric oxide synthase 2) by binding to its promoter region, leading to NOS2 induction and excessive NO production and tissue damage. Similar to ablation in mice, administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of NOS2 robustly decreased LPS-induced pulmonary vascular permeability and lethality in mice. Additionally, we identified the cell adhesion molecule, ICAM1, as a target of HMGXB4 in endothelial cells that facilitates inflammation by promoting monocyte attachment. In summary, our study reveals a critical role of HMGXB4 in exacerbating endotoxemia via transcriptional induction of and gene expression and thus targeting HMGXB4 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021862118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896282PMC
February 2021

Identification novel prognostic signatures for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma based on ceRNA network construction and immune infiltration analysis.

Int J Med Sci 2021 19;18(5):1297-1311. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, P.R. China.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common malignancy with high mortality and morbidity worldwide, but the underlying biological mechanisms of molecules and tumor infiltrating-immune cells (TIICs) are still unknown. We obtained mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs expression profiles of 546 HNSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to develop a ceRNA network. CIBERSORT was employed to estimate the fraction of 22 types of TIICs in HNSCC. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression and lasso regression analyses were used to develop prognostic signatures. Then, two novel risk signatures were constructed respectively based on six ceRNAs (ANLN, KIT, PRKAA2, NFIA, PTX3 and has-miR-148a-3p) and three immune cells (naïve B cells, regulatory T cells and Neutrophils). Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis and Cox regression analysis further proved that these two signatures were significant prognostic factors independent of multiple clinicopathological characteristics. Two nomograms were built based on ceRNAs-riskScore and TIICs-riskScore that could be used to predict the prognosis of HNSCC. Co-expression analysis showed significant correlations between miR-148a-3p and naive B cells, naive B cells and plasmas cells. Through construction of the ceRNA network and estimation of TIICs, we established two risk signatures and their nomograms with excellent utility, which indicated the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms, and predicted the prognosis of HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.53531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847625PMC
January 2021

Factors Associated With Dropout of Participants in an App-Based Child Injury Prevention Study: Secondary Data Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2021 01 29;23(1):e21636. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions offer great potential to reach large populations and improve public health. However, high attrition rates threaten evaluation and implementation of mHealth intervention studies.

Objective: We explored factors associated with attrition of study participants in an mHealth randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating an intervention to reduce unintentional child injury risk in China.

Methods: The cluster RCT compared two groups of an app-based intervention for caregivers of 3-6-year-old children (Bao Hu San). The intervention group received unintentional child injury and parenting education, whereas only parenting education was implemented in the control group. The trial included 2920 study participants in Changsha, China, and lasted 6 months. Data on participant engagement (using the app) were collected electronically throughout the 6-month period. Associations between participant attrition and demographic characteristics, and between attrition and intervention engagement were tested and quantified separately for the intervention and control groups using the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) based on generalized linear mixed models.

Results: In total, 2920 caregivers from 20 eligible preschools participated, with 1510 in the intervention group and 1410 in the control group. The 6-month attrition rate differed significantly between the two groups (P<.001), at 28.9% (437/1510) in the intervention group and 35.7% (503/1410) in the control group. For the intervention group, the only significant predictor of attrition risk was participants who learned fewer knowledge segments (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.19-6.09). For the control group, significant predictors of attrition risk were lower monthly login frequency (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-2.18), learning fewer knowledge segments (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02-2.81), and shorter learning durations during app engagement (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.11-5.15). Demographic characteristics were unrelated to attrition.

Conclusions: Engagement in the app intervention was associated with participant attrition. Researchers and practitioners should consider how to best engage participants in app-based interventions to reduce attrition.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOR-17010438; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=17376.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR2-10.1186/s12889-018-5790-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/21636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880806PMC
January 2021

The Clinical Significance of DNA Damage Repair Signatures in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:593039. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, Wuhan.

DNA damage repair plays an important role in cancer's initiation and progression, and in therapeutic resistance. The prognostic potential of damage repair indicators was studied in the case of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Gene expression profiles of the disease were downloaded from cancer genome databases and gene ontology was applied to the DNA repair-related genes. Twenty-six differentially expressed DNA repair genes were identified, and regression analysis was used to identify those with prognostic potential and to construct a risk model. The model accurately predicted patient outcomes and distinguished among patients with different expression levels of immune evasion genes. The data indicate that DNA repair genes can be valuable for predicting the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and the clinical benefits of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.593039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820869PMC
January 2021

TEAD1 protects against necroptosis in postmitotic cardiomyocytes through regulation of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jul 19;28(7):2045-2059. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, 30912, USA.

The Hippo signaling effector, TEAD1 plays an essential role in cardiovascular development. However, a role for TEAD1 in postmitotic cardiomyocytes (CMs) remains incompletely understood. Herein we reported that TEAD1 is required for postmitotic CM survival. We found that adult mice with ubiquitous or CM-specific loss of Tead1 present with a rapid lethality due to an acute-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Surprisingly, deletion of Tead1 activated the necroptotic pathway and induced massive cardiomyocyte necroptosis, but not apoptosis. In contrast to apoptosis, necroptosis is a pro-inflammatory form of cell death and consistent with this, dramatically higher levels of markers of activated macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed in the hearts of Tead1 knockout mice. Blocking necroptosis by administration of necrostatin-1 rescued Tead1 deletion-induced heart failure. Mechanistically, genome-wide transcriptome and ChIP-seq analysis revealed that in adult hearts, Tead1 directly activates a large set of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes required for assembly of the electron transfer complex and the production of ATP. Loss of Tead1 expression in adult CMs increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, disrupted the structure of mitochondria, reduced complex I-IV driven oxygen consumption and ATP levels, resulting in the activation of necroptosis. This study identifies an unexpected paradigm in which TEAD1 is essential for postmitotic CM survival by maintaining the expression of nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes required for ATP synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00732-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Electric-Field-Driven Ion Emission from the Free Surface of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jan 5;12(1):711-716. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

Electric-field-driven ion emission from the free surface of a planar room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) film was studied by using molecular dynamics simulations. We calculated ion emission rate () as a function of the electric field normal to the RTIL/vacuum surface () and found that the logarithm of over the charge density on the surface (σ) is proportional to , in agreement with classical ion evaporation theories. The composition of emitted ions includes monomers and dimers. It was found that the monomer has to move across two barriers before emission. The fraction of dimers was found to depend on the external field and ion-ion interactions. We further performed replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and identified different metastable states of the emitting ion near the liquid film. Our results showed that and molecular details of ion/surface determine the rate and composition of ion emission from RTIL/vacuum surfaces. Fundamental insights revealed in this study form the basis to improve ion evaporation theories and performance of electrospray applications ranging from space propulsion to nanomanufacturing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c03335DOI Listing
January 2021

Analysis of US Teen Driving After Using Marijuana, 2017.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2030473. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Division of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.30473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758804PMC
December 2020

Overexpression of P4HA1 Is Correlated with Poor Survival and Immune Infiltrates in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2020 24;2020:8024138. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a major pathological type of lung cancer. Understanding the mechanism of LUAD at the molecular level is important for a clinical decision. In this study, we use bioinformatic analysis to explore the prognostic value of P4HA1 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and the relationship with prognosis and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs). The results showed that the expression of P4HA1 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues for LUAD patients. Upregulated P4HA1 was related to stage and T classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that upregulation of P4HA1 was significantly related to worse overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis indicated P4HA1 remained to be an independent prognostic factor. GSEA showed that several cancer-related and immune-related signaling pathways exhibited prominently differential enrichment in P4HA1-high expression phenotype. In addition, the expression of P4HA1 was significantly correlated with proportion of several TIICs, particularly B cells and CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our study confirmed that P4HA1 is a promising biomarker of poor prognosis and relates to immune infiltrates in LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8024138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707939PMC
May 2021

Cellphone laws and teens' calling while driving: analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019.

Inj Epidemiol 2020 Dec 3;7(1):65. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Division of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, 43205-2664, USA.

Background: Distracted driving among teens is a public health and safety concern. Most states in the U.S. have sought to restrict cellphone use while driving by enacting laws. This study examines the difference in prevalence of self-reported calling while driving (CWD) between states with different cellphone bans.

Methods: Demographics and CWD data were extracted from state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) from 14 states in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019. The state YRBS is conducted every 2 years with a representative sample of 9th through 12th grade students attending public school. States were grouped by type of cellphone law(s): no ban (the absence of both handheld calling ban and young driver ban), young driver ban (a ban on all forms of cellphone use while driving, for young drivers only), or concurrent ban (a young driver ban plus a ban on handheld calling for all drivers irrespective of age). Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate prevalence ratios comparing CWD prevalence across ban types.

Results: In total, 157,423 high school students participated in the surveys, and 65,044 (45%) participants reached the minimum age to obtain an intermediate license and drove during the 30 days prior the survey. Approximately 53% of participants reported CWD at least once during the previous 30 days, and the percentages varied widely by states (range: 51-55%). Compared to students from states with no ban, those from states with concurrent bans were 19%(95% CI: 14-24%) less likely to engage in CWD. Students in states with concurrent bans were 23% less likely to engage in CWD compared to students in states with young driver bans (95% CI:17-27%).

Conclusions: Engaging in CWD is common among teen drivers. The concurrent implementation of a handheld calling ban and a young driver ban was associated with a lower prevalence of CWD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40621-020-00290-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713022PMC
December 2020

Optimizing preventive medicine to bridge the gap between clinical medicine and public health for disease control in China: A lesson from COVID-19.

Prev Med 2021 02 10;143:106324. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

China Hospital Development Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights the importance of early detection of disease outbreaks, taking swift and decisive public health actions, and strengthening public health systems. Preventive medicine, as a specialty of medicine, trains students on both clinical medicine and public health and is of a particular need in battling against this pandemic. In China, preventive medicine plays a unique role in the disease control system where preventive medicine graduates represent a large share of the workforce. However, there is a shortage of qualified staff in the Chinese disease control system. The reasons for such a shortage are multifaceted. From the human resource perspective, the undergraduate preventive medicine curricula and exclusive public health training for preventive medicine postgraduates limit their clinical capacities. A series of disease control and public health education reforms may further incapacitate preventive medicine graduates' clinical skills, unintentionally widening the gap between public health and clinical medicine and thus posing threats to effective disease detection and control. The authors call for reforming and optimizing preventive medicine to bridge the gap between clinical medicine and public health by strengthening curricula on clinical medicine, diversifying curricula on public health, enhancing preventive medicine residency programs, and rectifying regulations that restrict preventive medicine graduates from practicing curative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654361PMC
February 2021

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Validating injury-related diagnoses by physicians: an analysis of 62,269 hospitalizations from a large hospital in Changsha, China.

Injury 2020 Oct 3;51(10):2230-2234. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410078, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the accuracy of injury-related hospitalization diagnoses by physicians in China.

Methods: 62,269 hospitalizations between 2014 and 2016 at a large hospital in Changsha, China were assessed. We considered three types of diagnostic errors: under-reporting, lack of cause specificity, and misclassification across injury causes. Diagnosis and coding of diseases were ascertained by professional coders based on the tenth International Classification of Disease (ICD-10). Chi square tests examined the proportion difference across subgroups of patient demographics, injury intent, and injury cause.

Results: The 62,269 records included 1011 injury-induced hospitalizations, but physicians' diagnoses only reported 405 (40%) of the 1011 hospitalizations as injury-related. The proportions of under-reporting, lack of cause specificity, and misclassification errors, respectively, were 50.5%, 7.9% and 1.5%. The proportion of diagnostic errors was relatively similar across patient sex, intent of injury, and cause of injury subgroups, but varied substantially across patient age groups.

Conclusion: Physicians' diagnoses frequently omitted injury-induced hospitalizations. Such errors will impact injury research and policy-making when they are undetected and uncorrected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.07.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among People Aged 18 Years and Over between 2013 and 2018 in Hunan, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 5;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.

Recent overweight and obesity prevalence data are lacking for China. Data were from provincially representative surveys conducted in 2013 and 2018 in Hunan Province, China. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the Chinese standard. Complex sampling weights were considered in statistical analyses. 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of rate was calculated. The overall prevalence rate between 2013 and 2018 significantly increased from 20.81% (95% CI: 17.68-23.95) to 26.97% (95% CI: 23.48-30.45) for overweight and from 4.09% (95% CI: 3.21-4.96) to 7.13% (95% CI: 5.10-9.15) for obesity in Hunan Province of China, respectively. Urban residents and males had higher crude prevalence rates of overweight and obesity than rural residents and females in 2013 and in 2018. Notably, the peak age groups of overweight and obesity both became younger between 2013 and 2018. After controlling for Engel coefficient, level of education and frequency of physical exercise per week, the overweight prevalence significantly increased in urban males aged 65+ (adjusted OR: 1.52) and rural males aged 45-54 years (adjusted OR: 1.52) and 65+ (adjusted OR: 1.88) and the obesity prevalence rate rose significantly in many groups (urban males: 18-24 years, 25-34 years, 35-44 years and 55-64 years; urban females: 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years; rural males: 18-24 years, 25-34 years; rural females: 35-44 years, 55-64 years), with adjusted OR varying from 1.56 to 5.52. C The adult prevalence rates of overweight and obesity significantly increased between 2013 and 2018 in Hunan Province, China. The increasing prevalence rates and varying prevalence changes across groups warrantee further research and policy interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312956PMC
June 2020

Population ageing and mortality during 1990-2017: A global decomposition analysis.

PLoS Med 2020 06 8;17(6):e1003138. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: As the number of older people globally increases, health systems need to be reformed to meet the growing need for medical resources. A few previous studies reported varying health impacts of population ageing, but they focused only on limited countries and diseases. We comprehensively quantify the impact of population ageing on mortality for 195 countries/territories and 169 causes of death.

Methods And Findings: Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017), this study derived the total number of deaths and population size for each year from 1990 to 2017. A decomposition method was used to attribute changes in total deaths to population growth, population ageing, and mortality change between 1990 and each subsequent year from 1991 through 2017, for 195 countries/territories and for countries grouped by World Bank economic development level. For countries with increases in deaths related to population ageing, we calculated the ratio of deaths attributed to mortality change to those attributed to population ageing. The proportion of people aged 65 years and older increased globally from 6.1% to 8.8%, and the number of global deaths increased by 9 million, between 1990 and 2017. Compared to 1990, 12 million additional global deaths in 2017 were associated with population ageing, corresponding to 27.9% of total global deaths. Population ageing was associated with increases in deaths in high-, upper-middle-, and lower-middle-income countries but not in low-income countries. The proportions of deaths attributed to population ageing in 195 countries/territories ranged from -43.9% to 117.4% for males and -30.1% to 153.5% for females. The 2 largest contributions of population ageing to disease-specific deaths globally between 1990 and 2017 were for ischemic heart disease (3.2 million) and stroke (2.2 million). Population ageing was related to increases in deaths in 152 countries for males and 159 countries for females, and decreases in deaths in 43 countries for males and 36 countries for females, between 1990 and 2017. The decreases in deaths attributed to mortality change from 1990 to 2017 were more than the increases in deaths related to population ageing for the whole world, as well as in 55.3% (84/152) of countries for males and 47.8% (76/159) of countries for females where population ageing was associated with increased death burden. As the GBD 2017 does not provide variances in the estimated death numbers, we were not able to quantify uncertainty in our attribution estimates.

Conclusions: In this study, we found that population ageing was associated with substantial changes in numbers of deaths between 1990 and 2017, but the attributed proportion of deaths varied widely across country income levels, countries, and causes of death. Specific preventive and therapeutic techniques should be implemented in different countries and territories to address the growing health needs related to population ageing, especially targeting the diseases associated with the largest increase in number of deaths in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279585PMC
June 2020

Unsafe Bicycling Behavior in Changsha, China: A Video-Based Observational Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 7;17(9). Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics; Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.

The recent emergence of shared bikes has inspired renewed use of bicycles in urban China. However, incidence rates of unsafe cycling behaviors have not been reported using objective methods. We designed a video-based observational study in Changsha, China to estimate the incidence of five unsafe bicycling behaviors among both shared and personal bike riders and examine incidence differences across types of riders and cycling areas. A total of 112 h of video recorded 13,407 cyclists riding shared bikes and 2061 riding personal bikes. The incidences of not wearing a helmet, violating traffic lights, riding in the opposite direction of traffic, not holding the handlebar with both hands, and riding in a non-bicycle lane were 99.28%, 19.57%, 13.73%, 2.57%, and 64.06%, respectively. The incidence rate of all five kinds of behaviors differed significantly across four types of riding areas (shopping, university, office, and leisure) and the rates of the first three kinds of behaviors were statistically different between shared and personal bike riders. In situations where bicycle lanes were available, we observed the incidence of riding on the motorway and on the sidewalk to be 44.06% and 19.99%, respectively. We conclude that unsafe cycling behaviors occur with alarming frequency and differ somewhat between riders of shared versus personal bikes. Further research is recommended to interpret the occurrence of risky cycling and the incidence differences across types of riders and cycling areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246696PMC
May 2020

Radiation-Induced DNMT3B Promotes Radioresistance in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma through Methylation of p53 and p21.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 21;17:306-319. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy is the standard treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, whose efficacy is limited partly by intrinsic and acquired radioresistance. DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) has been reported to participate in tumorigenesis via DNA methylation, but its role in mediating progression and radioresistance of NPC remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted the following studies to explore the relationship between DNMT3B and NPC. Here, we found that DNMT3B was elevated in NPC tissues and predicted the poor prognosis of NPC patients. We demonstrated for the first time that ionizing radiation could induce DNMT3B, which might be one of the reasons for radioresistance. Silencing of DNMT3B inhibited migration and invasion via suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NPC cells. Furthermore, silencing DNMT3B restored and activated p53 and p21 via DNA demethylation, which led to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, resulting in increased radiosensitivity of NPC both and . DNMT3B functions as a novel oncogene in the radioresistance of NPC through regulating EMT, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Therefore, DNMT3B could be a potential target for NPC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7200625PMC
June 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Deformable Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets for Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 May 24;142(20):9408-9414. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, #2 Zhongguancun, North First Street, Beijing 100190, China.

The dynamic status near the surface of a catalyst can significantly affect the catalytic process, because the overall reaction rate depends on the mass velocity of product attachment and reactant detachment. As a dominant diffusion mechanism, molecular diffusion is known as a slow process that inhibits the fast contact between the reactants and the heterogeneous catalyst, which depresses catalytic conversion efficiency. Herein, we report a strategy that can break such a stagnant layer to facilitate the mass transport toward the catalyst surface, wherein Pd nanocubes (NCs) encapsulated in soft metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets are used as catalysts for the hydrogenation reactions. The soft MOF supports render deformable features to enhance mass transport across the Pd NCs, which is vital to enhance the catalyst performance. In combination with numerical simulations, we identify the deformable MOF driven by the shear force of flowing fluid to increase dye adsorption and catalytic conversion by 5- and 3-fold, respectively, as compared to a counterpart system containing nondeformable MOFs. The catalytic efficiency presents a volcano-type trend with the length-to-spacing ratio of MOF nanosheet being designed and reaches the maximum with a length-to-spacing ratio of 2:1. This technique provides unique opportunities to design a proof-of-concept self-propelled catalysis on the basis of a greater mechanistic understanding of heterogeneous catalytic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c02272DOI Listing
May 2020

Riluzole Enhances the Response of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells to Ionizing Radiation via ATM/P53 Signalling Pathway.

J Cancer 2020 4;11(11):3089-3098. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Riluzole is approved by the FDA as an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) drug. Previous studies showed that treatment with riluzole suppressed the proliferation of many cancer cells. However, little is known about its effects on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its molecular mode of action. In this study, we determined the effect of riluzole on apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in NPC cell lines and investigated its mechanism at the molecular level. By using the human NPC cell lines CNE1, CNE2, and HNE1, we revealed that riluzole effectively inhibited viability of the NPC cell lines in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, riluzole dose-dependently induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in the NPC cell lines. After combination with radiotherapy (RT), greater cytotoxicity was achieved than with riluzole or RT alone and . This was associated with the activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and phosphoinositide p53 pathways. P53 silencing reduced cell reactiveness to riluzole therapy. These observations demonstrate that the riluzole-activated ATM/P53 pathway is directly involved in radiation-induced apoptosis of NPC cells. Given the acceptable side effect, combining of riluzole and radiotherapy is promising in NPC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.41217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097961PMC
March 2020

Diffusion of Nanoparticles with Activated Hopping in Crowded Polymer Solutions.

Nano Lett 2020 05 2;20(5):3895-3904. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Engineering Mechanics & State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China.

A long-distance hop of diffusive nanoparticles (NPs) in crowded environments was commonly considered unlikely, and its characteristics remain unclear. In this work, we experimentally identify the occurrence of the intermittent hops of large NPs in crowded entangled poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) solutions, which are attributed to thermally induced activated hopping. We show that the diffusion of NPs in crowded solutions is considered as a superposition of the activated hopping and the reptation of the polymer solution. Such activated hopping becomes significant when either the PEO molecular weight is large enough or the NP size is relatively small. We reveal that the time-dependent non-Gaussianity of the NP diffusion is determined by the competition of the short-time relaxation of a polymer entanglement strand, the activated hopping, and the long-time reptation. We propose an exponential scaling law τ/τ ∼ exp(/) to characterize the hopping time scale, suggesting a linear dependence of the activated hopping energy barrier on the dimensionless NP size. The activated hopping motion can only be observed between the onset time scale of the short-time relaxation of local entanglement strands and the termination time scale of the long-time relaxation. Our findings on activated hopping provide new insights into long-distance transportation of NPs in crowded biological environments, which is essential to the delivery and targeting of nanomedicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01058DOI Listing
May 2020

Traumatic brain injury mortality among U.S. children and adolescents ages 0-19 years, 1999-2017.

J Safety Res 2020 02 31;72:93-100. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: To examine recent traumatic brain injury (TBI) mortality changes among Americans aged 0-19 years by sex, age, urbanicity, state, and intent/causes of injury.

Method: TBI mortality per 100,000 population and average annual percent changes (AAPCs), plus 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on Joinpoint regression models.

Results: Age-adjusted TBI mortality among Americans aged 0-19 years declined consistently, though at varying rates between 1999 and 2013 (AAPC = -4.8%, 95%CI: -6.3%, -3.2%), and then significantly increased from 4.42 per 100,000 population in 2013 to 5.17 per 100,000 population in 2017 (AAPC = 3.4%, 95% CI: 1.7%, 5.1%). During the study time period, boys, rural children, and youth aged 15-19 years had higher TBI mortality rates than girls, urban children, and younger children, respectively. TBI mortality from unintentional transport crashes decreased substantially in all age groups between 1999 and 2017, and especially from 1999 to 2010. TBI mortality from suicide increased significantly from 2008 to 2017 in the 10-14-year age group (AAPC = 14.6%, 95% CI: 12.6%, 16.6%) and from 2007 to 2017 in the 15-19-year age group (AAPC = 6.3%, 95% CI: 3.8%, 8.7%). Unintentional transport crashes were the leading cause of TBI-related mortality in 46 states in 1999, but by 2017, suicide became the first leading cause in 14 states.

Conclusions: Pediatric TBI mortality declined consistently between 1999 and 2013 and increased significantly from 2013 to 2017, driven primarily by the mortality decrease from unintentional transport crashes and increase in suicide mortality. The spectrum of leading causes of pediatric TBI mortality changed across age groups and over time from 1999 to 2017. Practical Applications: TBI mortality increases in the United States since 2013 are driven primarily by increasing suicide rates, a trend that merits the attention of policy-makers and injury researchers. Action should be taken to curb growing TBI mortality rates among adolescents aged 10-19 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2019.12.013DOI Listing
February 2020